Posts Tagged 'Cnidaria'

Eating in an acidifying ocean: a quantitative review of elevated CO2 effects on the feeding rates of calcifying marine invertebrates

Feeding is fundamental for all heterotrophic organisms, providing the means to acquire energy for basic life processes. Recent studies have suggested that experimental ocean acidification (OA) can alter the feeding performance of marine calcifying invertebrates, but results have been inconsistent. While several reviews pertaining to the biological effects of OA exist, none provide a synthesis of OA effects on feeding performance. Here, we provide a quantitative analysis of published experiments testing for effects of elevated CO2 on feeding rates of marine calcifying invertebrates. Results revealed that suspension-feeding molluscs and predatory and grazing echinoderms experienced depressed feeding rates under elevated CO2, while arthropods appeared unaffected; larval and juvenile animals were more susceptible to CO2 effects than adults. Feeding strategy did not appear to influence the overall taxonomic trend, nor did habitat, although exposure time did have an effect. AIC model selection revealed that Phylum best predicted effect size; life stage and exposure time were also included in candidate models. Based on these results, we synthesize potential physiological attributes of different taxa that may drive OA sensitivities in feeding rates, which could potentially result in community-level impacts. We also discuss CO2 effects on calcifier feeding in the context of elevated temperature and other global marine change stressors, and highlight other areas for future research.

Continue reading ‘Eating in an acidifying ocean: a quantitative review of elevated CO2 effects on the feeding rates of calcifying marine invertebrates’

The effects of ocean acidification on feeding and contest behaviour by the beadlet anemone Actinia equina

Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are causing oceanic pH to decline worldwide, a phenomenon termed ocean acidification. Mounting experimental evidence indicates that near-future levels of CO2 will affect calcareous invertebrates such as corals, molluscs and gastropods, by reducing their scope for calcification. Despite extensive research into ocean acidification in recent years, the effects on non-calcifying anthozoans, such as sea anemones, remain little explored. In Western Europe, intertidal anemones such as Actinia equina are abundant, lower trophic-level organisms that function as important ecosystem engineers. Changes to behaviours of these simple predators could have implications for intertidal assemblages. This investigation identified the effects of reduced seawater pH on feeding and contest behaviour by A. equina. Video footage was recorded for A. equina feeding at current-day seawater (pH 8.1), and the least (pH 7.9) and most (pH 7.6) severe end-of-century predictions. Footage was also taken of contests over ownership of space between anemones exposed to reduced pH and those that were not. No statistically significant differences were identified in feeding duration or various aspects of contest behaviour including initiating, winning, inflating acrorhagi, inflicting acrorhagial peels and contest duration. Multivariate analyses showed no effect of pH on a combination of these variables. This provides contrast with other studies where anemones with symbiotic algae thrive in areas of natural increased acidity. Thus, novel experiments using intraspecific contests and resource-holding potential may prove an effective approach to understand sub-lethal consequences of ocean acidification for A. equina, other sea anemones and more broadly for marine ecosystems.

Continue reading ‘The effects of ocean acidification on feeding and contest behaviour by the beadlet anemone Actinia equina’

Combined effects of ocean acidification and temperature on planula larvae of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea

Highlights

• We addressed the impact of ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases on scyphozoan planulae.
A. coerulea planulae can cope well with decreased pH conditions through rapid settlement.
• Elevated seawater temperature appears to be a crucial stress factor for A. coerulea planulae.

Abstract

Rapidly rising levels of atmospheric CO2 have caused two environmental stressors, ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases, which represent major abiotic threats to marine organisms. Here, we investigated for the first time the combined effects of ocean acidification and seawater temperature increases on the behavior, survival, and settlement of the planula larvae of Aurelia coerulea, which is considered a nuisance species around the world. Three pH levels (8.1, 7.7 and 7.3) and two temperature levels (24 °C and 27 °C) were used in the present study. There were no interactive effects of temperature and pH on the behavior, survival, and settlement of planula larvae of A. coerulea. We found that the swimming speed and mortality of the planula larvae of A. coerulea were significantly affected by temperature, and low pH significantly affected settlement. Planula larvae of A. coerulea from the elevated temperature treatment moved faster and showed higher mortality than those at the control temperature. The settlement rate of A. coerulea planulae was significantly higher at the pH level of 7.3 than at other pH levels. These results suggest that seawater temperature increase, rather than reduced pH, was the main stress factor affecting the survival of A. coerulea planulae. Overall, the planula larvae of the common jellyfish A. coerulea appeared to be resistant to ocean acidification, but may be negatively affected by future seawater temperature increases.

Continue reading ‘Combined effects of ocean acidification and temperature on planula larvae of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea’

Expression of homing endonuclease gene and insertion-like element in sea anemone mitochondrial genomes: lesson learned from Anemonia viridis

Highlights

• We report complete mitochondrial genome sequences and corresponding mito-transcriptomes of the two related sea anemone species Anemonia viridis and Anemonia majano
• We describe structural features of group I introns in the NADH dehydrogenase 5 gene and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene, the latter containing a homing endonuclease gene
• We provide support of that the intron homing endonuclease gene is expressed in a gene-fusion strategy involving exon 1 of the COI gene
• We show that the insertion-like element orfA is well expressed from sea anemone mitochondrial geneomes
• Long-term environmental stress due to low-seawater pH conditions results in up-regulation of COI and orfA gene expressions in Anemonia viridis

Abstract

The mitochondrial genomes of sea anemones are dynamic in structure. Invasion by genetic elements, such as self-catalytic group I introns or insertion-like sequences, contribute to sea anemone mitochondrial genome expansion and complexity. By using next generation sequencing we investigated the complete mtDNAs and corresponding transcriptomes of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis and its closer tropical relative Anemonia majano. Two versions of fused homing endonuclease gene (HEG) organization were observed among the Actiniidae sea anemones; in-frame gene fusion and pseudo-gene fusion. We provided support for the pseudo-gene fusion organization in Anemonia species, resulting in a repressed HEG from the COI-884 group I intron. orfA, a putative protein-coding gene with insertion-like features, was present in both Anemonia species. Interestingly, orfA and COI expression were significantly up-regulated upon long-term environmental stress corresponding to low seawater pH conditions. This study provides new insights to the dynamics of sea anemone mitochondrial genome structure and function.

Continue reading ‘Expression of homing endonuclease gene and insertion-like element in sea anemone mitochondrial genomes: lesson learned from Anemonia viridis’

Elucidating the small regulatory RNA repertoire of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis based on whole genome and small RNA sequencing

Cnidarians harbor a variety of small regulatory RNAs that include microRNAs (miRNAs) and PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), but detailed information is limited. Here, we report the identification and expression of novel miRNAs and putative piRNAs, as well as their genomic loci, in the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We generated a draft assembly of the A. viridis genome with putative size of 313 Mb that appeared to be composed of about 36% repeats, including known transposable elements. We detected approximately equal fractions of DNA transposons and retrotransposons. Deep sequencing of small RNA libraries constructed from A. viridis adults sampled at a natural CO2 gradient off Vulcano Island, Italy, identified 70 distinct miRNAs. Eight were homologous to previously reported miRNAs in cnidarians, whereas 62 appeared novel. Nine miRNAs were recognized as differentially expressed along the natural seawater pH gradient. We found a highly abundant and diverse population of piRNAs, with a substantial fraction showing ping–pong signatures. We identified nearly 22% putative piRNAs potentially targeting transposable elements within the A. viridis genome. The A. viridis genome appeared similar in size to that of other hexacorals with a very high divergence of transposable elements resembling that of the sea anemone genus Exaiptasia. The genome encodes and expresses a high number of small regulatory RNAs, which include novel miRNAs and piRNAs. Differentially expressed small RNAs along the seawater pH gradient indicated regulatory gene responses to environmental stressors.

Continue reading ‘Elucidating the small regulatory RNA repertoire of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis based on whole genome and small RNA sequencing’

The relationship among environmental variables, jellyfish and non-gelatinous zooplankton: a case study in the north of the Gulf of Oman

Processes underlying the temporal and spatial variations observed in the distribution of jellyfish and non-gelatinous zooplankton in the Gulf of Oman are not well understood. This information gap is clearly a major issue in controlling the harmful blooms of jellyfish and non-gelatinous zooplankton. Samples of jellyfish and non-gelatinous zooplankton were collected from six stations in Chabahar Bay and three stations in Pozm Bay within four seasons. At each station, environmental variables were also recorded from bottom and surface water. A total of 83 individuals of medusae representing four species of Scyphozoa (i.e., Cyanea nozakii, Chrysaora sp., Pelagia noctiluca, Catostylus tagi) and species of Hydrozoa (i.e., Diphyes sp., Rhacostoma sp., Aequorea spp.) were observed in the study area. A total of 70,727.25 individuals/m−3 of non-gelatinous zooplankton dominated by copepods and cladocerans were collected in nine stations within the four seasons. The results of a RELATE analysis yielded no significant association between species composition for jellyfish and non-gelatinous zooplankton. Among environmental variables, water transparency, nitrite concentration, water depth and temperature were better associated with the total variation in jellyfish species composition than with that of non-gelatinous zooplankton. Dissolved oxygen, pH, and phosphate concentration were significant environmental variables associated with the variation in the spatial and temporal distribution patterns of non-gelatinous zooplankton assemblages. Although some jellyfish species (i.e., Rhacostoma sp., Pelagia noctiluca, Catostylus tagi) occur independently of non-gelatinous zooplankton assemblages, other jellyfish (i.e., Chrysaora sp., Aequorea spp., Cyanea nozakii, Diphyes sp.) are strongly correlated with non-gelatinous zooplankton assemblages.

Continue reading ‘The relationship among environmental variables, jellyfish and non-gelatinous zooplankton: a case study in the north of the Gulf of Oman’

Effects of CO2-driven acidification of seawater on the calcification process in the calcareous hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ocean acidification is expected to intensify due to increasing levels in the partial pressure of atmospheric CO2 (pCO2). This could negatively affect major calcifying reef organisms. In this study, the effects of different levels of CO2-driven acidification of seawater (control: pH 8.1; moderate: pH 7.8; intermediate: pH 7.5; and severe: pH 7.2) on the net calcification rate and activity of enzymes related to the calcification process (Ca-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase) were evaluated in the calcareous hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis. The experiment was run for 30 d using a marine mesocosm system. Net calcification ratio was significantly reduced in hydrocorals exposed to intermediate seawater acidification for 16 d and to severe seawater acidification for 16 d or 30 d, compared to animals at control conditions. However, only hydrocorals exposed to severe seawater acidification showed lower net calcification rates than those exposed to control conditions for 30 d. In accordance, the activities of enzymes involved in the calcification process markedly increased in hydrocorals exposed to reduced pH. Ca-ATPase seemed to be more sensitive to seawater acidification than carbonic anhydrase as it increased in hydrocorals exposed to intermediate and severe seawater acidification for 30 d, while carbonic anhydrase activity was only stimulated under severe seawater acidification. Therefore, our findings clearly show that the hydrocoral M. alcicornis is able to cope, to some extent, with long-term CO2-driven acidification of seawater (pH ≥ 7.5). In addition, they show that Ca-ATPase plays a key role in the maintenance of calcification rate under scenarios of moderate and intermediate levels of seawater acidification. However, the observed increase in Ca-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activity was not enough to compensate for the effects of CO2-driven reduction in seawater pH on the net calcification rate of the hydrocoral M. alcicornis under a scenario of severe ocean acidification (pH 7.2).

Continue reading ‘Effects of CO2-driven acidification of seawater on the calcification process in the calcareous hydrozoan Millepora alcicornis (Linnaeus, 1758)’


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OA-ICC HIGHLIGHTS

Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book