Marine invertebrates with skeletons made of high-magnesium calcite may be especially susceptible to ocean acidification (OA) due to the elevated solubility of this form of calcium carbonate. However, skeletal composition can vary plastically within some species, and it is largely unknown how concurrent changes in multiple oceanographic parameters will interact to affect skeletal mineralogy, growth and vulnerability to future OA. We explored these interactive effects by culturing genetic clones of the bryozoan Jellyella tuberculata (formerly Membranipora tuberculata) under factorial combinations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and food concentrations. High CO2 and cold temperature induced degeneration of zooids in colonies. However, colonies still maintained high growth efficiencies under these adverse conditions, indicating a compensatory trade-off whereby colonies degenerate more zooids under stress, redirecting energy to the growth and maintenance of new zooids. Low-food concentration and elevated temperatures also had interactive effects on skeletal mineralogy, resulting in skeletal calcite with higher concentrations of magnesium, which readily dissolved under high CO2. For taxa that weakly regulate skeletal magnesium concentration, skeletal dissolution may be a more widespread phenomenon than is currently documented and is a growing concern as oceans continue to warm and acidify.
Posts Tagged 'physiology'
Interactive effects of temperature, food and skeletal mineralogy mediate biological responses to ocean acidification in a widely distributed bryozoanPublished 21 April 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, BRcommunity, bryozoa, dissolution, laboratory, morphology, multiple factors, nutrients, physiology, temperature
Effects of seawater acidification and salinity alterations on metabolic, osmoregulation and oxidative stress markers in Mytilus galloprovincialisPublished 20 April 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, laboratory, mollusks, physiology
The impacts of seawater acidification and salinity shifts on metabolism, energy reserves, and oxidative status of mussels have been largely neglected. With the aim to increase the current knowledge for the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis a 28-day chronic test was conducted during which mussels were exposed to two pH (7.8 and 7.3; both at control salinity 28) and three salinity (14, 28 and 35, at control pH, 7.8) levels. After exposure to different conditions, mussels electron transport system activity, energy reserves (protein and glycogen content) carbonic anhydrase activity, antioxidant defences and cellular damage were measured. Results obtained showed that mussels exposed to seawater acidification presented decreased metabolic capacity that may have induced lower energy expenditure (observed in higher glycogen, protein and lipids content at this condition). Low pH condition induced the increase of carbonic anhydrase activity that was related to acid-base balance, while no significant activation of antioxidant defence mechanisms was observed resulting in higher LPO. Regarding the impacts of salinity, the present study showed that at the highest salinity (35) mussels presented lower metabolic activity (also related to lower energetic expenditure) and an opposite response was observed at salinity 14. Carbonic anhydrase slightly increased at stressful salinity conditions, a mechanism of homeostasis maintenance. Lower metabolic activity at the highest salinity, probably related to valves closure, helped to mitigate the increase of LPO in this condition. At low salinity (14), despite an increase of antioxidant enzymes activity, LPO increased, probably as a result of ROS overproduction from higher electron transport system activity. The present findings demonstrated that Mytilus galloprovincialis oxidative status and metabolic capacity were negatively affected by low pH and salinity changes, with alterations that may lead to physiological impairments namely on mussels reproductive output, growth performance and resistance to disease, with ecological and economic implications.
Variable response to warming and ocean acidification by bacterial processes in different plankton communitiesPublished 20 April 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: abundance, biological response, BRcommunity, community composition, laboratory, multiple factors, otherprocess, physiology, prokaryotes, South Pacific, temperature
Extracellular bacterial enzymes play an important role in the degradation of organic matter in the surface ocean but are sensitive to changes in pH and temperature. This study tested the individual and combined effects of lower pH (-0.3) and warming (+3°C) projected for the year 2100 on bacterial abundance, process rates and diversity in plankton communities of differing composition from 4 locations east of New Zealand. Variation was observed in magnitude and temporal response between the different communities during 5 to 6 day incubations. Leucine aminopeptidase activity showed the strongest response, with an increase in potential activity under low pH alone and in combination with elevated temperature in 3 of 4 incubations. Temperature had a greater effect on bacterial cell numbers and protein synthesis, with stronger responses in the elevated temperature and combined treatments. However, the most common interactive effect between temperature and pH was antagonistic, with lower bacterial secondary production in the combined treatment relative to elevated temperature, and lower leucine aminopeptidase activity in the combined treatment relative to low pH. These results highlight the variability of responses to and interactions of environmental drivers, and the importance of considering these in experimental studies and prognostic models of microbial responses to climate change.
Trophic transfer of essential elements in the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris in the context of ocean acidificationPublished 20 April 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, fish, laboratory, otherprocess, physiology
Little information exists on the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the digestive and post-digestive processes in marine fish. Here, we investigated OA impacts (Δ pH = 0.5) on the trophic transfer of select trace elements in the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris using radiotracer techniques. Assimilation efficiencies of three essential elements (Co, Mn and Zn) as well as their other short-term and long-term kinetic parameters in juvenile clownfish were not affected by this experimental pH change. In complement, their stomach pH during digestion were not affected by the variation in seawater pH. Such observations suggest that OA impacts do not affect element assimilation in these fish. This apparent pCO2 tolerance may imply that clownfish have the ability to self-regulate pH shifts in their digestive tract, or that they can metabolically accommodate such shifts. Such results are important to accurately assess future OA impacts on diverse marine biota, as such impacts are highly species specific, complex, and may be modulated by species-specific metabolic processes.
Mitochondrial acclimation potential to ocean acidification and warming of Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)Published 19 April 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, Arctic, physiology, fish, laboratory, multiple factors, temperature, adaptation, otherprocess
Ocean acidification and warming are happening fast in the Arctic but little is known about the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the physiological performance and survival of Arctic fish.
In this study we investigated the metabolic background of performance through analyses of cardiac mitochondrial function in response to control and elevated water temperatures and PCO2 of two gadoid fish species, Polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an endemic Arctic species, and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), which is a temperate to cold eurytherm and currently expanding into Arctic waters in the wake of ocean warming. We studied their responses to the above-mentioned drivers and their acclimation potential through analysing the cardiac mitochondrial function in permeabilised cardiac muscle fibres after 4 months of incubation at different temperatures (Polar cod: 0, 3, 6, 8 °C and Atlantic cod: 3, 8, 12, 16 °C), combined with exposure to present (400μatm) and year 2100 (1170μatm) levels of CO2.
OXPHOS, proton leak and ATP production efficiency in Polar cod were similar in the groups acclimated at 400μatm and 1170μatm of CO2, while incubation at 8 °C evoked increased proton leak resulting in decreased ATP production efficiency and decreased Complex IV capacity. In contrast, OXPHOS of Atlantic cod increased with temperature without compromising the ATP production efficiency, whereas the combination of high temperature and high PCO2 depressed OXPHOS and ATP production efficiency.
Polar cod mitochondrial efficiency decreased at 8 °C while Atlantic cod mitochondria were more resilient to elevated temperature; however, this resilience was constrained by high PCO2. In line with its lower habitat temperature and higher degree of stenothermy, Polar cod has a lower acclimation potential to warming than Atlantic cod.
Ocean acidification effects on mesozooplankton community development: Results from a long-term mesocosm experimentPublished 19 April 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: abundance, BRcommunity, Cnidaria, community composition, crustaceans, field, laboratory, mesocosms, morphology, North Atlantic, otherprocess, physiology, reproduction, respiration, zooplankton
Ocean acidification may affect zooplankton directly by decreasing in pH, as well as indirectly via trophic pathways, where changes in carbon availability or pH effects on primary producers may cascade up the food web thereby altering ecosystem functioning and community composition. Here, we present results from a mesocosm experiment carried out during 113 days in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak coast of Sweden, studying plankton responses to predicted end-of-century pCO2 levels. We did not observe any pCO2 effect on the diversity of the mesozooplankton community, but a positive pCO2 effect on the total mesozooplankton abundance. Furthermore, we observed species-specific sensitivities to pCO2 in the two major groups in this experiment, copepods and hydromedusae. Also stage-specific pCO2 sensitivities were detected in copepods, with copepodites being the most responsive stage. Focusing on the most abundant species, Pseudocalanus acuspes, we observed that copepodites were significantly more abundant in the high-pCO2 treatment during most of the experiment, probably fuelled by phytoplankton community responses to high-pCO2 conditions. Physiological and reproductive output was analysed on P. acuspes females through two additional laboratory experiments, showing no pCO2 effect on females’ condition nor on egg hatching. Overall, our results suggest that the Gullmar Fjord mesozooplankton community structure is not expected to change much under realistic end-of-century OA scenarios as used here. However, the positive pCO2 effect detected on mesozooplankton abundance could potentially affect biomass transfer to higher trophic levels in the future.