Posts Tagged 'review'

Carbon dioxide, climate change, and ocean acidification

Chapter 13: Carbon dioxide, Climate Change, and Ocean Acidification

A natural blanket of greenhouse gases surrounds the Earth and has made it far more livable than it would be otherwise. The average surface temperature of the planet is a reasonably comforable 60° F rather than the 0° F it would be without our unique atmosphere. Carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases are the four major greenhouse gases, and each one is present in a different concentration. Each gas also has its own natural concentration, but these have now been significantly increased by human activities. Water vapor is also a greenhouse gas, but its concentration in the atmosphere is not affected by human activities.

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Auckland Region climate change projections and impacts

Auckland Council and Council Controlled Organisations commissioned NIWA to analyse projected climate changes for the Auckland region and potential impacts of climate change on some of Auckland’s environments and sectors. This report addresses expected changes for 21 different climate variables out to 2120, and draws heavily on climate model simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report. Potential climate change impacts on important environments and sectors in the Auckland region are discussed.

Chapter 8 addresses ocean acidification.

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Ocean changes to come

Key messages

  • Oceans are key to the climate system’s carbon, heat and freshwater cycles.
  • Oceans are changing, and further physical, chemical and biological changes are projected for Australian waters this century.
  • Ocean warming, acidification, deoxygenation and sea-level rise have important implications for marine ecosystems and the ocean services on which humans depend.
  • Climate models are essential tools for exploring mitigation options and integrating climate predictions with human systems such as agriculture and fisheries.

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The oceans and our climate

Key messages

  • The oceans are a major influence on global and Australian climate.
  • The oceans currently store over 93% of increased heat accumulating in the
    Earth’s climate system.
  • Warming oceans and loss of mass from glaciers and ice sheets are causing sea
    level to rise.
  • Ocean acidification is an inevitable consequence of rising atmospheric
    carbon dioxide.
  • Ocean warming and acidification have significant negative implications for
    marine environments and ecosystem services.

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Instability and breakdown of the coral–algae symbiosis upon exceedence of the interglacial pCO2 threshold (>260 ppmv): the “missing” Earth-System feedback mechanism

Changes in the atmospheric partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) leads to predictable impacts on the surface ocean carbonate system. Here, the importance of atmospheric pCO2 <260 ppmv is established for the optimum performance (and stability) of the algal endosymbiosis employed by a key suite of tropical reef-building coral species. Violation of this symbiotic threshold is revealed as a prerequisite for major historical reef extinction events, glacial–interglacial feedback climate cycles, and the modern decline of coral reef ecosystems. Indeed, it is concluded that this symbiotic threshold enacts a fundamental feedback mechanism needed to explain the characteristic dynamics (and drivers) of the coupled land–ocean–atmosphere carbon cycle of the Earth System since the mid-Miocene, some 25 million yr ago.

Continue reading ‘Instability and breakdown of the coral–algae symbiosis upon exceedence of the interglacial pCO2 threshold (>260 ppmv): the “missing” Earth-System feedback mechanism’

Climate change impacts on fisheries and aquaculture: a global analysis

Climate Change Impacts on Fisheries and Aquaculture explores the impacts of climate change on global fisheries resources and on marine aquaculture and offers expert suggestions on possible adaptations to reduce those impacts.

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Advances in in-situ ocean measurements

This chapter focuses on recent advances in in-situ ocean measurements. Recent interest in the ocean’s response to and impact on climate change has encouraged the development of improved sensor technologies for measuring oceanic parameters such as conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. It introduces various sensors used for measuring oceanic parameters, the underlying principles of these sensors and their respective calibration parameters. It also discusses what is still needed in the development of sensors to achieve the oceanographic need.

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book