Posts Tagged 'toxicants'

Impact on fertility rate and embryo-larval development due to the association acidification, ocean warming and lead contamination of a sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (echinodermata: echinoidea)

Ocean warming and acidification can cause deleterious effects on marine biota, which may be potentialized when associated with metal pollution. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of pH decrease, temperature increase and lead contamination on fertility rate and embryo-larval development of Echinometra lucunter. Gametes and embryos were exposed at pH 8.2 (control) and 7.5; at 26°C (control) and 28°C; and at lead concentrations of 0 (control), 125, 250 and 500 μg/L. These conditions were tested individually and in combination. The fertilization rate of E. lucunter was only significantly reduced in the treatments where temperature was increased and in the treatment where pH decreased. However, the development rate of the pluteus larvae was significantly affected in the majority of treatments: metal contamination in the higher concentration; decreased pH in all metal concentrations; increased temperature in the highest metal concentration; decreased pH and increased temperature and all variables combined, which is decreased pH, increased temperature and metal contamination in relation to the control group (C). The development test was shown to be more sensitive than the fertilization test in all the studied scenarios. In general, the present study suggests that pH decrease, temperature increase and metal pollution may have a significant impact on E. lucunter reproductive cycle.

Caetano L. S., Pereira T. M., Envangelista J. D., Cabral D. S., Coppo G. C., Alves de Souza L., Anderson A. B., Heringer O. A. & Chippari-Gomes A. R., in press. Impact on fertility rate and embryo-larval development due to the association acidification, ocean warming and lead contamination of a sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (echinodermata: echinoidea). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. Article (subscription required).

Projected near-future ocean acidification decreases mercury toxicity in marine copepods

Highlights

  • Copepods were subjected to OA and Hg pollution under multigenerational exposure.
  • OA reduced Hg accumulation and its toxicity to the growth/reproduction in copepods.
  • Copepod proteome enabled its physiological resilience to decreasing pH.
  • Proteomics indicated many toxic events, ensuring Hg toxicity to the copepod’s traits.
  • Proteome compensation was accounting for the alleviative effect of OA on Hg toxicity.

Abstract

Here, we examined the combinational effect of ocean acidification (OA) and mercury (Hg) in the planktonic copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei in cross-factored response to different pCO2 (400, 800 μatm) and Hg (control, 1.0 and 2.5 μg/L) exposures for three generations (F0-F2), followed by single-generation recovery (F3) under clean condition. Several phenotypic traits and Hg accumulation were analyzed for F0-F3. Furthermore, shotgun-based quantitative proteomics was performed for F0 and F2. Our results showed that OA insignificantly influenced the traits. During F0-F2, combined exposure reduced Hg accumulation as compared with the counterpart Hg treatment, supporting the mitigating effect of OA on Hg toxicity in copepods. Proteomics analysis indicated that the copepods probably increased energy production/storage and stress response to ensure physiological resilience against OA. However, Hg induced many toxic events (e.g., energy depletion and degenerated organomorphogenesis/embryogenesis for F0; cell cycle arrest and detrimental stress-defense for F2), which were translated to the population-level adverse outcome, i.e., compromised growth/reproduction. Particularly, compensatory proteome response was identified (e.g., increased immune defense for F0; energetic compensation and enhanced embryogenesis for F2), accounting for a negative interaction between OA and Hg. Together, this study provides the molecular mechanisms behind the effects of OA and Hg pollution in marine copepods.

Continue reading ‘Projected near-future ocean acidification decreases mercury toxicity in marine copepods’

Impacts of plastic-made packaging on marine key species: effects following water acidification and ecological implications

This study evaluates the impacts of 16 different leachates of plastic-made packaging on marine species of different trophic levels (bacteria, algae, echinoderms). Standard ecotoxicological endpoints (inhibition of bioluminescence, inhibition of growth, embryo-toxicity) and alterations of ecologically significant parameters (i.e., echinoderms’ body-size) were measured following exposure under different pH water conditions: marine standard (pH 8.1) and two increasingly acidic conditions (pH 7.8 and 7.5) in order to evaluate possible variations induced by ocean acidification. The results obtained in this study evidence that the tested doses are not able to significantly affect bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) and algae (Phaeodactylum tricornutum). On the contrary, Paracentrotus lividus larvae were significantly affected by several packaging types (13 out of 16) with meaningless differences between pH conditions.

Continue reading ‘Impacts of plastic-made packaging on marine key species: effects following water acidification and ecological implications’

Osmotic response of Dotilla fenestrata (sand bubbler crab) exposed to combined water acidity and varying metal (Cd and Pb)

This study assessed the interactive effects of near-future coastal acidification in combination with varying sub lethal metal concentrations on the haemolymph osmolality of Dotilla fenestrata. Crabs were exposed to acute combination of near-future pH scenarios of estuarine systems (7.2, 7.4 and 7.6) by bubbling CO2 into holding tanks and metal concentrations (Cd = 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mg/l), (Pb = 6.50, 8.50 and 10.50 mg/l) and (Cd & Pb = 4.50, 5.75 and 7.00 mg/l) at 32 psu salinity and 18 °C for 96 h and compared with the control group that were acclimated in water medium (salinity 32 psu, temperature 18 °C and pH 8.1). Mean haemolymph osmolality of crabs exposed to a combination of varying pH and metal concentrations were not significantly different (ANOVA HSD: df 9; p > 0.05) from the crabs acclimated close to background water parameters. The study showed that near-future coastal pH has no significant effect on the haemolymph osmolality of the crab Dotilla exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cd and Pb at salinity level of 32 ppt.

Continue reading ‘Osmotic response of Dotilla fenestrata (sand bubbler crab) exposed to combined water acidity and varying metal (Cd and Pb)’

Combined effect of microplastics and global warming factors on early growth and development of the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus)

Highlights

  • This work focusses on the effect of a multi-stressor environment in sea urchin.
  • Embryo-larval bioassays were used to determine growth and morphometric parameters.
  • A lower water pH (7.6) reduced larval growth and caused deformities.
  • Microplastics aggravate the effect of water acidification in sea urchin larvae.
  • High temperatures caused an additional stress and reduced larvae stomach volume.

Abstract

The aim of this work was to estimate the potential risk of the combined effect of global change factors (acidification, temperature increase) and microplastic (MP) pollution on the growth and development of the sea urchin P. lividus. Embryo-larval bioassays were conducted to determine growth and morphology after 48 h of incubation with MP (1000 and 3000 particles/mL); with filtered sea water at pH = 7.6; and with their combinations. A second experiment was conducted to study the effect of pH and MP in combination with a temperature increase of 4 °C compared to control (20 °C). We found that the inhibition of growth in embryos reared at pH = 7.6 was around 75%. Larvae incubated at 3000 MP particles/mL showed a 20% decrease in growth compared to controls. The exposure to MP also induced an increase in the postoral arm separation or rounded vertices. The combined exposure to a pH 7.6 and MP caused a significant decrease of larval growth compared to control, to MP and to pH 7.6 treatments. Morphological alterations were observed in these treatments, including the development of only two arms. Increasing the temperature resulted in an increased growth in control, in pH 7.6 and pH 7.6 + MP3000 treatments, but the relative stomach volume decreased. However, when growth parameters were expressed per Degree-Days the lower growth provoked by the thermal stress was evidenced in all treatments. In this work we demonstrated that MP could aggravate the effect of a decreased pH and that an increase in water temperature generated an additional stress on P. lividus larvae, manifested in a lower growth and an altered development. Therefore, the combined stress caused by ocean warming, ocean acidification, and microplastic pollution, could threaten sea urchin populations leading to a potential impact on coastal ecosystems.

Continue reading ‘Combined effect of microplastics and global warming factors on early growth and development of the sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus)’

Effects of cadmium alone and in combination with pH on bioaccumulation, tissue structure, and enzyme activity of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis

Highlights

• Determined bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of cadmium alone and in combination with pH in Eriocheir sinensis

• Cadmium bioaccumulation decreased as gill > hepatopancreas > muscle

• The highest cadmium residue concentration was detected in 14 days

• With reduced values of pH, cadmium bioaccumulation decreased in tissues

• Lower pH reduced the toxicity of cadmium to Eriocheir sinensis

Abstract

In this study, Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) were exposed to various combinations of reduced pH (7.8, 7.3, and 6.5) and cadmium (Cd; 0 and 1 mg·L−1) for 7, 14, and 21 days. The reduced pH and 1 mg·L−1 Cd treatment significantly decreased the Cd concentration in crab tissues in the order of pH 7.8 > pH 7.3 > pH 6.5. The exposure to Cd resulted in edema, tubular vacuolization in epithelial cells, and hepatic duct degeneration in the hepatopancreas and indistinct cellular structure and disconnected epithelial layer in the gills. However, low pH alleviated the toxic effects of Cd on the tissues. In gill and hepatopancreas tissues, low pH and Cd exposure caused a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and oxidized glutathione content, but metallothionein activity was not affected. In contrast, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase decreased. Thus, indirect effects of pH on metal accumulation and antagonistic toxicities were observed in E. sinensis, and reduced pH and Cd exposure modulated the oxidative balance via different mechanisms.

Continue reading ‘Effects of cadmium alone and in combination with pH on bioaccumulation, tissue structure, and enzyme activity of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis’

Transcriptional and catalytic responsiveness of the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii antioxidant system toward multiple stressors

Ocean-warming and acidification jeopardize Antarctic marine species, adapted to cold and constant conditions and naturally exposed to high pro-oxidant pressures and cadmium (Cd) bioavailability. The aim of this study was to investigate if projected temperature increase and pH reduction may affect the accumulation and the effects of Cd in the rockcod Trematomus bernacchii. Organisms were exposed for 14 days to six scenarios, combining environmental or increased temperature (−1 °C, +1 °C) and control or reduced pH (8.05, 7.60), either with or without Cd (40 µg/L). Responses in liver and gills were analyzed at different levels, including mRNA and functional measurements of metallothioneins and of a wide battery of antioxidants, integrated with the evaluation of the total antioxidant capacity and onset of oxidative damages. In the gills, metallothioneins and mRNA of antioxidant genes (nrf2keap1catgpx1) increased after Cd exposure, but such effects were softened by warming and acidification. Antioxidants showed slighter variations at the enzymatic level, while Cd caused glutathione increase under warming and acidified scenarios. In the liver, due to higher basal antioxidant protection, limited effects were observed. Genotoxic damage increased under the combined stressors scenario. Overall results highlighted the modulation of the oxidative stress response to Cd by multiple stressors, suggesting the vulnerability of T. bernacchii under predicted ocean change scenarios.

Continue reading ‘Transcriptional and catalytic responsiveness of the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii antioxidant system toward multiple stressors’

A Polar outlook: potential interactions of micro- and nano-plastic with other anthropogenic stressors

Highlights

  • MP/NP at the poles should be addressed with chemical and climate stressors.
  • MP/NP and anthropogenic stress interactions may vary seasonally and locally.
  • MP/NP research should focus on polar species enduring high anthropogenic stress.

Abstract

Polar marine ecosystems may have higher sensitivity than other ecosystems to plastic pollution due to recurrent physical and biological features; presence of ice and high UV radiation, slow growth rates and weak genetic differentiation of resident biota, accumulation of persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals, and fast rates of warming and global ocean acidification. Here, we discuss potential sources of and exposure to micro- and nano-plastic in polar marine ecosystems and potential mixture effects of micro- and nano-plastic coupled with chemical and climate related stressors. We address the anthropogenic contaminants likely to be ‘high risk’ for interactions in Arctic and Antarctic waters for reasons such as accumulation under sea-ice, a known sink for plastic particulates. Consequently, we address the potential for localised plastic-chemical interactions and possible seasonal fluctuations in interactions associated with freeze-thaw events. The risks for keystone polar species are also considered, incorporating the behavioural and physiological traits of biota and addressing potential ‘hotspot’ areas. Finally, we discuss a possible direction for future research.

Continue reading ‘A Polar outlook: potential interactions of micro- and nano-plastic with other anthropogenic stressors’

Interactive effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 and copper exposure on the growth and photosynthesis in the young sporophytes of Sargassum fusiforme (Phaeophyta)

Highlights

  • Effects of Cu2+ and elevated atmospheric CO2 on young sporophytes of Sargassum fusiforme were investigated.
  • At elevated CO2, growth inhibition and pigment damage caused by Cu2+ remain at the same level.
  • Elevated CO2 alleviates the Cu-induced suppression on photosystem.
  • Elevated CO2 down-regulates the enzymatic antioxidant system against Cu2+.

Abstract

Little attention has been given to the combined effects of elevated atmospheric CO2-induced ocean acidification (OA) and heavy metal pollution on marine macroalgae at the young stage. This study investigated the mutual effects of copper (Cu) and elevated CO2 on the young sporophytes of brown macroalgae Sargassum fusiforme. A matrix of four copper concentrations, 0, 0.025, 0.075 and 0.15 mg‧L-1, and two levels of CO2 (ambient CO2: 400 μatm; elevated CO2: 1,000 μatm) were used. High concentration of copper exposure greatly depressed photosynthesis and growth of the young sporophytes of S. fusiforme by reducing the apparent photosynthetic efficiency (ɑ), maximum net photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate (Pmax), maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and pigments content (Chl a and Car). While elevated CO2 alone had obscure impact on this alga. However, the inhibition of Cu stress on Fv/Fm was weakened by elevated CO2, which also decreased the light compensation point (Ic). Meanwhile, the Cu2+-induced ascent in the dark respiration rate (Rd) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was mitigated under the growth with elevated CO2, suggesting an alleviated oxidative stress. Overall, we propose that, under CO2 enrichment condition, the young sporophytes of S. fusiforme may increase photosynthesis efficiency and synthesize less enzymatic antioxidants in face of increasing Cu stress.

Continue reading ‘Interactive effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 and copper exposure on the growth and photosynthesis in the young sporophytes of Sargassum fusiforme (Phaeophyta)’

Photoprotection and antioxidative metabolism in Ulva lactuca exposed to coastal oceanic acidification scenarios in the presence of Irgarol

Highlights

  • Photosynthetic yield is affected by low pH in assays with and without Irgarol.
  • Membrane damage and antioxidant activities increased in low pH added to Irgarol.
  • H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation were not affected by low pH isolated.
  • U.lactuca is tolerant to low pH by triggering photoprotector mechanisms.
  • Protective mechanisms could not avoid the simultaneous effects of low pH and Irgarol.

Abstract

Anthropogenic changes such as ocean acidification, eutrophication, and the release of hazardous chemicals affect coastal environments and aquatic organisms. We investigated the effects of seawater pH (7.4 and 8.2) isolated and in combination with Irgarol on Ulva lactuca. Stress indicators such as membrane damage, lipid peroxidation, and hydrogen peroxide content were assessed. In addition, chlorophyll fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured. The photosynthetic yield was affected by low pH in assays with and without Irgarol. However, the combination of low pH and Irgarol promoted photoinhibition, besides the induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and changes in photosynthetic pigment contents. The induction of NPQ was directly influenced by low pH. The membrane damage was increased in low pH with and without Irgarol exposure. Total soluble protein and carbohydrate contents decreased in low pH, and in presence of Irgarol. The H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation were not affected by low pH. In contrast, Irgarol exposure strongly increased lipid peroxidation in both pHs, suggesting a possible synergistic effect. To avoid the harmful effects of high H2O2U. lactuca increased antioxidant enzyme activities in treatments under low pH and in presence of Irgarol. Our results indicate that U. lactuca is tolerant to low pH by inducing NPQ, changing pigment contents, and increasing antioxidant defenses. In contrast, these protective mechanisms could not avoid the harmful effects of the combination with Irgarol.

Continue reading ‘Photoprotection and antioxidative metabolism in Ulva lactuca exposed to coastal oceanic acidification scenarios in the presence of Irgarol’

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