Posts Tagged 'molecular biology'

Seawater acidification reduced the resistance of Crassostrea gigas to Vibrio splendidus challenge: an energy metabolism perspective

Negative physiological impacts induced by exposure to acidified seawater might sensitize marine organisms to future environmental stressors, such as disease outbreak. The goal of this study was to evaluate if ocean acidification (OA) could reduce the resistance capability of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) to Vibrio splendidus challenge from an energy metabolism perspective. In this study, the Pacific oyster was exposed to OA (pH 7.6) for 28 days and then challenged by V. splendidus for another 72 h. Antioxidative responses, lipid peroxidation, metabolic (energy sensors, aerobic metabolism, and anaerobic metabolism) gene expression, glycolytic enzyme activity, and the content of energy reserves (glycogen and protein) were investigated to evaluate the environmental risk of pathogen infection under the condition of OA. Our results demonstrated that following the exposure to seawater acidification, oysters exhibited an energy modulation with slight inhibition of aerobic energy metabolism, stimulation of anaerobic metabolism, and increased glycolytic enzyme activity. However, the energy modulation ability and antioxidative regulation of oysters exposed to seawater acidification may be overwhelmed by a subsequent pathogen challenge, resulting in increased oxidative damage, decreased aerobic metabolism, stimulated anaerobic metabolism, and decreased energy reserves. Overall, although anaerobic metabolism was initiated to partially compensate for inhibited aerobic energy metabolism, increased oxidative damage combined with depleted energy reserves suggested that oysters were in an unsustainable bioenergetic state and were thereby incapable of supporting long-term population viability under conditions of seawater acidification and a pathogen challenge from V. splendidus.

Continue reading ‘Seawater acidification reduced the resistance of Crassostrea gigas to Vibrio splendidus challenge: an energy metabolism perspective’

Does exposure to reduced pH and diclofenac induce oxidative stress in marine bivalves? A comparative study with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum

• Combined effects of seawater acidification and diclofenac are assessed in bivalves.
• Biochemical parameters were more influenced by reduced pH than by diclofenac.
• Lowered pH induced oxidative stress in M. galloprovincialis and R. philippinarum.
• Lowered pH reduced COX activity in of R. philippinarum.
R. philippinarum is more vulnerable to acidification than M. galloprovincialis.

CO2-driven acidification and emerging contaminants, such as pharmaceuticals, pose new threats for the maintenance of natural populations of marine organisms by interfering with their normal biochemical pathways and defences. The combined effects of seawater acidification, as predicted in climate change scenarios, and an emerging contaminant (the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, NSAID, diclofenac) on oxidative stress-related parameters were investigated in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum. A flow-through system was used to carry out a three-week exposure experiment with the bivalves. First, the animals were exposed to only three pH values for 7 days. The pH was manipulated by dissolving CO2 in the seawater to obtain two reduced pH treatments (pH −0.4 units and pH −0.7 units), which were compared with seawater at the natural pH level (8.1). Thereafter, the bivalves were concomitantly exposed to the three experimental pH values and environmentally relevant concentrations of diclofenac (0.00, 0.05 and 0.50 μg/L) for an additional 14 days. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and cyclooxygenase, and lipid peroxidation and DNA strand-break formation were measured in both the gills and digestive gland after 7, 14 and 21 days of exposure to each experimental condition. The results show that the biochemical parameters measured in both the mussels and clams were more influenced by the reduced pH than by the contaminant or the pH*contaminant interaction, although the biomarker variation patterns differed depending on the species and tissues analysed. Generally, due to increases in its antioxidant defence, M. galloprovincialis was more resistant than R. philippinarum to both diclofenac exposure and reduced pH. Conversely, reduced pH induced a significant decrease in COX activity in both the gills and digestive gland of clams, possibly resulting in the increased DNA damage observed in the digestive gland tissue.

Continue reading ‘Does exposure to reduced pH and diclofenac induce oxidative stress in marine bivalves? A comparative study with the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis and the clam Ruditapes philippinarum’

The impact of CO2-related ocean acidification on the molecular regulation of shell development in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica)

Eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica), native to the Gulf of Mexico, are keystone species in estuarine ecosystems and are economically valued. Current research indicates that ocean acidification adversely affects the physiology and morphology of larval oysters, but the molecular mechanisms of this impact remain unstudied. Ocean acidification is contributed to by elevated atmospheric CO2 due to increased anthropogenic activities, causing heightened partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), and eutrophication from land-based runoff in the Gulf. The objective of this work was to determine the genomic response of the eastern oyster in Louisiana to simulated ocean acidification. In this study four biomineralization-related genes were cloned in C. virginica: caltractin (cetn), calmodulin (calm), calreticulin (calr), and calnexin (canx). The relative expression of these genes in response to changes in environmental pCO2 concentrations was analyzed both in vivo utilizing larval oysters and in vitro mantle cell culture models. Results revealed that larval oysters cultured in increased CO2 environments had reduced mean shell length and survival in comparison to those reared in ambient conditions. Expression levels of all four calcium-binding protein genes were altered in both larvae and mantle cells exposed to elevated pCO2, or hypercapnia conditions. Relative expression of calcium-binding proteins was representative of gene expression in both larvae and cells. The expression profiles of the calcium-binding protein encoding genes were correlated to the changes of pCO2 concentrations in the environment, which suggests critical roles of these proteins in the early biomineralization in C. virginica in response to ocean acidification. This study also validated the use of primarily cultured mantle cells as an effective model for investigating the impacts of environmental stressors on biomineralization mechanisms in C. virginica on the molecular level to predict the physiological responses of these organisms to future acidified conditions in the wild.

Continue reading ‘The impact of CO2-related ocean acidification on the molecular regulation of shell development in the Eastern Oyster (Crassostrea virginica)’

Production of calcium-binding proteins in Crassostrea virginica in response to increased environmental CO2 concentration

Biomineralization is a complexed process by organisms producing protective and supportive structures. Employed by mollusks, biomineralization enables creation of external shells for protection against environmental stressors. The shell deposition mechanism is initiated in the early stages of development and is dependent upon the concentration and availability of calcium carbonate ions. Changes in concentrations of the critical ions required for shell formation can result in malformation of shells. As pCO2 concentrations in the atmosphere continue to increase, the oceans are becoming more acidified. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has demonstrated adverse effects on shell formation in calcifying organisms across taxa. Although OA is known to inhibit the shell deposition in mollusks, the impact of OA on the gene regulation of calcium deposition remains unknown. Here we show the responses of four calcium-binding protein genes, caltractin (cetn), calmodulin (calm), calreticulin (calr), and calnexin (canx), to CO2-derived OA using a Crassostrea virginica mantle cell (CvMC) culture model and a larval C. virginica model. These four genes were cloned from C. virginica and the three-dimensional structures of the proteins encoded by these four genes were fully characterized using homolog modeling methods. Although an acidified environment by increased atmospheric pCO2 (1,000 ppm) did not result in significant effects on CvMC proliferation and apoptosis, lower environmental pH induced upregulations of all four calcium-binding protein genes in CvMCs. Similarly, increased pCO2 did not affect the growth of larval C. virginica in the early stages of development. However, elevated pCO2 concentrations enhanced the expression of these calcium-binding protein genes at the protein level. The four calcium-binding protein genes demonstrated responsive expression profiles to an acidified environment at both cellular and individual levels. Further investigation of these genes may provide insight into the molecular regulation of mollusk biomineralization under OA stress.

Continue reading ‘Production of calcium-binding proteins in Crassostrea virginica in response to increased environmental CO2 concentration’

Epigenome-associated phenotypic acclimatization to ocean acidification in a reef-building coral

There are increasing concerns that the current rate of climate change might outpace the ability of reef-building corals to adapt to future conditions. Work on model systems has shown that environmentally induced alterations in DNA methylation can lead to phenotypic acclimatization. While DNA methylation has been reported in corals and is thought to associate with phenotypic plasticity, potential mechanisms linked to changes in whole-genome methylation have yet to be elucidated. We show that DNA methylation significantly reduces spurious transcription in the coral Stylophora pistillata. Furthermore, we find that DNA methylation also reduces transcriptional noise by fine-tuning the expression of highly expressed genes. Analysis of DNA methylation patterns of corals subjected to long-term pH stress showed widespread changes in pathways regulating cell cycle and body size. Correspondingly, we found significant increases in cell and polyp sizes that resulted in more porous skeletons, supporting the hypothesis that linear extension rates are maintained under conditions of reduced calcification. These findings suggest an epigenetic component in phenotypic acclimatization that provides corals with an additional mechanism to cope with environmental change.

Continue reading ‘Epigenome-associated phenotypic acclimatization to ocean acidification in a reef-building coral’

Host and symbionts in Pocillopora damicornis larvae display different transcriptomic responses to ocean acidification and warming

As global ocean change progresses, reef-building corals and their early life history stages will rely on physiological plasticity to tolerate new environmental conditions. Larvae from brooding coral species contain algal symbionts upon release, which assist with the energy requirements of dispersal and metamorphosis. Global ocean change threatens the success of larval dispersal and settlement by challenging the performance of the larvae and of the symbiosis. In this study, larvae of the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis were exposed to elevated pCO2 and temperature to examine the performance of the coral and its symbionts in situ and better understand the mechanisms of physiological plasticity and stress tolerance in response to multiple stressors. We generated a de novo holobiont transcriptome containing coral host and algal symbiont transcripts and bioinformatically filtered the assembly into host and symbiont components for downstream analyses. Seventeen coral genes were differentially expressed in response to the combined effects of pCO2 and temperature. In the symbiont, 89 genes were differentially expressed in response to pCO2. Our results indicate that many of the whole-organism (holobiont) responses previously observed for P. damicornis larvae in scenarios of ocean acidification and warming may reflect the physiological capacity of larvae to cope with the environmental changes without expressing additional protective mechanisms. At the holobiont level, the results suggest that the responses of symbionts to future ocean conditions could play a large role in shaping success of coral larval stages.

Continue reading ‘Host and symbionts in Pocillopora damicornis larvae display different transcriptomic responses to ocean acidification and warming’

Ocean acidification affects the cytoskeleton, lysozymes, and nitric oxide of hemocytes: a possible explanation for the hampered phagocytosis in blood clams, Tegillarca granosa

An enormous amount of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) has been dissolved into the ocean, leading to a lower pH and changes in the chemical properties of seawater, which has been termed ocean acidification (OA). The impacts of pCO2-driven acidification on immunity have been revealed recently in various marine organisms. However, the mechanism causing the reduction in phagocytosis still remains unclear. Therefore, the impacts of pCO2-driven OA at present and near-future levels (pH values of 8.1, 7.8, and 7.4) on the rate of phagocytosis, the abundance of cytoskeleton components, the levels of nitric oxide (NO), and the concentration and activity of lysozymes (LZM) of hemocytes were investigated in a commercial bivalve species, the blood clam (Tegillarca granosa). In addition, the effects of OA on the expression of genes regulating actin skeleton and nitric oxide synthesis 2 (NOS2) were also analyzed. The results obtained showed that the phagocytic rate, cytoskeleton component abundance, concentration and activity of LZM of hemocytes were all significantly reduced after a 2-week exposure to the future OA scenario of a pH of 7.4. On the contrary, a remarkable increase in the concentration of NO compared to that of the control was detected in clams exposed to OA. Furthermore, the expression of genes regulating the actin cytoskeleton and NOS were significantly up-regulated after OA exposure. Though the mechanism causing phagocytosis seemed to be complicated based on the results obtained in the present study and those reported previously, our results suggested that OA may reduce the phagocytosis of hemocytes by (1) decreasing the abundance of cytoskeleton components and therefore hampering the cytoskeleton-mediated process of engulfment, (2) reducing the concentration and activity of LZM and therefore constraining the degradation of the engulfed pathogen through an oxygen-independent pathway, and (3) inducing the production of NO, which may negatively regulate immune responses.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification affects the cytoskeleton, lysozymes, and nitric oxide of hemocytes: a possible explanation for the hampered phagocytosis in blood clams, Tegillarca granosa’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book