Posts Tagged 'laboratory'

Combined effects of ocean acidification and hypoxia on the early development of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus

Ocean acidification has become serious, and seawater hypoxia has become evident in acidified waters. The combination of such stressors may have interactive effects on the fitness of marine organisms. In order to investigate the interactive effects of seawater acidification and hypoxia on the early development of marine bivalves, the eggs and sperm of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus were exposed to combined treatments of pH (8.1, 7.7, 7.3) and dissolved oxygen (2, 6 mg/L) for 96 h culture observation to investigate the interactive effects of seawater acidification and hypoxia on the early development of marine bivalves. Results showed that acidification and hypoxia had significant negative effects on various parameters of the early development of the thick shell mussel. However, hypoxia had no effect on fertilization rate. Significant interactions between acidification and hypoxia were observed during the experiment. Short-term exposure negatively influenced the early development of the thick shell mussel but did not affect its survival. The effects of long-term exposure to these two environmental stresses need further study.

Continue reading ‘Combined effects of ocean acidification and hypoxia on the early development of the thick shell mussel Mytilus coruscus’

Linking energy budget to physiological adaptation: how a calcifying gastropod adjusts or succumbs to ocean acidification and warming

Highlights

• Energetics and shell properties of gastropods were measured under future climate.

• Ocean warming increased the feeding rate and hence energy budget of gastropods.

• The boosted energy budget was linked to increased shell growth and shell strength.

• Ocean acidification caused these positive effects of warming to become negative.

• Energy budget determined the adjustability of shell building process in calcifiers.

Abstract

Accelerating CO2 emissions have driven physico-chemical changes in the world’s oceans, such as ocean acidification and warming. How marine organisms adjust or succumb to such environmental changes may be determined by their ability to balance energy intake against expenditure (i.e. energy budget) as energy supports physiological functions, including those with adaptive value. Here, we examined whether energy budget is a driver of physiological adaptability of marine calcifiers to the near-future ocean acidification and warming; i.e. how physiological energetics (respiration rate, feeding rate, energy assimilation and energy budget) relates to adjustments in shell growth and shell properties of a calcifying gastropod (Austrocochlea concamerata). We found that ocean warming boosted the energy budget of gastropods due to increased feeding rate, resulting in faster shell growth and greater shell strength (i.e. more mechanically resilient). When combined with ocean acidification, however, the gastropods had a substantial decrease in energy budget due to reduced feeding rate and energy assimilation, leading to the reduction in shell growth and shell strength. By linking energy budget to the adjustability of shell building, we revealed that energy availability is critical to determine the physiological adaptability of marine calcifiers to the changing oceanic climate.

Continue reading ‘Linking energy budget to physiological adaptation: how a calcifying gastropod adjusts or succumbs to ocean acidification and warming’

Contrasting changes in diel variations of net community calcification support that carbonate dissolution can be more sensitive to ocean acidification than coral calcification

Previous studies have found that calcification in coral reefs is generally stronger during the day, whereas dissolution is prevalent at night. On the basis of these contrasting patterns, the diel variations of net community calcification (NCC) were monitored to examine the relative sensitivity of CaCO3 production (calcification) and dissolution in coral reefs to ocean acidification (OA), using two mesocosms that replicated a typical subtropical coral reef ecosystem in southern Taiwan. The results revealed that the daytime NCC remained unchanged, whereas the nighttime NCC decreased between the control (ambient) and treatment (OA) conditions, suggesting that carbonate dissolution could be more sensitive to OA than coral calcification. The average sensitivity of the integrated daily NCC to changes in the seawater saturation state (Ωa) was estimated to be a reduction of 54% in NCC per unit change in Ωa, which is consistent with the global average. In summary, our results support the prevailing anticipation that OA would lead to a reduction in the overall accretion of coral reef ecosystems. However, increased CaCO3 dissolution rather than decreased coral calcification could be the dominant driving force responsible for this OA-induced reduction in NCC.

Continue reading ‘Contrasting changes in diel variations of net community calcification support that carbonate dissolution can be more sensitive to ocean acidification than coral calcification’

Effects of inorganic carbon concentration and pH on carbonic anhydrase activity of gametophytes of Saccharina japonica

Carbonic anhydrase (CA) was considered to be an important component of carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) of algae. It was an inducible enzyme. Environmental factors, especially dissolved inorganic carbon and pH, were known to affect CA activity. Effects of inorganic carbon (CO2 and ) and pH on CA activity of gametophytes of Saccharina japonica were evaluated in this study. Under high-CO2 condition (3% CO2), the activity of external CA (CAext) was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) from 33.92 REA/g FW to 27.69 REA/g FW. In contrast, the internal CA (CAint) and total CA activities were elevated significantly (p < 0.01) from 36.83 REA/g FW to 48.80 REA/g FW, and from 70.75 REA/g FW to 76.49 REA/g FW, respectively. Addition of an appropriate concentration of to the medium, CAint and total CA activities were promoted significantly, although the activity of CAext was inhibited significantly (P < 0.05). In higher concentration (up to 1680 mg/L), the activity of CAint was promoted to 60.81REA/g FW, which was twice that of the control. Higher activities of CAint and total CA were induced at low pH. At pH 6.0, the highest activities of CAint (110.85 REA/g FW) and total CA (128.17 REA/g FW) were induced. However, at pH 9.0, the activities of CAint and total CA were reduced to the lowest of 23.31REA/g FW and 42.19 REA/g FW, respectively. This is the first report about the successful detection of CAext activity of gametophytes of S. japonica. The results would provide data for the analysis of Ci acquisition and transport mechanism in S.japonica gametophytes.

Continue reading ‘Effects of inorganic carbon concentration and pH on carbonic anhydrase activity of gametophytes of Saccharina japonica’

Transcriptomic response to decreased pH in adult, larval and juvenile red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, and interactive effects of pH and temperature on juveniles

Ocean warming and acidification are expected to influence the biology of the ecologically and economically important red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus. We investigated transcriptome responses of adult, larval and juvenile red king crab to assess sensitivity to reduced pH and elevated temperature. In adults, gill tissue (but not heart or cuticle) responded to reduced pH by differentially regulating many genes involved in metabolic, membrane and cuticular processes, but not ionic or acid/base regulation. In larval crabs, we found little evidence for a strong transcriptomic response to pH, but did observe large differences in the transcriptomes of newly hatched and one-week old larvae. In juvenile crabs, we found that there was a strong transcriptomic response to temperature across all pH conditions, but that only extreme low pH caused transcriptomic shifts. Most of the genes in juveniles that were differentially expressed were for cuticular and calcification processes. While inferences regarding the specific biological responses associated with changes in gene expression are likely to change as resources for red king crab genomics enabled studies continue to improve (i.e. better assemblies and annotation), our inferences about general sensitivities to temperature and pH across the life stages of red king crab are robust and unlikely to shift. Overall, our data suggest that red king crab are more sensitive to warming than acidification, and that responses to acidification at the transcriptomic level occur at different levels of pH across life stages, with juveniles being less pH sensitive than adults.

Continue reading ‘Transcriptomic response to decreased pH in adult, larval and juvenile red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, and interactive effects of pH and temperature on juveniles’

Response of coralline algae Porolithon onkodes to elevated seawater temperature and reduced pH

Coralline algae (CA), a type of primary calcifying producer presented in coastal ecosystems, are considered one of the highly sensitive organisms to marine environmental change. However, experimental studies on coralline algae responses to elevated seawater temperature and reduced pH have documented either contradictory or opposite results. In this study, we analysed the growth and physiological responses of coralline algae Porolithon onkodes to the elevated temperature (30.8°C) and reduced pH (7.8). The aim of this analysis was to observe the direct and combined effects, while elucidating the growth and photosynthesis in this response. It was demonstrated that the algae thallus growth rate and photosynthesis under elevated temperature were depressed by 21.5% and 14.9% respectively. High pCO2 enhanced the growth and photosynthesis of the thallus at ambient temperature, while they were deceased when both temperature and pCO2 were elevated. CA is among the most sensitive organisms to ocean acidification (OA) because of their precipitate high Mg-calcite. We hypothesize that coralline algae could increase their calcification rate in order to counteract the effects of moderate acidification, but offset by the effect of elevated temperature. Accordingly, our results also support the conclusion that global warming (GW) is a stronger threat to algal performance than OA. Our findings are also proposed that coralline algae may be more
resilient under OA than GW.

Continue reading ‘Response of coralline algae Porolithon onkodes to elevated seawater temperature and reduced pH’

Biogenic acidification of Portuguese oyster Magallana angulata mariculture can be mediated through introducing brown seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum

Highlights

• Monoculture of oysters produces excess CO2, affecting carbon fluxes.

• Seaweed can eliminate CO2 released by oysters.

• Multi-trophic culture of oysters and seaweed can mitigate oysters monoculture negative impacts.

Abstract

The physiological responses of aquaculture organisms (e.g., oyster and seaweed) have the potential to affect seawater carbon fluxes and subsequently are affected by these seawater changes. In this study, a laboratory experiment and a field mesocosm experiment were carried out in Daya Bay, southern China. In the laboratory experiment, Portuguese oyster Magallana angulata and the brown seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum were mono-cultured in 20-L transparent glass bottles for 24 h. Water sample were collected at four incubation time points (i.e. 0 h, 4 h, 12 h and 24 h) to examine their physiological responses across the incubation period. The results showed that the oyster calcification rate was not significantly changed among 4 h, 12 h and 24 h. On the other hand, during the 24 h incubation time, the oyster respiration rate, seawater pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and CO32– concentration were significantly declined, but the seawater CO2 concentration was increased. For the seaweed, from 0 h to 12 h, seawater CO2 and HCO3– concentrations were significantly declined. However, the seawater pH and DO concentration were increased. In the field experiment, oyster and seaweed were cultured in mesocosm bags. The effects of different culture models of M. angulata and S. hemiphyllum (i.e. oyster monoculture, seaweed monoculture and oyster-seaweed co-culture) on seawater CO2‑carbonate system and air-sea CO2 flux (FCO2) were investigated after 24 h incubation. The results showed that DIC, HCO3– and CO2 concentrations and the partial pressure of CO2 in co-culture bags were significantly lower than the control bags (without any culture organisms) and oyster bags, indicated that S. hemiphyllum can effectively absorb the CO2 released by the oysters. The negative values of air-sea FCO2 in the co-culture bags represent a CO2 sink from the atmosphere to the sea. These results demonstrated that aquaculture organism monoculture could result in a stress for itself, and there could be an interspecies mutual benefit for both M. angulata and S. hemiphyllum in the co-culture system. The negative environmental impacts of mono-trophic oyster aquaculture in this view could be mediated with the multi-trophic inclusion of seaweed.

Continue reading ‘Biogenic acidification of Portuguese oyster Magallana angulata mariculture can be mediated through introducing brown seaweed Sargassum hemiphyllum’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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