Posts Tagged 'respiration'

Effect of ocean acidification on bacterial metabolic activity and community composition in oligotrophic oceans, inferred from short-term bioassays

Increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions in recent decades cause ocean acidification (OA), affecting carbon cycling in oceans by regulating eco-physiological processes of plankton. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in carbon cycling in oceans. However, the effect of OA on bacteria in oceans, especially in oligotrophic regions, was not well understood. In our study, the response of bacterial metabolic activity and community composition to OA was assessed by determining bacterial production, respiration, and community composition at the low-pCO2 (400 ppm) and high-pCO2 (800 ppm) treatments over the short term at two oligotrophic stations in the northern South China Sea. Bacterial production decreased significantly by 17.1–37.1 % in response to OA, since bacteria with high nucleic acid content preferentially were repressed by OA, which was less abundant under high-pCO2 treatment. Correspondingly, shifts in bacterial community composition occurred in response to OA, with a high fraction of the small-sized bacteria and high bacterial species diversity in a high-pCO2 scenario at K11. Bacterial respiration responded to OA differently at both stations, most likely attributed to different physiological responses of the bacterial community to OA. OA mitigated bacterial growth efficiency, and consequently, a larger fraction of DOC entering microbial loops was transferred to CO2.

Continue reading ‘Effect of ocean acidification on bacterial metabolic activity and community composition in oligotrophic oceans, inferred from short-term bioassays’

Long-term thermal acclimation drives adaptive physiological adjustments of a marine gastropod to reduce sensitivity to climate change

Highlights

  • The effects of thermal history on thermal threshold and physiology were assessed.
  • Gastropods acclimated to warmer environments had higher thermal threshold (CTmax).
  • Warm-acclimated gastropods were metabolically less active than cool-acclimated ones.
  • Energy conservation appeared to be a strategy for thermal acclimation.
  • Long-term thermal acclimation may allow marine organisms to adjust to climate change.

Abstract

Ocean warming is predicted to challenge the persistence of a variety of marine organisms, especially when combined with ocean acidification. Whilst temperature affects virtually all physiological processes, the extent to which thermal history mediates the adaptive capacity of marine organisms to climate change has been largely overlooked. Using populations of a marine gastropod (Turbo undulatus) with different thermal histories (cool vs. warm), we compared their physiological adjustments following exposure (8-week) to ocean acidification and warming. Compared to cool-acclimated counterparts, we found that warm-acclimated individuals had higher thermal threshold (i.e. increased CTmax by 2°C), which was unaffected by the exposure to ocean acidification and warming. Thermal history also strongly mediated physiological effects, where warm-acclimated individuals adjusted to warming by conserving energy, suggested by lower respiration and ingestion rates, energy budget (i.e. scope for growth) and O:N ratio. After exposure to warming, warm-acclimated individuals had higher metabolic rates and greater energy budget due to boosted ingestion rates, but such compensatory feeding disappeared when combined with ocean acidification. Overall, we suggest that thermal history can be a critical mediator of physiological performance under future climatic conditions. Given the relatively gradual rate of global warming, marine organisms may be better able to adaptively adjust their physiology to future climate than what short-term experiments currently convey.

Continue reading ‘Long-term thermal acclimation drives adaptive physiological adjustments of a marine gastropod to reduce sensitivity to climate change’

Potential local adaptation of corals at acidified and warmed Nikko Bay, Palau

Ocean warming and acidification caused by the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide are now thought to be major threats to coral reefs on a global scale. Here we evaluated the environmental conditions and benthic community structures in semi-closed Nikko Bay at the inner reef area in Palau, which has high p CO 2 and seawater temperature conditions with high zooxanthellate coral coverage. This bay is a highly sheltered system with organisms showing low connectivity with surrounding environments, making this bay a unique site for evaluating adaptation and acclimatization responses of organisms to warmed and acidified environments. Seawater p CO 2 /Ω arag showed strong graduation ranging from 380 to 982 µatm (Ω arag : 1.79-3.66) and benthic coverage, including soft corals and turf algae, changed along with Ω arag while hard coral coverage did not. In contrast to previous studies, net calcification was maintained in Nikko Bay even under very low mean Ω arag (2.44). Reciprocal transplantation of the dominant coral Porites cylindrica showed that the calcification rate of corals from Nikko Bay did not change when transplanted to a reference site, while calcification of reference site corals decreased when transplanted to Nikko Bay. Corals transplanted out of their origin sites also showed the highest interactive respiration (R) and lower photosynthesis (P) to respiration (P:R). The results of this study give important insights about the potential local acclimatization and adaptation capacity of corals to different environmental conditions including p CO 2 and temperature.

Continue reading ‘Potential local adaptation of corals at acidified and warmed Nikko Bay, Palau’

Late afternoon seasonal transition to dissolution in a coral reef: an early warning of a net dissolving ecosystem?

There are concerns that reefs will transition from net calcifying to net dissolving in the near future due to decreasing calcification and increasing dissolution rates. Here we present in situ rates of net ecosystem calcification (NEC) and net ecosystem production (NEP) on a coral reef flat using a slack‐water approach. Up until dusk, the reef was net calcifying in most months but shifted to net dissolution in austral summer, coinciding with high respiration rates and a lower aragonite saturation state (Ωarag). The estimated sediment contribution to NEC ranged from 8 – 21 % during the day and 45 – 78 % at night, indicating that high rates of sediment dissolution may cause the transition to reef dissolution. This late afternoon seasonal transition to negative NEC may be an early warning sign of the reef shifting to a net dissolving state and may be occurring on other reefs.

Continue reading ‘Late afternoon seasonal transition to dissolution in a coral reef: an early warning of a net dissolving ecosystem?’

Ocean acidification interacts with growth light to suppress CO2 acquisition efficiency and enhance mitochondrial respiration in a coastal diatom

Highlights

  • Ocean acidification (OA) enhances growth of Thalassiosira weissflogii only at limiting low light levels.
  • The energy saved from down-regulation of CCMs under OA rather than “CO2 fertilization aids in the enhancement under low levels of light energy supply.
  • Coastal diatoms can benefit from OA, especially under cloudy weather or conditions of low solar exposures.

Abstract

Diatom responses to ocean acidification have been documented with variable and controversial results. We grew the coastal diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii under 410 (LC, pH 8.13) vs 1000 μatm (HC, pH 7.83) pCO2 and at different levels of light (80, 140, 220 μmol photons m−2 s−1), and found that light level alters physiological responses to OA. CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) were down-regulated in the HC-grown cells across all the light levels, as reflected by lowered activity of the periplasmic carbonic anhydrase and decreased photosynthetic affinity for CO2 or dissolved inorganic carbon. The specific growth rate was, however, enhanced significantly by 9.2% only at the limiting low light level. These results indicate that rather than CO2 “fertilization”, the energy saved from down-regulation of CCMs promoted the growth rate of the diatom when light availability is low, in parallel with enhanced respiration under OA to cope with the acidic stress by providing extra energy.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification interacts with growth light to suppress CO2 acquisition efficiency and enhance mitochondrial respiration in a coastal diatom’

Acidification stress effect on umbonate veliger larval development in Panopea globosa

Highlights

  • The pH significantly influenced the biometric variables in Panopea globosa larvae.
  • Larvae exposed to lower pH showed shell dissolution at the umbo level.
  • The metabolic rate was higher in larvae exposed to acidification compared to the control.
  • Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase expression levels to pH 7.5 suggest a higher energy requirement.

Abstract


Ocean acidification generates a decrease in calcium carbonate availability essential for biomineralization in organisms such as mollusks. This effect was evaluated on Panopea globosa exposing for 7 days umbonate veliger larvae to two pH treatments: experimental (pH 7.5) and control (pH 8.0). Exposure to pH 7.5 affected growth, reducing larval shell length from 5.15–13.34% compared to the control group. This size reduction was confirmed with electron microscopy, also showing shell damage. The physiological response showed an increase in oxygen consumption in larvae exposed to low pH with a maximum difference of 1.57 nmol O2 h−1 larvae−1 at day 7. The gene expression analyses reported high expression values for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) dehydrogenase and Perlucin in larvae at pH 7.5, suggesting a higher energetic cost in this larval group to maintain homeostasis. In conclusion, this study showed that acidification affected development of P. globosa umbonate veliger larvae.

Continue reading ‘Acidification stress effect on umbonate veliger larval development in Panopea globosa’

Effects of experimental ocean acidification on the larval morphology and metabolism of a temperate Sparid, Chrysoblephus laticeps

Ocean acidification is predicted to have widespread impacts on marine species. The early life stages of fishes, being particularly sensitive to environmental deviations, represent a critical bottleneck to recruitment. We investigated the effects of ocean acidification (∆pH = −0.4) on the oxygen consumption and morphometry during the early ontogeny of a commercially important seabream, Chrysoblephus laticeps, up until flexion. Hatchlings appeared to be tolerant to hypercapnic conditions, exhibiting no difference in oxygen consumption or morphometry between treatments, although the yolk reserves were marginally reduced in the low-pH treatment. The preflexion stages appeared to undergo metabolic depression, exhibiting lower metabolic rates along with lower growth metrics in hypercapnic conditions. However, although the sample sizes were low, the flexion-stage larvae exhibited greater rates of metabolic and growth metric increases in hypercapnic conditions. This study shows that the effects of OA may be stage specific during early ontogeny and potentially related to the development of crucial organs, such as the gills. Future studies investigating the effects of climate change on fish larvae should endeavour to include multiple developmental stages in order to make more accurate predictions on recruitment dynamics for the coming decades.

Continue reading ‘Effects of experimental ocean acidification on the larval morphology and metabolism of a temperate Sparid, Chrysoblephus laticeps’

Potential acclimatization and adaptive responses of adult and trans-generation coral larvae from a naturally acidified habitat

Coral reefs are one of the most susceptible ecosystems to ocean acidification (OA) caused by increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). OA is suspected to impact the calcification rate of corals as well as multiple early life stages including larval and settlement stages. Meanwhile, there is now a strong interest in evaluating if organisms have the potential for acclimatization or adaptation to OA. Here, by taking advantage of a naturally acidified site in Nikko Bay, Palau where corals are presumably exposed to high CO2 conditions for their entire life history, we tested if adult and the next-generation larvae of the brooder coral Pocillopora acuta originating from the high-CO2 site are more tolerant to high CO2 conditions compared to the individuals from a control site. Larvae released from adults collected from the high-CO2 site within the bay and a control site outside the bay were reciprocally cultivated under experimental control or high-CO2 seawater conditions to evaluate their physiology. Additionally, reciprocal transplantation of adult P. acuta corals were conducted between the high-CO2 and control sites in the field. The larvae originating from the control site showed lower Chlorophyll-a content and lipid percentages when reared under high-CO2 compared to control seawater conditions, while larvae originating from the high-CO2 site did not. Additionally, all 10 individuals of adult P. acuta from control site died when transplanted within the bay, while all P. acuta corals within the bay survived at both control and high-CO2 site. Furthermore, P. acuta within the bay showed higher calcification and net photosynthesis rates when exposed to the condition they originated from. These results are one of the first results that indicate the possibility that the long-living corals could enable to show local adaptation to different environmental conditions including high seawater pCO(2).

Continue reading ‘Potential acclimatization and adaptive responses of adult and trans-generation coral larvae from a naturally acidified habitat’

Interactive effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 and copper exposure on the growth and photosynthesis in the young sporophytes of Sargassum fusiforme (Phaeophyta)

Highlights

  • Effects of Cu2+ and elevated atmospheric CO2 on young sporophytes of Sargassum fusiforme were investigated.
  • At elevated CO2, growth inhibition and pigment damage caused by Cu2+ remain at the same level.
  • Elevated CO2 alleviates the Cu-induced suppression on photosystem.
  • Elevated CO2 down-regulates the enzymatic antioxidant system against Cu2+.

Abstract

Little attention has been given to the combined effects of elevated atmospheric CO2-induced ocean acidification (OA) and heavy metal pollution on marine macroalgae at the young stage. This study investigated the mutual effects of copper (Cu) and elevated CO2 on the young sporophytes of brown macroalgae Sargassum fusiforme. A matrix of four copper concentrations, 0, 0.025, 0.075 and 0.15 mg‧L-1, and two levels of CO2 (ambient CO2: 400 μatm; elevated CO2: 1,000 μatm) were used. High concentration of copper exposure greatly depressed photosynthesis and growth of the young sporophytes of S. fusiforme by reducing the apparent photosynthetic efficiency (ɑ), maximum net photosynthetic oxygen evolution rate (Pmax), maximum photochemical quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and pigments content (Chl a and Car). While elevated CO2 alone had obscure impact on this alga. However, the inhibition of Cu stress on Fv/Fm was weakened by elevated CO2, which also decreased the light compensation point (Ic). Meanwhile, the Cu2+-induced ascent in the dark respiration rate (Rd) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was mitigated under the growth with elevated CO2, suggesting an alleviated oxidative stress. Overall, we propose that, under CO2 enrichment condition, the young sporophytes of S. fusiforme may increase photosynthesis efficiency and synthesize less enzymatic antioxidants in face of increasing Cu stress.

Continue reading ‘Interactive effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 and copper exposure on the growth and photosynthesis in the young sporophytes of Sargassum fusiforme (Phaeophyta)’

Environmental changes affecting physiological responses and growth of hybrid grouper – the interactive impact of low pH and temperature

Highlights

  • Effects of warm temperature and/or low water pH were studied.
  • Growth performance were negatively impacted.to either warm temperature or low pH exposure.
  • Interactive exposure of warm temperature and low water pH induced high living cost of hybrid grouper.
  • Hybrid grouper adjusted energy metabolism needs to cope with the changing environment.

Abstract

Rising of temperature in conjunction with acidification due to the anthropogenic climates has tremendously affected all aquatic life. Small changes in the surrounding environment could lead to physiological constraint in the individual. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of warm water temperature (32 oC) and low pH (pH 6) on physiological responses and growth of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) juveniles for 25 days. Growth performance was significantly affected under warm water temperature and low-pH conditions. Surprisingly, the positive effect on growth was observed under the interactive effects of warm water and low pH exposure. Hybrid grouper exposed to the interactive stressor of warm temperature and low pH exhibited higher living cost, where HSI content was greatly depleted to about 2.3-folds than in normal circumstances. Overall, challenge to warm temperature and low pH induced protein mobilization as an energy source followed by glycogen and lipid to support basal metabolic needs.

Continue reading ‘Environmental changes affecting physiological responses and growth of hybrid grouper – the interactive impact of low pH and temperature’

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