Posts Tagged 'respiration'



Ocean warming drives decline in coral metabolism while acidification highlights species-specific responses

Ocean warming and acidification can have negative implications on coral reefs. This mechanistic study aims to evaluate the proximal causes of the observed negative response of Hawaiian corals to climate change scenarios. Net calcification (Gnet), gross photosynthesis, and dark respiration were measured in three species of Hawaiian corals across a range of temperature and acidification regimes using endpoint incubations. Calcification rates showed a curvilinear response with temperature, with the highest calcification rates observed at 26°C. Coral response to ocean acidification (OA) was species dependent and highly variable. OA enhanced calcification rates by 45% in the perforate coral, Montipora capitata, but had no short-term effect on the calcification or photosynthetic rates of imperforate corals, Pocillopora damicornis or Leptastrea purpurea. Further investigations revealed M. capitata to effectively dissipate protons (H+) while increasing uptake of bicarbonate (HCO−3), therefore maintaining high rates of Gnet under acute OA stress. This study demonstrates the first experimental evidence of the ability of a coral species to take advantage of increased dissolved inorganic carbon and overcome an increasing proton gradient in the boundary layer under OA conditions. These observed differences in coral metabolism may underlie the species-specific responses to climate change.

Continue reading ‘Ocean warming drives decline in coral metabolism while acidification highlights species-specific responses’

Contrasting responses of photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency to ocean acidification under different light environments in a calcifying alga

Ocean acidification (OA) is predicted to enhance photosynthesis in many marine taxa. However, photophysiology has multiple components that OA may affect differently, especially under different light environments, with potentially contrasting consequences for photosynthetic performance. Furthermore, because photosynthesis affects energetic budgets and internal acid-base dynamics, changes in it due to OA or light could mediate the sensitivity of other biological processes to OA (e.g. respiration and calcification). To better understand these effects, we conducted experiments on Porolithon onkodes, a common crustose coralline alga in Pacific coral reefs, crossing pCO2 and light treatments. Results indicate OA inhibited some aspects of photophysiology (maximum photochemical efficiency), facilitated others (α, the responsiveness of photosynthesis to sub-saturating light), and had no effect on others (maximum gross photosynthesis), with the first two effects depending on treatment light level. Light also exacerbated the increase in dark-adapted respiration under OA, but did not alter the decline in calcification. Light-adapted respiration did not respond to OA, potentially due to indirect effects of photosynthesis. Combined, results indicate OA will interact with light to alter energetic budgets and potentially resource allocation among photosynthetic processes in P. onkodes, likely shifting its light tolerance, and constraining it to a narrower range of light environments.

Continue reading ‘Contrasting responses of photosynthesis and photochemical efficiency to ocean acidification under different light environments in a calcifying alga’

Seawater acidification increases copper toxicity: a multi-biomarker approach with a key marine invertebrate, the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas

Highlights

• Cu concentration was elevated in Cu-exposed oysters under OA.
• Seawater acidification could exacerbate the toxicity caused by Cu in oysters.
• Disturbed physiological functions were observed in oysters under Cu and/or OA.
• IBR results suggested that co-exposure was the most stressful condition.

Abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) has been found to increase the release of free Cu2+ in seawater. However, only a handful of studies have investigated the influence of OA on Cu accumulation and cellular toxicity in bivalve species. In this study, Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, were exposed to 25 μg/L Cu2+ at three pH levels (8.1, 7.8 and 7.6) for 14 and 28 days. Physiological and histopathological parameters [(clearance rate (CR), respiration rate (RR), histopathological damage and condition index (CI)), oxidative stress and neurotoxicity biomarkers [superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity], combined with glycolytic enzyme activities [pyruvate kinase (PK) and hexokinase (HK)] were investigated in C. gigas. The bioconcentration of Cu was increased in soft tissues of Cu-exposed oysters under OA. Our results suggest that both OA and Cu could lead to physiological disturbance, oxidative stress, cellular damage, disturbance in energy metabolism and neurotoxicity in oysters. The inhibited CR, increased glycolytic enzymes activities and decreased CI suggested that the energy metabolism strategy adopted by oysters was not sustainable in the long term. Furthermore, integrated biomarker response (IBR) results found that OA and Cu exposure lead to severe stress to oysters, and co-exposure was the most stressful condition. Results from this study highlight the need to include OA in future environmental assessments of pollutants and hazardous materials to better elucidate the risks of those environmental perturbations.

Continue reading ‘Seawater acidification increases copper toxicity: a multi-biomarker approach with a key marine invertebrate, the Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas’

Future ocean warming may prove beneficial for the northern population of European seabass, but ocean acidification does not

The world’s oceans are acidifying and warming due to increasing amounts of atmospheric CO2. Thermal tolerance of fish much depends on the cardiovascular ability to supply the tissues with oxygen. The heart itself is highly dependent on oxygen and heart mitochondria thus might play a key role in shaping an organism’s tolerance to temperature. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of acute and chronic warming on respiratory capacities of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.) heart mitochondria. We hypothesized that acute warming would impair mitochondrial respiratory capacities, but be compensated after long-term. Increasing PCO2 may cause intracellular changes, likely further constricting cellular energy metabolism. We found increased leak respiration rates in acutely warmed heart mitochondria of cold-conditioned fish in comparison to measurements at their rearing temperature, suggesting a lower aerobic capacity to synthesize ATP. However, thermal acclimation led to increased mitochondrial functionality, e.g. higher RCRo in heart mitochondria of warm-conditioned compared to cold-conditioned fish. Exposure to high PCO2 synergistically amplified the effects of acute and long-term warming, but did not result in changes by itself. We explained the high ability to maintain mitochondrial function under OA with the fact that seabass are moving between various environmental conditions. Improved mitochondrial capacities after warm conditioning could be due to the origin of this species in the warm waters of the Mediterranean. Our results also indicate that seabass are not yet fully adapted to the colder temperatures in their northern distribution range and might benefit from warmer temperatures.

Continue reading ‘Future ocean warming may prove beneficial for the northern population of European seabass, but ocean acidification does not’

Physiological and biochemical responses of Thalassiosira weissflogii (diatom) to seawater acidification and alkalization

Increasing atmospheric pCO2 leads to seawater acidification, which has attracted considerable attention due to its potential impact on the marine biological carbon pump and function of marine ecosystems. Alternatively, phytoplankton cells living in coastal waters might experience increased pH/decreased pCO2 (seawater alkalization) caused by metabolic activities of other photoautotrophs, or after microalgal blooms. Here we grew Thalassiosira weissflogii (diatom) at seven pCO2 levels, including habitat-related lowered levels (25, 50, 100, and 200 µatm) as well as present-day (400 µatm) and elevated (800 and 1600 µatm) levels. Effects of seawater acidification and alkalization on growth, photosynthesis, dark respiration, cell geometry, and biogenic silica content of T. weissflogii were investigated. Elevated pCO2 and associated seawater acidification had no detectable effects. However, the lowered pCO2 levels (25 ∼ 100 µatm), which might be experienced by coastal diatoms in post-bloom scenarios, significantly limited growth and photosynthesis of this species. In addition, seawater alkalization resulted in more silicified cells with higher dark respiration rates. Thus, a negative correlation of biogenic silica content and growth rate was evident over the pCO2 range tested here. Taken together, seawater alkalization, rather than acidification, could have stronger effects on the ballasting efficiency and carbon export of T. weissflogii.

Continue reading ‘Physiological and biochemical responses of Thalassiosira weissflogii (diatom) to seawater acidification and alkalization’

Effects of light and darkness on pH regulation in three coral species exposed to seawater acidification

The resilience of corals to ocean acidification has been proposed to rely on regulation of extracellular calcifying medium pH (pHECM), but few studies have compared the capacity of coral species to control this parameter at elevated pCO2. Furthermore, exposure to light and darkness influences both pH regulation and calcification in corals, but little is known about its effect under conditions of seawater acidification. Here we investigated the effect of acidification in light and darkness on pHECM, calcifying cell intracellular pH (pHI), calcification, photosynthesis and respiration in three coral species: Stylophora pistillata, Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora hyacinthus. We show that S. pistillata was able to maintain pHECM under acidification in light and darkness, but pHECM decreased in P. damicornis and A. hyacinthus to a much greater extent in darkness than in the light. Acidification depressed calcifying cell pHI in all three species, but we identified an unexpected positive effect of light on pHI. Calcification rate and pHECM decreased together under acidification, but there are inconsistencies in their relationship indicating that other physiological parameters are likely to shape how coral calcification responds to acidification. Overall our study reveals interspecies differences in coral regulation of pHECM and pHI when exposed to acidification, influenced by exposure to light and darkness.

Continue reading ‘Effects of light and darkness on pH regulation in three coral species exposed to seawater acidification’

Effects of ocean warming and acidification on fertilization success and early larval development in the green sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus

Highlights

• Acidification delayed larval development, stunted growth, and increased asymmetry.

• Warming decreased fertilization success and accelerated larval development.

• Warming outweighed acidification and led to accelerated development.

• Acidification and warming had additive effects on fertilization and growth.

Abstract

Ocean acidification and warming are predicted to affect the early life of many marine organisms, but their effects can be synergistic or antagonistic. This study assessed the combined effects of near-future (2100) ocean acidification (pH 7.8) and warming (+3 °C) on the fertilization, larval development and growth of the green sea urchin, Lytechinus variegatus, common in tropical reefs of Florida and the Caribbean. Acidification had no effect on fertilization, but delayed larval development, stunted growth, and increased asymmetry. Warming decreased fertilization success when the sperm:egg ratio was higher (1847:1), accelerated larval development, but had no effect on growth. When exposed to both acidification and warming, fertilization rates decreased, larval development accelerated (due to increased respiration/metabolism), but larvae were smaller and more asymmetric, meaning acidification and warming had additive effects. Thus, climate change is expected to decrease the abundance of this important herbivore, exacerbating macroalgal growth and dominance on coral reefs.

Continue reading ‘Effects of ocean warming and acidification on fertilization success and early larval development in the green sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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