GLODAPv2.2022: the latest version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product

The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface-to-bottom ocean biogeochemical bottle data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of seawater samples. GLODAPv2.2022 is an update of the previous version, GLODAPv2.2021 (Lauvset et al., 2021). The major changes are as follows: data from 96 new cruises were added, data coverage was extended until 2021, and for the first time we performed secondary quality control on all sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) data. In addition, a number of changes were made to data included in GLODAPv2.2021. These changes affect specifically the SF6 data, which are now subjected to secondary quality control, and carbon data measured onboard the RV Knorr in the Indian Ocean in 1994–1995 which are now adjusted using CRM measurements made at the time. GLODAPv2.2022 includes measurements from almost 1.4 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 1085 cruises. The data for the now 13 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CCl4, and SF6) have undergone extensive quality control with a focus on systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted by the data originator but converted to World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) exchange format and (ii) as a merged data product with adjustments applied to minimize bias. For the present annual update, adjustments for the 96 new cruises were derived by comparing those data with the data from the 989 quality controlled cruises in the GLODAPv2.2021 data product using crossover analysis. SF6 data from all cruises were evaluated by comparison with CFC-12 data measured on the same cruises. For nutrients and ocean carbon dioxide (CO2) chemistry comparisons to estimates based on empirical algorithms provided additional context for adjustment decisions. The adjustments that we applied are intended to remove potential biases from errors related to measurement, calibration, and data handling practices without removing known or likely time trends or variations in the variables evaluated. The compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 μmol kg-1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 4 μmol kg-1 in total alkalinity, 0.01–0.02 in pH (depending on region), and 5 % in the halogenated transient tracers. The other variables included in the compilation, such as isotopic tracers and discrete CO2 fugacity (fCO2), were not subjected to bias comparison or adjustments.

The original data, their documentation and DOI codes are available at the Ocean Carbon and Acidification Data System of NOAA NCEI (, last access: 15 August 2022). This site also provides access to the merged data product, which is provided as a single global file and as four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under (Lauvset et al., 2022). These bias-adjusted product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data, which were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This living data update documents the GLODAPv2.2022 methods and provides a broad overview of the secondary quality control procedures and results.

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Responses of early life stages of European abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) to ocean acidification after parental conditioning: Insights from a transgenerational experiment


  • Abalone has experienced severe population decline worldwide due to overfishing, disease and climate change.
  • OA effects were evaluated on reproduction and early life stages of H. tuberculata through a transgenerational experiment.
  • No carry-over effects were observed on abalone offspring following parental exposure to OA.
  • Larval and juvenile fitness were affected by a pH decrease of 0.3 unit.
  • Species dispersion and survival may be compromised in the near future, with potential negative consequences for European abalone populations.


CO2 absorption is leading to ocean acidification (OA), which is a matter of major concern for marine calcifying species. This study investigated the effects of simulated OA on the reproduction of European abalone Haliotis tuberculata and the survival of its offspring. Four-year-old abalone were exposed during reproductive season to two relevant OA scenarios, ambient pH (8.0) and low pH (7.7). After five months of exposure, abalone were induced to spawn. The gametes, larvae and juveniles were then exposed for five months to the same pH conditions as their parents. Several biological parameters involved in adult reproduction as well as in larval, post-larval and juvenile fitness were measured. No effects on gametes, fertilisation or larval oxidative stress response were detected. However, developmental abnormalities and significant decreases in shell length and calcification were observed at veliger stages. The expression profile of a GABA A receptor-like gene appeared to be regulated by pH, depending on larval stage. Larval and post-larval survival was not affected by low pH. However, a lower survival and a reduction of growth were recorded in juveniles at pH 7.7. Our results confirm that OA negatively impacts larval and juvenile fitness and suggest the absence of carry-over effects on abalone offspring. This may compromise the survival of abalone populations in the near future.

Continue reading ‘Responses of early life stages of European abalone (Haliotis tuberculata) to ocean acidification after parental conditioning: Insights from a transgenerational experiment’

The influence of tides on the marine carbonate chemistry of a coastal polynya in the south-eastern Weddell Sea

Tides significantly affect polar coastlines by modulating ice shelf melt and modifying shelf water properties through transport and mixing. However, the effect of tides on the marine carbonate chemistry in such regions, especially around Antarctica, remains largely unexplored. We address this topic with two case studies in a coastal polynya in the south-eastern Weddell Sea, neighbouring the Ekström Ice Shelf. The case studies were conducted in January 2015 (PS89) and January 2019 (PS117), capturing semi-diurnal oscillations in the water column. These are pronounced in both physical and biogeochemical variables for PS89. During rising tide, advection of sea ice meltwater from the north-east created a fresher, warmer, and more deeply mixed water column with lower dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) content. During ebbing tide, water from underneath the ice shelf decreased the polynya’s temperature, increased the DIC and TA content, and created a more stratified water column. The variability during the PS117 case study was much smaller, as it had less sea ice meltwater input during rising tide and was better mixed with sub-ice shelf water. The contrasts in the variability between the two case studies could be wind and sea ice driven, and they underline the complexity and highly dynamic nature of the system.

The variability in the polynya induced by the tides results in an air–sea CO2 flux that can range between a strong sink (−24 mmol m−2 d−1) and a small source (3 mmol m−2 d−1) on a semi-diurnal timescale. If the variability induced by tides is not taken into account, there is a potential risk of overestimating the polynya’s CO2 uptake by 67 % or underestimating it by 73 %, compared to the average flux determined over several days. Depending on the timing of limited sampling, the polynya may appear to be a source or a sink of CO2. Given the disproportionate influence of polynyas on heat and carbon exchange in polar oceans, we recommend future studies around the Antarctic and Arctic coastlines to consider the timing of tidal currents in their sampling strategies and analyses. This will help constrain variability in oceanographic measurements and avoid potential biases in our understanding of these highly complex systems.

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Acid test: are the world’s oceans becoming too ‘acidic’ to support life?

A hogfish in the coral reefs of Cuba. Image by abrice Dudenhofer / Ocean Image Bank.

Hours after being born, oysters are already working to form their protective, chalk-layered shells. Drawing calcium and carbonate from seawater, they combine the two to form hardened shells.

But as humans have pumped voluminous sums of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, this ancient process has come under threat. It’s estimated that the global ocean absorbs around 30% of human carbon emissions. While this carbon sequestration creates a powerful buffer against climate change by reducing the amount of CO2 flowing into the atmosphere, it changes the chemistry of seawater, decreasing the pH and causing seawater to become more acidic.

Besides affecting oysters, ocean acidification can dissolve the aragonite (a form of calcium carbonate) shells of pteropods, tiny marine snails that swim through the water column, and which whales, seabirds and fish rely on as a food source. Acidification slows corals’ ability to grow their skeletons. Marine animals like sea urchins find it more difficult to reproduce. New research has also shown that ocean acidification can exacerbate other issues, including marine heat waves, compounding stress on an already stressed-out ocean.

Ocean acidification is considered to have such wide-ranging global impacts that scientists have designated it as one of nine planetary boundaries responsible for regulating and maintaining Earth’s functionality. Each of these nine boundaries refers to a biophysical subsystem or process that has a clear limit to which it can withstand anthropogenic changes. The theory, which was first introduced in a 2009 paper and updated in a 2015 paper, suggests that Earth can function properly if humanity remains within the “safe operating limits” of these boundaries. But once a certain threshold is crossed for one or more of these boundaries, the concept suggests that Earth will move into a new and dangerous state — one that is far less supportive of biological life.

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Laboratory technician, marine and environmental sciences

Job Summary

The Ries Lab at Northeastern’s Marine Science Center is seeking a Laboratory Technician to maintain and operate all systems within its laboratories, exercise functional supervision over supporting research staff and students, order supplies and consumables, act as the lab compliance liaison, manage laboratory waste, maintain the chemical and gas inventory and the BIORAD/EHS webpage, train instrument users, calibrate and operate instruments, run samples for internal and external users, record and tabulate instrument usage, invoice, conduct basic organization and cleaning of the lab, assist with basic or applied research (both laboratory- and field-based), write SOPs, and manage, report, and archive experimental samples and data. The successful applicant will be hard-working, discovery-driven, and intellectually curious. Applicants should have a solid foundation in carbonate biogeochemistry, geology, carbon sequestration, biomineralization, ocean acidification, and/or basic chemistry and possess strong writing and analytical skills. Appointment is for one year with the possibility of renewal in subsequent years pending availability of applicable funding.


  • Assist in initiating, executing, and completing research and experiments
  • Assist with research papers, presentations, grant proposals, etc.
  • Basic laboratory management (ordering, EHS, chem inventory)
  • Developing and updating standard operating procedures
  • Tracking of instrument usage and invoicing
  • Managing, reporting, and archiving experimental samples and data
  • Repair and maintain scientific instrumentation
  • Operate scientific instruments and run experimental systems
  • Train graduate students, postdocs, staff, and instrument users


Bachelor’s degree, science major, 2+ years laboratory experience

Experience with the following instrumentation/systems/methods is a plus:

  • Ocean acidification experiments
  • Analysis of calcium carbonate substrates
  • Analysis of seawater DIC/TA
  • Culturing of marine invertebrates and algae
  • Powder X-ray diffraction
  • Light microscopy (digital imaging, variable z-stage, petrographic)
  • Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
  • Laser ablation
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Energy dispersive spectrometry
  • Electron backscatter diffraction
  • Microelectrode construction and use
  • Preparation of petrographic thin sections using saws and polishers
  • Experience conducting field research (terrestrial and SCUBA)
  • Experience calibrating, deploying, and retrieving environmental sensors
  • Willingness to travel internationally

To apply, visit Laboratory Technician, Marine and Environmental Sciences

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Unchecked ocean warming threatens many Gulf and Caribbean corals

A researcher takes a close look at a coral reef near Little Cayman island in the Caribbean Sea in 2016. Credit: Kristine DeLong, Louisiana State University

The coral reefs of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean are richly diverse ecosystems of global importance. These regions contain more than 10% of the world’s reefs and host hundreds of fish species, and they provide more than $6 billion in economic benefits courtesy of fisheries, tourism, and other ecosystem services. But over the past 4 decades, climate change and local stressors like overfishing, pollution, and invasive species have taken a heavy toll. On average, live coral covers less than 10% of the surface of most reefs in the region.

Heat stress is a major culprit of this decline. It can cause a phenomenon called coral bleaching, in which corals expel the colorful algae that provide most of their food. If the algae come back, the corals can survive the ordeal. But extended periods of high temperature or back-to-back bleaching events will eventually kill many corals. Since 1987, the Florida Keys alone have been hit by at least six major bleaching events, with several events sweeping the whole region.

In a new study, Lawman et al. use climate model simulations spanning from 2015 to 2100 to evaluate how heat stress and ocean acidification—caused by rising carbon dioxide levels—will affect corals in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean. The authors also broke down modeled temperature and acidification rates by region. They found that depending on the simulation, sea surface temperatures in the area increased by about 0.3°C–0.4°C per decade through the 21st century (or 2°C–2.8°C cumulatively by century’s end).

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Is climate disrupting maritime boundaries?

The rules for atolls and reefs in international law are already murky and subject to interpretation. Image by PR HANDOUT IMAGE PHOTO

Climate change is disrupting the shape and presence of coral islands across the Indo-Pacific, creating uncertainties for legal maritime zones and small states, say legal experts.

Atolls and reefs naturally grow and shrink due to complex processes yet to be fully understood.

However global warming is disrupting them further and leading to fresh uncertainties, according to research conducted at the University of Sydney.

Lead author Dr Thomas Fellowes says new technologies and approaches coupled with expanded analysis of coral behaviour may be needed to help dispel some of the precariousness and solidify claims.

“Coral reef islands are the legal basis for many large maritime zones,” he said.

“Hence, continued climate disruptions may have substantial impact not only for small island states but in hotly contested boundary disputes in places like the South China Sea.

“It’s a perfect storm that is bringing instability and uncertainty to what are already difficult boundaries to determine with any great accuracy.”

The rules for atolls and reefs in international law – already murky and subject to interpretation due to their shifting nature – will be under greater stress as sea levels rise and acidification disrupts reef integrity.

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Cold-water coral ecosystems under future ocean change: live coral performance vs. framework dissolution and bioerosion

Physiological sensitivity of cold-water corals to ocean change is far less understood than of tropical corals and very little is known about the impacts of ocean acidification and warming on degradative processes of dead coral framework. In a 13-month laboratory experiment, we examined the interactive effects of gradually increasing temperature and pCO2 levels on survival, growth, and respiration of two prominent color morphotypes (colormorphs) of the framework-forming cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, as well as bioerosion and dissolution of dead framework. Calcification rates tended to increase with warming, showing temperature optima at ~ 14°C (white colormorph) and 10–12°C (orange colormorph) and decreased with increasing pCO2. Net dissolution occurred at aragonite undersaturation (ΩAr < 1) at ~ 1000 μatm pCO2. Under combined warming and acidification, the negative effects of acidification on growth were initially mitigated, but at ~ 1600 μatm dissolution prevailed. Respiration rates increased with warming, more strongly in orange corals, while acidification slightly suppressed respiration. Calcification and respiration rates as well as polyp mortality were consistently higher in orange corals. Mortality increased considerably at 14–15°C in both colormorphs. Bioerosion/dissolution of dead framework was not affected by warming alone but was significantly enhanced by acidification. While live corals may cope with intermediate levels of elevated pCO2 and temperature, long-term impacts beyond levels projected for the end of this century will likely lead to skeletal dissolution and increased mortality. Our findings further suggest that acidification causes accelerated degradation of dead framework even at aragonite saturated conditions, which will eventually compromise the structural integrity of cold-water coral reefs.

Continue reading ‘Cold-water coral ecosystems under future ocean change: live coral performance vs. framework dissolution and bioerosion’

Light history modulates growth and photosynthetic responses of a diatom to ocean acidification and UV radiation

To examine the synergetic effects of ocean acidification (OA) and light intensity on the photosynthetic performance of marine diatoms, the marine centric diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii was cultured under ambient low CO2 (LC, 390 μatm) and elevated high CO2 (HC, 1000 μatm) levels under low-light (LL, 60 μmol m−2 s−1) or high-light (HL, 220 μmol m−2 s−1) conditions for over 20 generations. HL stimulated the growth rate by 128 and 99% but decreased cell size by 9 and 7% under LC and HC conditions, respectively. However, HC did not change the growth rate under LL but decreased it by 9% under HL. LL combined with HC decreased both maximum quantum yield (FV/FM) and effective quantum yield (ΦPSII), measured under either low or high actinic light. When exposed to UV radiation (UVR), LL-grown cells were more prone to UVA exposure, with higher UVA and UVR inducing inhibition of ΦPSII compared with HL-grown cells. Light use efficiency (α) and maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) were inhibited more in the HC-grown cells when UVR (UVA and UVB) was present, particularly under LL. Our results indicate that the growth light history influences the cell growth and photosynthetic responses to OA and UVR.

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Environmental memory gained from exposure to extreme pCO2 variability promotes coral cellular acid–base homeostasis

Ocean acidification is a growing threat to coral growth and the accretion of coral reef ecosystems. Corals inhabiting environments that already endure extreme diel pCO2 fluctuations, however, may represent acidification-resilient populations capable of persisting on future reefs. Here, we examined the impact of pCO2 variability on the reef-building coral Pocillopora damicornis originating from reefs with contrasting environmental histories (variable reef flat versus stable reef slope) following reciprocal exposure to stable (218 ± 9) or variable (911 ± 31) diel pCO2 amplitude (μtam) in aquaria over eight weeks. Endosymbiont density, photosynthesis and net calcification rates differed between origins but not treatment, whereas primary calcification (extension) was affected by both origin and acclimatization to novel pCO2 conditions. At the cellular level, corals from the variable reef flat exhibited less intracellular pH (pHi) acidosis and faster pHi recovery rates in response to experimental acidification stress (pH 7.40) than corals originating from the stable reef slope, suggesting environmental memory gained from lifelong exposure to pCO2 variability led to an improved ability to regulate acid–base homeostasis. These results highlight the role of cellular processes in maintaining acidification resilience and suggest that prior exposure to pCO2 variability may promote more acidification-resilient coral populations in a changing climate.

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Emisión en directo de symposium high CO2 – Lima (video) (in Spanish)

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Fifth symposium on the ocean in a high-CO2 world: the latest research on ocean acidification reviewed in Lima, Peru

The Fifth Symposium on the Ocean in a High-CO2 World, hosted by the Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruíz Gallo in Lima, Peru, from 13 to 16 September, convened close to 300 researchers from all over the world to discuss the latest findings in ocean acidification research.

This Symposium series, organized every four years, is the largest scientific multi-disciplinary gathering of researchers studying ocean acidification and its consequences, from field monitoring to laboratory experiments investigating impacts on biology and ecology, to modelling future scenarios and potential impacts on society.

Supported by the Prince Albert II of Monaco Foundation, this Fifth edition brought together more than 200 researchers attending in person and 90 participating online. Discussions were organized in six different themes and parallel sessions, with more than 170 presentations and 70 poster presentations.

Monaco hosted the Second Symposium in this Symposium series in 2008, leading to the publication of the Monaco declaration, signed by 155 scientists from 26 countries. At that time, ocean acidification was poorly known. Ever since, HSH Prince Albert II of Monaco has championed awareness raising around ocean acidification, bringing the issue to the attention of His fellow political leaders.

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Plastic degradation in the ocean contributes to its acidification

Graphical abstract. Credit: Science of The Total Environment (2022).

A new study led by the Institut de Ciències del Mar (ICM-CSIC) in Barcelona has revealed that plastic degradation contributes to ocean acidification via the release of dissolved organic carbon compounds from both the plastic itself and its additives.

“Thanks to this study we have been able to prove that in highly plastic-polluted ocean surface areas, plastic degradation will lead to a drop of up to 0.5 pH units, which is comparable to the pH drop estimated in the worst anthropogenic emissions scenarios for the end of the 21st century,” points out Cristina Romera-Castillo, ICM-CSIC researcher and first author of the study, which has been published this week in the journal Science of the Total Environment.

Acidification and plastic pollution are two of the major problems facing the ocean today. Since the industrial revolution, the increase in ocean acidity has made it more difficult for some calcifying organisms, such as corals, to maintain their skeletons. Every year up to 13 million tons of plastic reach the sea.

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Abiotic plastic leaching contributes to ocean acidification

Graphical abstract.


  • Abiotic plastic degradation induces a decrease in seawater pH.
  • The pH decrease is enhanced by solar radiation.
  • It is related to the amount of leached dissolved organic carbon.
  • It is probably induced from the release of organic acids and the production of CO2.
  • Plastic leaching could produce a seawater pH decrease up to 0.5 units.


Ocean acidification and plastic pollution are considered as potential planetary boundary threats for which crossing certain thresholds could be very harmful for the world’s societies and ecosystems well-being. Surface oceans have acidified around 0.1 units since the Industrial Revolution, and the amount of plastic reaching the ocean in 2018 was quantified to 13 million metric tonnes. Currently, both ocean threats are worsening with time. Plastic leaching is known to alter the biogeochemistry of the ocean through the release of dissolved organic matter. However, its impact in the inorganic chemistry of the seawater is less studied. Here we show, from laboratory experiments, that abiotic plastic degradation induces a decrease in seawater pH, particularly if the plastic is already aged, as that found in the ocean. The pH decrease is enhanced by solar radiation, and it is probably induced from a combination of the release of organic acids and the production of CO2. It is also related to the amount of leached dissolved organic carbon, with higher acidification as leaching increases. In coastal areas, where plastic debris accumulates in large quantities, plastic leaching could lead to a seawater pH decrease up to 0.5 units. This is comparable to the projected decrease induced in surface oceans by the end of the twenty-first century for the most pessimistic anthropogenic emissions scenarios.

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Nano-ecotoxicology in a changing ocean


The ocean faces an era of change, driven in large by the release of anthropogenic CO2, and the unprecedented entry of pollutants into the water column. Nanomaterials, those particles < 100 nm, represent an emerging contaminant of environmental concern. Research on the ecotoxicology and fate of nanomaterials in the natural environment has increased substantially in recent years. However, commonly such research does not consider the wider environmental changes that are occurring in the ocean, i.e., ocean warming and acidification, and occurrence of co-contaminants. In this review, the current literature available on the combined impacts of nanomaterial exposure and (i) ocean warming, (ii) ocean acidification, (iii) co-contaminant stress, upon marine biota is explored. Here, it is identified that largely co-stressors influence nanomaterial ecotoxicity by altering their fate and behaviour in the water column, thus altering their bioavailability to marine organisms. By acting in this way, such stressors, are able to mitigate or elevate toxic effects of nanomaterials in a material-specific manner. However, current evidence is limited to a relatively small set of test materials and model organisms. Indeed, data is biased towards effects upon marine bivalve species. In future, expanding studies to involve other ecologically significant taxonomic groups, primarily marine phytoplankton will be highly beneficial. Although limited in number, the available evidence highlights the importance of considering co-occurring environmental changes in ecotoxicological research, as it is likely in the natural environment, the material of interest will not be the sole stressor encountered by biota. As such, research examining ecotoxicology alongside co-occurring environmental stressors is essential to effectively evaluating risk and develop effective long-term management strategies.

Article highlights

  • Ocean warming and acidification alter the fate and behaviour of nanomaterials, in turn altering their bioavailability and toxicity
  • Research is currently limited to a number of model materials and organisms
  • Consideration of environmental change is critical to long-term evaluation of pollutant risk in the natural environment
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Saving Nemo: extinction risk, conservation status, and effective management strategies for anemonefishes

Anemonefishes share a number of life history and ecological traits, and some unfortunate links to human-induced stress, that expose some of the 28 species to the risk of extinction. The biodiversity hotspot for anemonefishes extends across Southeast Asia to the western Pacific, including many countries where there are high levels of human impact and few effective management strategies. Anemonefish biodiversity is threatened by anemone bleaching, direct effects of ocean warming and acidification, collection for the aquarium trade, and coastal development. These risks are exacerbated by extreme habitat specialization, the mutual anemonefish–anemone relationship, low abundance, low population connectivity, small geographic ranges, and shallow depth ranges. Many species exhibit two or three of these traits, with small range species often associated with fewer anemone hosts and narrower depth ranges, exposing them to double or triple jeopardy. While all species have not been assessed by the IUCN, our detailed analysis of area of occupancy indicates that three species are extremely close to the threshold for being classified as Critically Endangered. Marine reserves have been effective in protecting species from exploitation and helping sustain marginal populations across generations, but effective population sizes are often very small and recovery can be slow. Additional management efforts need to focus on sustainable collecting practices and the protection and restoration of critical anemone habitats.

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Emisión en directo de symposium high CO2 – Lima (video) (in Spanish)

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This is CDR ep.49: MRV for ocean-based CDR methods with Dr. Jessica Cross, NOAA (video & text)

In this episode of This Is CDR, OpenAir welcomes NOAA Research Oceanographer Dr. Jessica Cross to discuss the challenges associated with measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) of ocean-based CDR methods, and how we can seek to address them in a climate-relevant time-frame.

About our Guest. –…

Dr. Jessica N. Cross is a research oceanographer with the NOAA in Seattle, WA. Her current research focuses on carbon biogeochemistry and ocean acidification in Arctic regions, and especially along the Alaskan coast. The main goal is to better understand how acidification processes interact with natural biogeochemical cycles, and eventually to detect geochemical and biological impacts of acidification in marine systems. Dr. Cross conducts her research across a variety of platforms, including ship-based measurements, moorings, and mobile autonomous platforms like gliders and drones, through NOAA’s Innovative Technology for Arctic Exploration Program. She also broadly participates in the Arctic research community through the North American Carbon Program, the Ocean Carbon Biogeochemistry Program, the Pacific Arctic Group, and the Interagency Research Policy Committee collaboration teams.

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Gregarious larval settlement mediates the responses of new recruits of the reef coral Acropora austera to ocean warming and acidification

Gregarious larval settlement represents an important window for chimera formation in reef corals, yet it remains largely unknown how aggregated settlement and early chimerism could modify the performance and responses of coral recruits under elevated temperature and pCO2. In this study, single and aggregated recruits of the broadcast spawning coral Acropora austera were exposed to contrasts of two temperatures (28 versus 30.5°C) and pCO2 levels (~500 versus 1000 μatm) for two weeks, and algal symbiont infection success, survivorship and growth were assessed. Results showed that symbiont infection success was mainly affected by temperature and recruit type, with reduced symbiont infection at increased temperature and consistently higher infection success in chimeric recruits compared to single recruits. Furthermore, although chimeric recruits with larger areal size had significantly higher survivorship in all treatments, the polyp-specific growth rates were considerably lower in chimeric entities than individual recruits. More importantly, the recruit type significantly influenced the responses of recruit polyp-specific growth rates to elevated temperature, with chimeras exhibiting lowered skeletal lateral growth under elevated temperature. These results demonstrate the benefits and costs associated with gregarious larval settlement for juvenile corals under ocean warming and acidification, and highlight the ecological role of larval settlement behavior in mediating the responses of coral recruits to climate change stressors.

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An interactive planetary boundaries systems thinking learning tool to integrate sustainability into the chemistry curriculum

Sustainability has a molecular basis that suggests a central role for chemistry in addressing today’s challenges to Earth and societal systems, and this role requires educators to see chemical reactions and processes as integral parts of dynamic and interconnected systems. Despite this prospect, few accessible resources are available for students and educators to facilitate systems thinking in chemistry for sustainability. We have developed an interactive digital learning tool ( based on the Planetary Boundaries framework, which uses interactive visualizations to help users better understand Earth system sustainability challenges and helps chemists and educators connect substances, reactions, and chemistry concepts to sustainability science. The tool highlights the fundamental role that chemistry plays in regulating the individual biophysical Earth system processes and in determining their control variables. It incorporates key features of a systems thinking framework by illustrating the dynamic interconnections among the processes and their control variables and demonstrates change of the Earth system over time. Finally, the interactive tool provides educators with accessible entry points to support the integration of chemistry curriculum content with sustainability considerations.

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