Coral reefs are built of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) produced biogenically by a diversity of calcifying plants, animals and microbes. As the ocean warms and acidifies, there is mounting concern that declining calcification rates could shift coral reef CaCO3 budgets from net accretion to net dissolution. We quantified net ecosystem calcification (NEC) and production (NEP) on Dongsha Atoll, northern South China Sea, over a two-week period that included a transient bleaching event. Peak daytime pH on the wide, shallow reef flat during the non-bleaching period was ∼8.5, significantly elevated above that of the surrounding open ocean (∼8.0-8.1) as a consequence of daytime NEP (up to 112 mmol C m−2 hr−1). Diurnal-averaged NEC was 390 ± 90 mmol CaCO3 m−2 day−1, higher than any other coral reef studied to date despite comparable calcifier cover (25%) and relatively high fleshy algal cover (19%). Coral bleaching linked to elevated temperatures significantly reduced daytime NEP by 29 mmol C m−2 hr−1. pH on the reef flat declined by 0.2 units, causing a 40% reduction in NEC in the absence of pH changes in the surrounding open ocean. Our findings highlight the interactive relationship between carbonate chemistry of coral reef ecosystems and ecosystem production and calcification rates, which are in turn impacted by ocean warming. As open-ocean waters bathing coral reefs warm and acidify over the 21st century, the health and composition of reef benthic communities will play a major role in determining on-reef conditions that will in turn dictate the ecosystem response to climate change. Continue reading ‘Community production modulates coral reef pH and the sensitivity of ecosystem calcification to ocean acidification’
Community production modulates coral reef pH and the sensitivity of ecosystem calcification to ocean acidificationPublished 19 January 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, BRcommunity, calcification, chemistry, corals, field, North Pacific, primary production
A key marine diazotroph in a changing ocean: the interacting effects of temperature, CO2 and light on the growth of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101Published 19 January 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, growth, laboratory, light, multiple factors, photosynthesis, prokaryotes, temperature
Trichodesmium is a globally important marine diazotroph that accounts for approximately 60 − 80% of marine biological N2 fixation and as such plays a key role in marine N and C cycles. We undertook a comprehensive assessment of how the growth rate of Trichodesmium erythraeum IMS101 was directly affected by the combined interactions of temperature, pCO2 and light intensity. Our key findings were: low pCO2 affected the lower temperature tolerance limit (Tmin) but had no effect on the optimum temperature (Topt) at which growth was maximal or the maximum temperature tolerance limit (Tmax); low pCO2 had a greater effect on the thermal niche width than low-light; the effect of pCO2 on growth rate was more pronounced at suboptimal temperatures than at supraoptimal temperatures; temperature and light had a stronger effect on the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) than did CO2; and at Topt, the maximum growth rate increased with increasing CO2, but the initial slope of the growth-irradiance curve was not affected by CO2. In the context of environmental change, our results suggest that the (i) nutrient replete growth rate of Trichodesmium IMS101 would have been severely limited by low pCO2 at the last glacial maximum (LGM), (ii) future increases in pCO2 will increase growth rates in areas where temperature ranges between Tmin to Topt, but will have negligible effect at temperatures between Topt and Tmax, (iii) areal increase of warm surface waters (> 18°C) has allowed the geographic range to increase significantly from the LGM to present and that the range will continue to expand to higher latitudes with continued warming, but (iv) continued global warming may exclude Trichodesmium spp. from some tropical regions by 2100 where temperature exceeds Topt.
Ocean acidification and calcium carbonate saturation states in the coastal zone of the West Antarctic PeninsulaPublished 19 January 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: Antarctic, chemistry, field
The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification; the lowering of seawater pH and carbonate mineral saturation states due to uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). High spatial variability in surface water pH and saturation states (Ω) for two biologically-important calcium carbonate minerals calcite and aragonite was observed in Ryder Bay, in the coastal sea-ice zone of the West Antarctic Peninsula. Glacial meltwater and melting sea ice stratified the water column and facilitated the development of large phytoplankton blooms and subsequent strong uptake of atmospheric CO2 of up to 55 mmol m-2 day-1 during austral summer. Concurrent high pH (8.48) and calcium carbonate mineral supersaturation (Ωaragonite ~3.1) occurred in the meltwater-influenced surface ocean. Biologically-induced increases in calcium carbonate mineral saturation states counteracted any effects of carbonate ion dilution. Accumulation of CO2 through remineralisation of additional organic matter from productive coastal waters lowered the pH (7.84) and caused deep-water corrosivity (Ωaragonite ~0.9) in regions impacted by Circumpolar Deep Water. Episodic mixing events enabled CO2-rich subsurface water to become entrained into the surface and eroded seasonal stratification to lower surface water pH (8.21) and saturation states (Ωaragonite ~1.8) relative to all surface waters across Ryder Bay. Uptake of atmospheric CO2 of 28 mmol m-2 day-1 in regions of vertical mixing may enhance the susceptibility of the surface layer to future ocean acidification in dynamic coastal environments. Spatially-resolved studies are essential to elucidate the natural variability in carbonate chemistry in order to better understand and predict carbon cycling and the response of marine organisms to future ocean acidification in the Antarctic coastal zone.
Nannoplankton malformation during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum and its paleoecological and paleoceanographic significancePublished 18 January 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, chemistry, paleo, phytoplankton
The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) is characterized by a transient group of nannoplankton, belonging to the genus Discoaster. Our investigation of expanded shelf sections provides unprecedented detail of the morphology and phylogeny of the transient Discoaster during the PETM and their relationship with environmental change. We observe a much larger range of morphological variation than previously documented suggesting that the taxa belonged to a plexus of highly gradational morphotypes rather than individual species. We propose that the plexus represents malformed ecophenotypes of a single species that migrated to a deep photic zone refuge during the height of PETM warming and eutrophication. Anomalously, high rates of organic matter remineralization characterized these depths during the event and led to lower saturation levels, which caused malformation. The proposed mechanism explains the co-occurrence of malformed Discoaster with pristine species that grew in the upper photic zone; moreover, it illuminates why malformation is a rare phenomenon in the paleontological record.
Tags: biological response, communityMF, corals, laboratory, multiple factors, performance, reproduction
Settlement cues play an essential role in larval habitat selection and influence post-settlement survival. Recent studies have investigated the impacts of elevated temperature and partial pressure of carbon dioxide ( pCO2) on the ability of marine larvae to locate the reef. In coral larvae, there has been a focus on chemical settlement cues, which are critical to successful habitat selection, but less is known about the role of spectral cues. In this study, we provided larvae with crustose coralline algae (CCA), their preferred settlement surface (and chemical cue), and either a white or a red synthetic settlement surface that simulated the wavelengths emitted by bleached and unbleached CCA, respectively. We performed these experiments under 4 temperature- pCO2 regimes to determine whether elevated temperature (+3°C) or pCO2 (900 µatm) affected how larvae respond to settlement cues. Settlement rates increased by ~85% on the synthetic surface if the background colour was red compared to white. Larvae preferentially settled on the CCA chips, since these provided both a chemical and a spectral cue. However, when most of the CCA was occupied, particularly the preferred spaces along edges and in depressions, larval settlement on the synthetic surface only occurred if it appeared red. Neither elevated temperature nor elevated pCO2 directly affected settlement rates or substrate preference, but our findings indicate that larvae could be indirectly affected by these stressors. Elevated temperatures and acidification are already known to disrupt chemical cues but may also disrupt spectral cues by causing CCA bleaching, thereby inhibiting the ability of larvae to either ‘smell’ or ‘see’ the reef.
Functional analysis of a tyrosinase gene involved in early larval shell biogenesis in Crassostrea angulata and its response to ocean acidificationPublished 18 January 2017 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, laboratory, molecular biology, mollusks, morphology
The formation of the primary shell is a vital process in marine bivalves. Ocean acidification largely influences shell formation. It has been reported that enzymes involved in phenol oxidation, such as tyrosinase and phenoloxidases, participate in the formation of the periostracum. In the present study, we cloned a tyrosinase gene from Crassostrea angulata named Ca-tyrA1, and its potential function in early larval shell biogenesis was investigated. The Ca-tyrA1 gene has a full-length cDNA of 2430 bp in size, with an open reading frame of 1896 bp in size, which encodes a 631-amino acid protein that includes a 24-amino acid putative signal peptide. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed that Ca-tyrA1 transcription mainly occurs at the trochophore stage, and the Ca-tyrA1 mRNA levels in the 3000 ppm treatment group were significantly upregulated in the early D-veliger larvae. WMISH and electron scanning microscopy analyses showed that the expression of Ca-tyrA1 occurs at the gastrula stage, thereby sustaining the early D-veliger larvae, and the shape of its signal is saddle-like, similar to that observed under an electron scanning microscope. Furthermore, the RNA interference has shown that the treatment group has a higher deformity rate than that of the control, thereby indicating that Ca-tyrA1 participates in the biogenesis of the primary shell. In conclusion, and our results indicate that Ca-tyrA1 plays a vital role in the formation of the larval shell and participates in the response to larval shell damages in Crassostrea angulata that were induced by ocean acidification.