CARIOCA project – coral reef acclimatization to ocean acidification (video; in French and in English)

In the framework of the project CARIOCA (Coral reef acclimatization to ocean acidification at CO2 seeps) funded by the French National Agency ANR, Riccardo Rodolfo-Metalpa and the team IRD Entropie investigated a new promising CO2 vents system located in Papua New Guinea.

Continue reading ‘CARIOCA project – coral reef acclimatization to ocean acidification (video; in French and in English)’

Das andere CO2-Problem (video; in German)

Wissenschaftler beenden achtjähriges Projekt zur Ozeanversauerung: Zuviel Kohlendioxid lässt weltweit die Ozeane versauern. Meeres-Forscher des Netzwerkes BIOACID warnen vor den dramatischen Auswirkungen.

Continue reading ‘Das andere CO2-Problem (video; in German)’

The future of seaweed aquaculture in a rapidly changing world

Human activities are having increasingly negative impacts on the natural environment. The rapidly expanding human population has led to a shortage of resources and the ability to support the growing population sustainably is a major challenge for the future. Coastal environments, including natural seaweed communities, provide a range of important ecosystem services. Since seaweed aquaculture beds (SABs) provide many of the services associated with natural seaweed communities they have a potential role in providing solutions such as CO2 sequestration, provision of food and the supply of useful chemicals. However, the productivity of natural seaweed communities and SABs is under threat from the rapid changes in climate that the planet is experiencing. Here we examine the likely effects of global change, in particular elevated CO2 and ocean acidification, increased temperatures and elevated levels of UVB, on the performance of seaweeds. While it is clear that rising temperatures and elevated CO2 and their interactions with other environmental factors are likely to have profound effects on macroalgal production, such effects are likely to be species dependent. We also examine the fate of organic matter from seaweeds and the potential for using SAB productivity as a contributor to blue carbon as a strategy for amelioration of increases in anthropogenic CO2 emissions. There is considerable potential for increased drawdown of CO2 by SABs, though its effectiveness in amelioration of atmospheric CO2 increase will depend on the fate of the resulting biomass.

Continue reading ‘The future of seaweed aquaculture in a rapidly changing world’

Effects of high pCO2 on early life development of pelagic spawning marine fish

The present study investigated the effect of elevated pCO2 on the development of early stages of the pelagic spawning marine fish Solea senegalensis, Diplodus sargus and Argyrosomus regius. Eggs and larvae were reared under control (pH 8.0, ~570 μatm) and two elevated pCO2 conditions (pH 7.8, ~1100 μatm; pH 7.6, ~1900 μatm) until mouth opening (3 days post-hatching). Egg size did not change with exposure to elevated pCO2, but hatching rate was significantly reduced under high pCO2 for all three species. Survival rate was not affected by exposure to increased pCO2, but growth rate was differently affected across species, with A. regius growing faster in the mid-level pCO2 treatment compared with control conditions. S. senegalensis and A. regius hatched with smaller yolk sacs under increased pCO2 but endogenous reserves of D. sargus were not affected. Otoliths were consistently larger under elevated pCO2 conditions for all the three species. Differences among egg batches and a significant interaction between batch and pCO2 suggest that other factors, such as egg quality, can influence the response to increased pCO2. Overall, the results support the occurrence of a species-specific response to pCO2, but highlight the need for cautious analysis of potential sensitivity of species from unreplicated observations.

Continue reading ‘Effects of high pCO2 on early life development of pelagic spawning marine fish’

Diversity and stability of coral endolithic microbial communities at a naturally high pCO2 reef

The health and functioning of reef-building corals is dependent on a balanced association with prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes. The coral skeleton harbours numerous endolithic microbes, but their diversity, ecological roles and responses to environmental stress, including ocean acidification (OA), are not well characterized. This study tests whether pH affects the diversity and structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic algal communities associated with skeletons of Porites spp. using targeted amplicon (16S rRNA gene, UPA and tufA) sequencing. We found that the composition of endolithic communities in the massive coral Porites spp. inhabiting a naturally high pCO2 reef (avg. pCO2 811 μatm) is not significantly different from corals inhabiting reference sites (avg. pCO2 357 μatm), suggesting that these microbiomes are less disturbed by OA than previously thought. Possible explanations may be that the endolithic microhabitat is highly homeostatic or that the endolithic micro-organisms are well adapted to a wide pH range. Some of the microbial taxa identified include nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobiales and cyanobacteria), algicidal bacteria in the phylum Bacteroidetes, symbiotic bacteria in the family Endozoicomoniaceae, and endolithic green algae, considered the major microbial agent of reef bioerosion. Additionally, we test whether host species has an effect on the endolithic community structure. We show that the endolithic community of massive Porites spp. is substantially different and more diverse than that found in skeletons of the branching species Seriatopora hystrix and Pocillopora damicornis. This study reveals highly diverse and structured microbial communities in Porites spp. skeletons that are possibly resilient to OA.

Continue reading ‘Diversity and stability of coral endolithic microbial communities at a naturally high pCO2 reef’

Aragonite saturation state in a tropical coastal embayment dominated by phytoplankton blooms (Guanabara Bay – Brazil)

Highlights

  • The spatio-temporal variations of Ωarag were studied in a highly polluted coastal embayment.
  • High values of Ωarag were prevalent in surface waters dominated by phytoplankton blooms.
  • Lowest values of Ωarag were restricted to poorly buffered waters that receive direct effluent discharges.
  • Variations of Ωarag related to biological processes override those related to the atmospheric CO2.

Abstract

The dynamics of the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) were investigated in the eutrophic coastal waters of Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil). Large phytoplankton blooms stimulated by a high nutrient enrichment promoted the production of organic matter with strong uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters, lowering the concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2aq), and increasing the pH, Ωarag and carbonate ion (CO32 ), especially during summer. The increase of Ωarag related to biological activity was also evident comparing the negative relationship between the Ωarag and the apparent utilization of oxygen (AOU), with a very close behavior between the slopes of the linear regression and the Redfield ratio. The lowest values of Ωarag were found at low-buffered waters in regions that receive direct discharges from domestic effluents and polluted rivers, with episodic evidences of corrosive waters (Ωarag < 1). This study showed that the eutrophication controlled the variations of Ωarag in Guanabara Bay.

Continue reading ‘Aragonite saturation state in a tropical coastal embayment dominated by phytoplankton blooms (Guanabara Bay – Brazil)’

Study urges global-change researchers to embrace variability

Scientists typically make every effort to keep all factors but one constant when doing an experiment. Global-change scientists might move a coral from a reef to an aquarium whose water is held 1°C higher to test the effects of the ocean warming predicted for the end of the century. Or they might decrease the water’s pH by 0.4 units to study the effects of ocean acidification.

But a new review article presents evidence that argues for a more nuanced approach to the design of these experiments—one that acknowledges and purposefully incorporates the variability inherent in nature.

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OA-ICC HIGHLIGHTS

Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book