Canary in the kelp forest

The one-two punch of warming waters and ocean acidification is predisposing some marine animals to dissolving quickly under conditions already occurring off the Northern California coast, according to a study from the University of California, Davis.

In the study, published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, researchers at the UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory raised bryozoans, also known as “moss animals,” in seawater tanks and exposed them to various levels of water temperature, food and acidity.

The scientists found that when grown in warmer waters and then exposed to acidity, the bryozoans quickly began to dissolve. Large portions of their skeletons disappeared in as little as two months.

“We thought there would be some thinning or reduced mass,” said lead author Dan Swezey, a recent Ph.D. graduate in professor Eric Sanford’s lab at the UC Davis Bodega Marine Laboratory. “But whole features just dissolved practically before our eyes.”

Continue reading ‘Canary in the kelp forest’

Interactive effects of temperature, food and skeletal mineralogy mediate biological responses to ocean acidification in a widely distributed bryozoan

Marine invertebrates with skeletons made of high-magnesium calcite may be especially susceptible to ocean acidification (OA) due to the elevated solubility of this form of calcium carbonate. However, skeletal composition can vary plastically within some species, and it is largely unknown how concurrent changes in multiple oceanographic parameters will interact to affect skeletal mineralogy, growth and vulnerability to future OA. We explored these interactive effects by culturing genetic clones of the bryozoan Jellyella tuberculata (formerly Membranipora tuberculata) under factorial combinations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2), temperature and food concentrations. High CO2 and cold temperature induced degeneration of zooids in colonies. However, colonies still maintained high growth efficiencies under these adverse conditions, indicating a compensatory trade-off whereby colonies degenerate more zooids under stress, redirecting energy to the growth and maintenance of new zooids. Low-food concentration and elevated temperatures also had interactive effects on skeletal mineralogy, resulting in skeletal calcite with higher concentrations of magnesium, which readily dissolved under high CO2. For taxa that weakly regulate skeletal magnesium concentration, skeletal dissolution may be a more widespread phenomenon than is currently documented and is a growing concern as oceans continue to warm and acidify.

Continue reading ‘Interactive effects of temperature, food and skeletal mineralogy mediate biological responses to ocean acidification in a widely distributed bryozoan’

Effects of seawater acidification and salinity alterations on metabolic, osmoregulation and oxidative stress markers in Mytilus galloprovincialis

The impacts of seawater acidification and salinity shifts on metabolism, energy reserves, and oxidative status of mussels have been largely neglected. With the aim to increase the current knowledge for the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis a 28-day chronic test was conducted during which mussels were exposed to two pH (7.8 and 7.3; both at control salinity 28) and three salinity (14, 28 and 35, at control pH, 7.8) levels. After exposure to different conditions, mussels electron transport system activity, energy reserves (protein and glycogen content) carbonic anhydrase activity, antioxidant defences and cellular damage were measured. Results obtained showed that mussels exposed to seawater acidification presented decreased metabolic capacity that may have induced lower energy expenditure (observed in higher glycogen, protein and lipids content at this condition). Low pH condition induced the increase of carbonic anhydrase activity that was related to acid-base balance, while no significant activation of antioxidant defence mechanisms was observed resulting in higher LPO. Regarding the impacts of salinity, the present study showed that at the highest salinity (35) mussels presented lower metabolic activity (also related to lower energetic expenditure) and an opposite response was observed at salinity 14. Carbonic anhydrase slightly increased at stressful salinity conditions, a mechanism of homeostasis maintenance. Lower metabolic activity at the highest salinity, probably related to valves closure, helped to mitigate the increase of LPO in this condition. At low salinity (14), despite an increase of antioxidant enzymes activity, LPO increased, probably as a result of ROS overproduction from higher electron transport system activity. The present findings demonstrated that Mytilus galloprovincialis oxidative status and metabolic capacity were negatively affected by low pH and salinity changes, with alterations that may lead to physiological impairments namely on mussels reproductive output, growth performance and resistance to disease, with ecological and economic implications.

Continue reading ‘Effects of seawater acidification and salinity alterations on metabolic, osmoregulation and oxidative stress markers in Mytilus galloprovincialis’

High pCO2 and elevated temperature reduce survival and alter development in early life stages of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus

Elevated temperature (ocean warming) and reduced oceanic pH (ocean acidification) are products of increased atmospheric pCO2, and have been shown in many marine taxa to alter morphology, impede development, and reduce fitness. Here, we investigated the effects of high pCO2 and elevated temperature on developmental rate, hatching success, and veliger morphology of embryos of the tropical sea hare, Stylocheilus striatus. Exposure to high pCO2 resulted in significant developmental delays, postponing hatching by nearly 24 h, whereas exposure to elevated temperature (in isolation or in combination with high pCO2) resulted in accelerated development, with larvae reaching several developmental stages approximately 48 h in advance of controls. Hatching success was reduced by ~20 and 55% under high pCO2 and warming, respectively, while simultaneous exposure to both conditions resulted in a nearly additive 70% reduction in hatching. In addition to these ontological and lethal effects, exposure of embryos to climate change stressors resulted in significant morphological effects. Larval shells were nearly 40% smaller under high pCO2 and warming in isolation and up to 53% smaller under multi-stressor conditions. In general, elevated temperature had the largest impact on development, with temperature-effects nearly 3.5-times the magnitude of high pCO2-effects. These results indicate that oceanic conditions congruent with climate change predictions for the end of the twenty-first century suppress successful development in S. striatus embryos, potentially reducing their viability as pelagic larvae.

Continue reading ‘High pCO2 and elevated temperature reduce survival and alter development in early life stages of the tropical sea hare Stylocheilus striatus’

Variable response to warming and ocean acidification by bacterial processes in different plankton communities

Extracellular bacterial enzymes play an important role in the degradation of organic matter in the surface ocean but are sensitive to changes in pH and temperature. This study tested the individual and combined effects of lower pH (-0.3) and warming (+3°C) projected for the year 2100 on bacterial abundance, process rates and diversity in plankton communities of differing composition from 4 locations east of New Zealand. Variation was observed in magnitude and temporal response between the different communities during 5 to 6 day incubations. Leucine aminopeptidase activity showed the strongest response, with an increase in potential activity under low pH alone and in combination with elevated temperature in 3 of 4 incubations. Temperature had a greater effect on bacterial cell numbers and protein synthesis, with stronger responses in the elevated temperature and combined treatments. However, the most common interactive effect between temperature and pH was antagonistic, with lower bacterial secondary production in the combined treatment relative to elevated temperature, and lower leucine aminopeptidase activity in the combined treatment relative to low pH. These results highlight the variability of responses to and interactions of environmental drivers, and the importance of considering these in experimental studies and prognostic models of microbial responses to climate change.

Continue reading ‘Variable response to warming and ocean acidification by bacterial processes in different plankton communities’

Trophic transfer of essential elements in the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris in the context of ocean acidification

Little information exists on the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on the digestive and post-digestive processes in marine fish. Here, we investigated OA impacts (Δ pH = 0.5) on the trophic transfer of select trace elements in the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris using radiotracer techniques. Assimilation efficiencies of three essential elements (Co, Mn and Zn) as well as their other short-term and long-term kinetic parameters in juvenile clownfish were not affected by this experimental pH change. In complement, their stomach pH during digestion were not affected by the variation in seawater pH. Such observations suggest that OA impacts do not affect element assimilation in these fish. This apparent pCO2 tolerance may imply that clownfish have the ability to self-regulate pH shifts in their digestive tract, or that they can metabolically accommodate such shifts. Such results are important to accurately assess future OA impacts on diverse marine biota, as such impacts are highly species specific, complex, and may be modulated by species-specific metabolic processes.

Continue reading ‘Trophic transfer of essential elements in the clownfish Amphiprion ocellaris in the context of ocean acidification’

Noses baffled by ocean acidification

Smell is like noise, the more scents we breathe in one sniff, the more difficult it is to distinguish them to the point of olfactory saturation. Experimental work with clownfish reveals that the increase in dissolved carbon dioxide in seawater, mimicking ocean acidification, alters olfactory physiology, with potential cascading effects on the demography of species.

Places such as a restaurant, a hospital or a library have a characteristic bouquet, and we can guess the emotional state of other people by their scents. Smell is critical between predators and prey of many species because both have evolved to detect each other without the aid of vision. At sea, the smell of predators dissolves in water during detection, attack, capture, and ingestion of prey, and many fishes use this information to assess the risk of ending up crunched by enemy teeth (1, 2). But predator-prey interactionscan be modified by changes in the chemical composition of seawater and are therefore highly sensitive to ongoing ocean acidification (see global measuring network here).

Continue reading ‘Noses baffled by ocean acidification’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book