Posts Tagged 'abundance'

Clam feeding plasticity reduces herbivore vulnerability to ocean warming and acidification

Ocean warming and acidification affect species populations, but how interactions within communities are affected and how this translates into ecosystem functioning and resilience remain poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that experimental ocean warming and acidification significantly alters the interaction network among porewater nutrients, primary producers, herbivores and burrowing invertebrates in a seafloor sediment community, and is linked to behavioural plasticity in the clam Scrobicularia plana. Warming and acidification induced a shift in the clam’s feeding mode from predominantly suspension feeding under ambient conditions to deposit feeding with cascading effects on nutrient supply to primary producers. Surface-dwelling invertebrates were more tolerant to warming and acidification in the presence of S. plana, most probably due to the stimulatory effect of the clam on their microalgal food resources. This study demonstrates that predictions of population resilience to climate change require consideration of non-lethal effects such as behavioural changes of key species.

Continue reading ‘Clam feeding plasticity reduces herbivore vulnerability to ocean warming and acidification’

A meta-analysis of microcosm experiments shows that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in polar waters is insensitive to ocean acidification

Emissions of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the polar oceans play a key role in atmospheric processes and climate. Therefore, it is important to increase our understanding of how DMS production in these regions may respond to climate change. The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). However, our understanding of the polar DMS response is limited to two studies conducted in Arctic waters, where in both cases DMS concentrations decreased with increasing acidity. Here, we report on our findings from seven summertime shipboard microcosm experiments undertaken in a variety of locations in the Arctic Ocean and Southern Ocean. These experiments reveal no significant effects of short-term OA on the net production of DMS by planktonic communities. This is in contrast to similar experiments from temperate north-western European shelf waters where surface ocean communities responded to OA with significant increases in dissolved DMS concentrations. A meta-analysis of the findings from both temperate and polar waters (n=18 experiments) reveals clear regional differences in the DMS response to OA. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the differences in DMS response between temperate and polar waters reflect the natural variability in carbonate chemistry to which the respective communities of each region may already be adapted. If so, future temperate oceans could be more sensitive to OA, resulting in an increase in DMS emissions to the atmosphere, whilst perhaps surprisingly DMS emissions from the polar oceans may remain relatively unchanged. By demonstrating that DMS emissions from geographically distinct regions may vary in their response to OA, our results may facilitate a better understanding of Earth’s future climate. Our study suggests that the way in which processes that generate DMS respond to OA may be regionally distinct, and this should be taken into account in predicting future DMS emissions and their influence on Earth’s climate.

Continue reading ‘A meta-analysis of microcosm experiments shows that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in polar waters is insensitive to ocean acidification’

Aragonite pteropod abundance and preservation records from the Maldives, equatorial Indian Ocean: inferences on past oceanic carbonate saturation and dissolution events

Highlights

• 1.2 Myr record of pteropod abundance/preservation variations from the Maldives

• Periods of enhanced ventilation during MIS 8, 3, 2 and MIS 14-13, 6-5 transitions

• MBDI marked by very poor preservation of pteropods during MIS 13 to 11

• Seawater carbonate chemistry plays a role in shell calcification.

• Glacial periods, MIS 16, 14, 6, 4, 2 are marked by larger and pristine shells.

Abstract

During the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 359, a long continuous carbonate-rich sequence was recovered from the Inner Sea of Maldives. We investigated pteropod proxies (absolute abundance of pteropods species, total pteropods, epipelagic to mesopelagic ratio, fragmentation ratio, Limacina Dissolution Index (LDX), mean shell size variations of L. inflata) from Sites U1467 (water depth: 487 m) and U1468 (water depth: 521 m) to understand both surface and sub-surface paleoceanographic changes in the equatorial Indian Ocean and to improve our understanding of the factors responsible for pteropod preservation on longer timescales. A total of 15 species of pteropods were identified, and their downcore variations were documented from the core top to 707.49 mbsf in U1467 and from 447.4 to 846.92 mbsf in U1468. At the Site U1467, pteropod shells show high abundances/preservation up to a depth of 45 mbsf (~1.2 Ma), which is consistent with the presence of aragonite content in sediments (with the top 50 m bearing high aragonite content). Beyond 45 mbsf, only fragmented pteropod shells were seen down to 50 mbsf (corresponding to 1.5 Ma) followed by a total absence of pteropod shells and fragments from 50 mbsf (~1.5 Ma) to the end of the core at 846.92 mbsf (~24 Ma). A decrease in the SO42ˉconcentration and alkalinity in the interstitial fluid geochemistry is seen at these depths. The presence of dolomite content below 50 mbsf also indicates the alteration of aragonite into dolomite. Analyses of the carbonate preservation proxies reveal that the pteropods exhibit considerable fluctuation in abundance/preservation during the last 1.2 Myr. A good to moderate preservation (LDX: 2 to 3) is seen which correlates well with the fragmentation ratio but with an inverse relation with calcification rate. The proxies for in-life pteropod shell dissolution (average size of L. inflata and LDX) indicate that glacial periods (MIS 16, 14, 6, 4 and 2) have shown no signs of dissolution pointing better calcification under aragonite-saturated water column which is in good correlation with reduced atmospheric CO₂ concentration. Epipelagic/mesopelagic ratio indicates that the water column exhibited enhanced ventilation and mixing during glacial to interglacial periods, but intervals of intense stratification, a sign of poor ventilation or weakened circulation, was prevalent beyond MIS 14. The longest interval of poorest preservation was marked during MIS 11 and 13, which corresponds to the ‘Mid-Brunhes Dissolution Interval (MBDI).’ On a longer time scale, the abundances/preservation of pteropods in the Maldives seems to be controlled by changes in the seawater chemistry associated with monsoon productivity, water column ventilation, and atmospheric CO2 concentration.

Continue reading ‘Aragonite pteropod abundance and preservation records from the Maldives, equatorial Indian Ocean: inferences on past oceanic carbonate saturation and dissolution events’

Experimental acidification increases susceptibility of Mercenaria mercenaria to infection by Vibrio species

Highlights

• Clams in high pCO2/low pH were more susceptible to infection by pathogenic Vibrios.

• Growth and abundance of Vibrio spp. were greater under high pCO2/low pH.

• Clams reared under high pCO2/low pH seemed to have a broad tolerance range for pH.

• Long-term effect of acidification and susceptibility to vibriosis is understudied.

Abstract

Ocean acidification alters seawater carbonate chemistry, which can have detrimental impacts for calcifying organisms such as bivalves. This study investigated the physiological cost of resilience to acidification in Mercenaria mercenaria, with a focus on overall immune performance following exposure to Vibrio spp. Larval and juvenile clams reared in seawater with high pCO2 (∼1200 ppm) displayed an enhanced susceptibility to bacterial pathogens. Higher susceptibility to infection in clams grown under acidified conditions was derived from a lower immunity to infection more so than an increase in growth of bacteria under high pCO2. A reciprocal transplant of juvenile clams demonstrated the highest mortality amongst animals transplanted from low pCO2/high pH to high pCO2/low pH conditions and then exposed to bacterial pathogens. Collectively, these results suggest that increased pCO2 will result in immunocompromised larvae and juveniles, which could have complex and pernicious effects on hard clam populations.

Continue reading ‘Experimental acidification increases susceptibility of Mercenaria mercenaria to infection by Vibrio species’

The effects of aragonite saturation state on hatchery-reared larvae of the greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus

The major cultured mussel species Perna canaliculus is now supported by hatchery production, providing the opportunity to explore and optimize environmental parameters to enhance production. Other cultured bivalve larvae have demonstrated performance that is directly correlated to the aragonite saturation state (Ωar) of their tank water, with low or undersaturated water being detrimental and artificially elevated Ωar enhancing productivity. Trials were, therefore, designed to specifically explore Ωar sensitivity in preveliger (0–2 days old, prodissoconch I = “PD1″) and veliger (2–21 days old, prodissoconch II = “PD2″) stages of P. canaliculus separately. For the PD1 experiment, commercial incubation tanks (control Ωar 1.9) were modified to target Ωar 0.5 or 0.8 by elevating pCO2, or 2.9, 4.5, and ∼7 by the addition of sodium carbonate. In the control environment, 72.8% ± 2.9% of fertilized eggs formed viable “D” veligers within two days; an increased yield of 82.6% ± 3.8% in Ωar 4.5 was found to be nonsignificant. In comparison, only 12.7% of the Ωar ∼7 and <1% of the Ωar 0.5 and 0.8 eggs attained the veliger stage, with the remaining underdeveloped or malformed. By 2 days postfertilization, reactive oxygen species were significantly elevated in the undersaturated treatments, whereas DNA damage, lipid hydroperoxides, and protein carbonyls were significantly higher in the Ωar 0.5 and ∼7 treatments. Antioxidant enzyme levels were significantly lower in these extreme treatments, whereas Ωar 4.5 larvae showed elevated superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and peroxidase levels. Carry-over effects persisted when veligers were transferred to control conditions, with no net recruitment from undersaturated Ωar, 29.4% of eggs surviving to pediveliger under control conditions, compared with 33.2% following Ωar 4.5 exposure or 1.9% from Ωar ∼7. In the PD2 veliger trial, linear shell growth halved in undersaturated water, but was unaffected by elevation of Ωar. Mortality rate was consistent across all treatments, suggesting relative resilience to different Ωar. It is recommended that hatcheries trial Ωar 4–4.5 enrichment in preveliger incubation water to improve yield and minimize oxidative stress. Preveliger stages present a potential survival bottleneck, and focused research exploring sensitivity to near-future ocean acidification is, therefore, needed.

Continue reading ‘The effects of aragonite saturation state on hatchery-reared larvae of the greenshell mussel Perna canaliculus’

Influence of hydro-hydrochemical factors on the biodiversity of phytoplankton in the coastal aquatoria Black Sea with enhanced anthropogenous pollution (in Russian)

The distribution of most phytoplankton representatives is significantly influenced by various hydrological and hydrochemical environmental factors. Degree of development of phytoplankton communities and their species composition can determine the level of pollution of sea water by various nutrients.

A survey was made of the coastal waters of the Black Sea, with in-creased anthropogenic pollution at 15 stations in winter period. At these stations, temperature, pH, and DOM concentration were registered and the composition of microalgae and phytoplankton cyanobacteria was studied.

The results obtained in the analysis of hydrological, hydrochemical and algological data make it possible to speak about the pronounced discreteness of abiotic environmental factors and the distribution of various phytoplankton representatives at 15 stations studied. The thermohaline structure in the water area was characterized by a pronounced temperature inversion in the cutaway part. The pH on the sea surface everywhere corresponded to its natural rate. A high degree of pollution of the waters of the entire investigated area by dissolved organic matter was noted. Using the methods of laboratory cultivation of samples, it was possible to identify the cyanobacteria component in the phytoplankton. The active development of cyanobacteria was revealed precisely at that point in the water area (station No. 8), where the local maximum of DOM content was observed. The presence in two samples (No. 13 and No. 16) of alkaliphilic cyanobacteria of the genus Rhabdodermain probably indicates a tendency for alkalization of water due to eutrophication. At stations No. 7 and No. 9, favorable conditions were established for the development of diatom algae, and at station No. 18, for unicellular green forms. In the remaining areas, the poor composition of phytoplankton largely corresponded to the data we obtained in the water area for the previous two years.

Continue reading ‘Influence of hydro-hydrochemical factors on the biodiversity of phytoplankton in the coastal aquatoria Black Sea with enhanced anthropogenous pollution (in Russian)’

Diatoms dominate and alter marine food-webs when CO2 rises

Diatoms are so important in ocean food-webs that any human induced changes in their abundance could have major effects on the ecology of our seas. The large chain-forming diatom Biddulphia biddulphiana greatly increases in abundance as pCO2 increases along natural seawater CO2 gradients in the north Pacific Ocean. In areas with reference levels of pCO2, it was hard to find, but as seawater carbon dioxide levels rose, it replaced seaweeds and became the main habitat-forming species on the seabed. This diatom algal turf supported a marine invertebrate community that was much less diverse and completely differed from the benthic communities found at present-day levels of pCO2. Seawater CO2 enrichment stimulated the growth and photosynthetic efficiency of benthic diatoms, but reduced the abundance of calcified grazers such as gastropods and sea urchins. These observations suggest that ocean acidification will shift photic zone community composition so that coastal food-web structure and ecosystem function are homogenised, simplified, and more strongly affected by seasonal algal blooms.

Continue reading ‘Diatoms dominate and alter marine food-webs when CO2 rises’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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