Posts Tagged 'community composition'

Impact of carbonate saturation on large Caribbean benthic foraminifera assemblages

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and its dissolution in seawater have reduced ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, with potential implications on calcifying organisms. To assess the response of large Caribbean benthic foraminifera to low carbonate saturation conditions, we analyzed benthic foraminifers’ abundance and relative distribution in surface sediments in proximity to low-carbonate-saturation submarine springs and at adjacent control sites. Our results show that the total abundance of large benthic foraminifera was significantly lower at the low-pH submarine springs than at control sites, although responses were species specific. The relative abundance of high-magnesium, porcelaneous foraminifera was higher than that of hyaline foraminifera at the low-pH springs due to the abundant Archaias angulatus, a chlorophyte-bearing foraminifer, which secretes a large and robust test that is more resilient to dissolution at low-calcite saturation. The different assemblages found at the submarine springs indicate that calcareous symbiont-barren foraminifera are more sensitive to the effects of ocean acidification than agglutinated and symbiont-bearing foraminifera, suggesting that future ocean acidification will likely impact natural benthic foraminifera populations.

Continue reading ‘Impact of carbonate saturation on large Caribbean benthic foraminifera assemblages’

Effect of elevated pCO2 on trace gas production during an ocean acidification mesocosm experiment (update)

A mesocosm experiment was conducted in Wuyuan Bay (Xiamen), China, to investigate the effects of elevated pCO2 on the phytoplankton species Phaeodactylum tricornutum (P. tricornutum), Thalassiosira weissflogii (T. weissflogii) and Emiliania huxleyi (E. huxleyi) and their production ability of dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), as well as four halocarbon compounds, bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), methyl bromide (CH3Br), dibromomethane (CH2Br2) and iodomethane (CH3I). Over a period of 5 weeks, P. tricornuntum outcompeted T. weissflogii and E. huxleyi, comprising more than 99% of the final biomass. During the logarithmic growth phase (phase I), mean DMS concentration in high pCO2 mesocosms (1000µatm) was 28% lower than that in low pCO2 mesocosms (400µatm). Elevated pCO2 led to a delay in DMSP-consuming bacteria concentrations attached to T. weissflogii and P. tricornutum and finally resulted in the delay of DMS concentration in the high pCO2 treatment. Unlike DMS, the elevated pCO2 did not affect DMSP production ability of T. weissflogii or P. tricornuntum throughout the 5-week culture. A positive relationship was detected between CH3I and T. weissflogii and P. tricornuntum during the experiment, and there was a 40% reduction in mean CH3I concentration in the high pCO2 mesocosms. CHBrCl2, CH3Br, and CH2Br2 concentrations did not increase with elevated chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations compared with DMS(P) and CH3I, and there were no major peaks both in the high pCO2 or low pCO2 mesocosms. In addition, no effect of elevated pCO2 was identified for any of the three bromocarbons.

Continue reading ‘Effect of elevated pCO2 on trace gas production during an ocean acidification mesocosm experiment (update)’

Rhodoliths holobionts in a changing ocean: host-microbes interactions mediate coralline algae resilience under ocean acidification

Life in the ocean will increasingly have to contend with a complex matrix of concurrent shifts in environmental properties that impact their physiology and control their life histories. Rhodoliths are coralline red algae (Corallinales, Rhodophyta) that are photosynthesizers, calcifiers, and ecosystem engineers and therefore represent important targets for ocean acidification (OA) research. Here, we exposed live rhodoliths to near-future OA conditions to investigate responses in their photosynthetic capacity, calcium carbonate production, and associated microbiome using carbon uptake, decalcification assays, and whole genome shotgun sequencing metagenomic analysis, respectively. The results from our live rhodolith assays were compared to similar manipulations on dead rhodolith (calcareous skeleton) biofilms and water column microbial communities, thereby enabling the assessment of host-microbiome interaction under climate-driven environmental perturbations.

Continue reading ‘Rhodoliths holobionts in a changing ocean: host-microbes interactions mediate coralline algae resilience under ocean acidification’

Longstanding signals of marine community structuring by winter storm wave-base

Coastal marine communities face both physical oceanographic changes and altered ecological relationships due to indirect human activities, such as climate-related changes, and direct human activities, such as extraction of wave energy as a renewable resource. Often single physical oceanographic changes and altered ecological relationships are investigated, rather than multiple potential drivers. Here we investigated the links between the structure of offshore benthic bivalve communities to multiple physical drivers including wave-base, and more traditional drivers of marine soft sediment community structure (e.g. temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, salinity, and nutrients). Our benthic bivalve community data (both modern and historical) were collected from bulk sediment box-core samples taken over a depth range of 20-70 m on the continental shelf of Newport, Oregon, USA. Environmental data were collected through CTD casts at sampling locations and through NOAA Buoy Station 46094. We used a non-linear hierarchical regression approach to look for a systematic response in the benthos. Subtidal bivalve communities structured themselves along a depth gradient with a distinct shift in species’ rank abundance at 50 m, and this shift was most strongly associated with storm wave-base. This distinct wave-driven community structure was present in both modern-day bivalve communities and century-scale historical communities, suggesting both the importance of waves and the long-standing nature of their impacts on biological communities in this system. These results emphasize potential consequences of changing wave-base on this shelf, which could occur indirectly through changing storm regimes due to anthropogenic climate change or directly through large-scale wave energy harvest.

Continue reading ‘Longstanding signals of marine community structuring by winter storm wave-base’

Effect of seawater temperature, pH, and nutrients on the distribution and character of low abundance shallow water benthic foraminifera in the Galápagos

In order to help predict the effects of anthropogenic stressors on shallow water carbonate environments, it is important to focus research on regions containing natural oceanographic gradients, particularly with respect to interactions between oceanography and ecologically sensitive carbonate producers. The Galápagos Archipelago, an island chain in the eastern equatorial Pacific, spans a natural nutrient, pH, and temperature gradient due to the interaction of several major ocean currents. Further, the region is heavily impacted by the El Niño—Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Galápagos exhibited widespread coral bleaching and degradation following the strong ENSO events of 1982–1983 and 1997–1998. These findings are coupled with reports of unusually low abundances of time-averaged benthic foraminiferal assemblages throughout the region. Foraminifera, shelled single-celled protists, are sensitive to environmental change and rapidly respond to alterations to their surrounding environment, making them ideal indicator species for the study of reef water quality and health. Here, statistical models and analyses were used to compare modern shallow water benthic foraminiferal assemblages from 19 samples spanning the Galápagos Archipelago to predominant oceanographic parameters at each collection site. Fisher α diversity indices, Ternary diagrams, Canonical Correspondence Analysis, regression tree analysis and FORAM-Index (FI; a single metric index for evaluating water quality associated with reef development) implied a combined impact from ENSO and upwelling from Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) waters to primarily impact foraminiferal abundances and drive assemblage patterns throughout the archipelago. For instance, repeated ENSO temperature anomalies might be responsible for low foraminiferal density, while chronically high nutrients and low aragonite saturation and low pH—induced by EUC upwelling and La Niña anomalies—likely inhibited post-ENSO recovery, and caused foraminiferal assemblages to exhibit a heterotrophic dominance in the southern archipelago. What resulted are low FI values in the southern collection sites, indicating environments not conducive to endosymbiont development and/or recovery.

Continue reading ‘Effect of seawater temperature, pH, and nutrients on the distribution and character of low abundance shallow water benthic foraminifera in the Galápagos’

Little lasting impact of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum on shallow marine molluscan faunas

Global warming, acidification, and oxygen stress at the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) are associated with severe extinction in the deep sea and major biogeographic and ecologic changes in planktonic and terrestrial ecosystems, yet impacts on shallow marine macrofaunas are obscured by the incompleteness of shelf sections. We analyze mollusk assemblages bracketing (but not including) the PETM and find few notable lasting impacts on diversity, turnover, functional ecology, body size, or life history of important clades. Infaunal and chemosymbiotic taxa become more common, and body size and abundance drop in one clade, consistent with hypoxia-driven selection, but within-clade changes are not generalizable across taxa. While an unrecorded transient response is still possible, the long-term evolutionary impact is minimal. Adaptation to already-warm conditions and slow release of CO2 relative to the time scale of ocean mixing likely buffered the impact of PETM climate change on shelf faunas.

Continue reading ‘Little lasting impact of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum on shallow marine molluscan faunas’

High-resolution time-series reveals seasonal patterns of planktonic fungi at a temperate coastal ocean site (Beaufort, North Carolina, USA)

There is a growing awareness of the ecological and biogeochemical importance of fungi in coastal marine systems, while highly diverse fungi have been discovered in these marine systems, still little is known about their seasonality and associated drivers in coastal waters. Here, we examined fungal communities over three years of weekly samples at a dynamic, temperate coastal site (Piver’s Island Coastal Observatory (PICO), Beaufort NC USA). Fungal 18S rRNA gene abundance, OTU richness and Shannon’s diversity exhibited prominent seasonality. Fungi 18S rRNA gene copies peak in abundance during the summer and fall, with positive correlations with chlorophyll a, SiO4 and oxygen saturation. Diversity (measured using Internal Transcribed Spacer: ITS libraries) was highest during winter and lowest during summer; it was linked to temperature, pH, chlorophyll a, insolation, salinity, and DIC. Fungal community ITS libraries were dominated throughout the year by Ascomycota with contributions from Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota and Mucoromycotina, with seasonal patterns linked to water temperature, light, and the carbonate system. Network analysis revealed that while co-occurrence and exclusion existed within fungal network, exclusion dominated the fungi and phytoplankton network, in contrast with reported pathogenic and nutritional interactions between marine phytoplankton and fungi. Compared with the seasonality of bacterial community in the same samples, the timing, extent and associated environmental variables for fungi community are unique. These results highlighted the fungal seasonal dynamics in coastal water and improve our understanding of the ecology of planktonic fungi.

Continue reading ‘High-resolution time-series reveals seasonal patterns of planktonic fungi at a temperate coastal ocean site (Beaufort, North Carolina, USA)’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book