Posts Tagged 'community composition'

Impact of ocean acidification and high solar radiation on productivity and species composition of a late summer phytoplankton community of the coastal Western Antarctic Peninsula

The Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), one of the most productive regions of the Southern Ocean, is currently undergoing rapid environmental changes such as ocean acidification (OA) and increased daily irradiances from enhanced surface‐water stratification. To assess the potential for future biological CO2 sequestration of this region, we incubated a natural phytoplankton assemblage from Ryder Bay, WAP, under a range of pCO2 levels (180 μatm, 450 μatm, and 1000 μatm) combined with either moderate or high natural solar radiation (MSR: 124 μmol photons m−2 s−1 and HSR: 435 μmol photons m−2 s−1, respectively). The initial and final phytoplankton communities were numerically dominated by the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica, with the single cells initially being predominant and solitary and colonial cells reaching similar high abundances by the end. Only when communities were grown under ambient pCO2 in conjunction with HSR did the small diatom Fragilariopsis pseudonana outcompete P. antarctica at the end of the experiment. Such positive light‐dependent growth response of the diatom was, however, dampened by OA. These changes in community composition were caused by an enhanced photosensitivity of diatoms, especially F. pseudonana, under OA and HSR, reducing thereby their competitiveness toward P. antarctica. Moreover, community primary production (PP) of all treatments yielded similar high rates at the start and the end of the experiment, but with the main contributors shifting from initially large to small cells toward the end. Even though community PP of Ryder Bay phytoplankton was insensitive to the changes in light and CO2 availability, the observed size‐dependent shift in productivity could, however, weaken the biological CO2 sequestration potential of this region in the future.

Continue reading ‘Impact of ocean acidification and high solar radiation on productivity and species composition of a late summer phytoplankton community of the coastal Western Antarctic Peninsula’

Effects of elevated CO2 on a natural diatom community in the subtropical NE Atlantic

Diatoms are silicifying phytoplankton contributing about one quarter to primary production on Earth. Ocean acidification (OA) could alter the competitiveness of diatoms relative to other taxa and/or lead to shifts among diatom species. In spring 2016, we set up a plankton community experiment at the coast of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands, Spain) to investigate the response of subtropical diatom assemblages to elevated seawater pCO2. Therefore, natural plankton communities were enclosed for 32 days in in situ mesocosms (∼8 m3 volume) with a pCO2 gradient ranging from 380 to 1140 μatm. Halfway through the study we added nutrients to all mesocosms (N, P, Si) to simulate injections through eddy-induced upwelling which frequently occurs in the region. We found that the total diatom biomass remained unaffected during oligotrophic conditions but was significantly positively affected by high CO2 after nutrient enrichment. The average cell volume and carbon content of the diatom community increased with CO2. CO2 effects on diatom biomass and species composition were weak during oligotrophic conditions but became quite strong above ∼620 μatm after the nutrient enrichment. We hypothesize that the proliferation of diatoms under high CO2 may have been caused by a fertilization effect on photosynthesis in combination with reduced grazing pressure. Our results suggest that OA in the subtropics may strengthen the competitiveness of (large) diatoms and cause changes in diatom community composition, mostly under conditions when nutrients are injected into oligotrophic systems.

Continue reading ‘Effects of elevated CO2 on a natural diatom community in the subtropical NE Atlantic’

In-situ behavioural and physiological responses of Antarctic microphytobenthos to ocean acidification

Ocean acidification (OA) is predicted to alter benthic marine community structure and function, however, there is a paucity of field experiments in benthic soft sediment communities and ecosystems. Benthic diatoms are important components of Antarctic coastal ecosystems, however very little is known of how they will respond to ocean acidification. Ocean acidification conditions were maintained by incremental computer controlled addition of high fCO2 seawater representing OA conditions predicted for the year 2100. Respiration chambers and PAM fluorescence techniques were used to investigate acute behavioural, photosynthetic and net production responses of benthic microalgae communities to OA in in-situ field experiments. We demonstrate how OA can modify behavioural ecology, which changes photo-physiology and net production of benthic microalgae. Ocean acidification treatments significantly altered behavioural ecology, which in turn altered photo-physiology. The ecological trends presented here have the potential to manifest into significant ecological change over longer time periods.

Continue reading ‘In-situ behavioural and physiological responses of Antarctic microphytobenthos to ocean acidification’

Combined effects of ocean acidification and increased light intensity on natural phytoplankton communities from two Southern Ocean water masses

The composition of phytoplankton communities plays a major role in the efficiency of the biological carbon pump and energy transfer to higher trophic levels. Phytoplankton community composition can be significantly affected by changes in environmental conditions. We investigated the effect of increased pCO2 and light intensity on natural communities from two Southern Ocean water masses, the Subtropical Frontal Zone (STFZ) and Subantarctic Surface Waters (SASW). The community in both experiments shifted to predominately dinoflagellates under high pCO2 and high light and the community composition was significantly different between both treatments at the end of the incubation. In the STFZ assemblage, the combination of increased light and pCO2 had a small positive effect on diatom, coccolithophores and picoeukaryote abundance at the beginning of the experiment while higher pCO2 alone had no or a negative effect. In the SASW assemblage, the combination of increased light and pCO2 had a negative effect on diatom abundance while lower pH/higher pCO2 alone resulted in an increase in diatom counts compared to the control. Coccolithophores grew only in the control treatment. Our results show that there are taxon-specific and locality specific differences in natural phytoplankton community responses to increased light and pCO2 within low nutrient regions.

Continue reading ‘Combined effects of ocean acidification and increased light intensity on natural phytoplankton communities from two Southern Ocean water masses’

Elevated pCO2 alters marine heterotrophic bacterial community composition and metabolic potential in response to a pulse of phytoplankton organic matter

Factors that affect the respiration of organic carbon by marine bacteria can alter the extent to which the oceans act as a sink of atmospheric carbon dioxide. We designed seawater dilution experiments to assess the effect of pCO2 enrichment on heterotrophic bacterial community composition and metabolic potential in response to a pulse of phytoplankton‐derived organic carbon. Experiments included treatments of elevated (1000 ppm) and low (250 ppm) pCO2, amended with 10 μmol L‐1 dissolved organic carbon from Emiliana huxleyi lysates, and were conducted using surface‐seawater collected from the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre. To assess differences in community composition and metabolic potential, shotgun metagenomic libraries were sequenced from low and elevated pCO2 treatments collected at the start of the experiment and following exponential growth. Our results indicate bacterial communities changed markedly in response to the organic matter pulse over time and was significantly affected by pCO2 enrichment. Elevated pCO2 also had disproportionate effects on the abundance of sequences related to proton pumps, carbohydrate metabolism, modifications of the phospholipid bilayer, resistance to toxic compounds and conjugative transfer. These results contribute to a growing understanding of the effects of elevated pCO2 on bacteria‐mediated carbon cycling during phytoplankton bloom conditions in the marine environment.

Continue reading ‘Elevated pCO2 alters marine heterotrophic bacterial community composition and metabolic potential in response to a pulse of phytoplankton organic matter’

Toxic algal bloom induced by ocean acidification disrupts the pelagic food web

Ocean acidification, the change in seawater carbonate chemistry due to the uptake of anthropogenic CO2, affects the physiology of marine organisms in multiple ways1. Diverse competitive and trophic interactions transform the metabolic responses to changes in community composition, seasonal succession and potentially geographical distribution of species. The health of ocean ecosystems depends on whether basic biotic functions are maintained, ecosystem engineers and keystone species are retained, and the spread of nuisance species is avoided2. Here, we show in a field experiment that the toxic microalga Vicicitus globosus has a selective advantage under ocean acidification, increasing its abundance in natural plankton communities at CO2 levels higher than 600 µatm and developing blooms above 800 µatm CO2. The mass development of V. globosus has had a dramatic impact on the plankton community, preventing the development of the micro- and mesozooplankton communities, thereby disrupting trophic transfer of primary produced organic matter. This has prolonged the residence of particulate matter in the water column and caused a strong decline in export flux. Considering its wide geographical distribution and confirmed role in fish kills3, the proliferation of V. globosus under the IPCC4 CO2 emission representative concentration pathway (RCP4.5 to RCP8.5) scenarios may pose an emergent threat to coastal communities, aquaculture and fisheries.

Continue reading ‘Toxic algal bloom induced by ocean acidification disrupts the pelagic food web’

Impact of carbonate saturation on large Caribbean benthic foraminifera assemblages

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and its dissolution in seawater have reduced ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, with potential implications on calcifying organisms. To assess the response of large Caribbean benthic foraminifera to low carbonate saturation conditions, we analyzed benthic foraminifers’ abundance and relative distribution in surface sediments in proximity to low-carbonate-saturation submarine springs and at adjacent control sites. Our results show that the total abundance of large benthic foraminifera was significantly lower at the low-pH submarine springs than at control sites, although responses were species specific. The relative abundance of high-magnesium, porcelaneous foraminifera was higher than that of hyaline foraminifera at the low-pH springs due to the abundant Archaias angulatus, a chlorophyte-bearing foraminifer, which secretes a large and robust test that is more resilient to dissolution at low-calcite saturation. The different assemblages found at the submarine springs indicate that calcareous symbiont-barren foraminifera are more sensitive to the effects of ocean acidification than agglutinated and symbiont-bearing foraminifera, suggesting that future ocean acidification will likely impact natural benthic foraminifera populations.

Continue reading ‘Impact of carbonate saturation on large Caribbean benthic foraminifera assemblages’


Subscribe to the RSS feed

Powered by FeedBurner

Follow AnneMarin on Twitter

Blog Stats

  • 1,178,834 hits

OA-ICC HIGHLIGHTS

Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book