Posts Tagged 'Mediterranean'

Benthic alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes in the Rhône River prodelta generated by decoupled aerobic and anaerobic processes

Estuarine regions are generally considered a major source of atmospheric CO2, as a result of the high organic carbon (OC) mineralization rates in their water column and sediments. Despite this, the intensity of anaerobic respiration processes in the sediments tempered by the reoxidation of reduced metabolites near the sediment–water interface controls the flux of benthic alkalinity. This alkalinity may partially buffer metabolic CO2 generated by benthic OC respiration in sediments. Thus, sediments with high anaerobic respiration rates could contribute less to local acidification than previously thought. In this study, a benthic chamber was deployed in the Rhône River prodelta and the adjacent continental shelf (Gulf of Lion, northwestern Mediterranean) in late summer to assess the fluxes of total alkalinity (TA) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the sediment. Concurrently, in situ O2 and pH micro-profiles, voltammetric profiles and pore water composition were measured in surface sediments to identify the main biogeochemical processes controlling the net production of alkalinity in these sediments. Benthic TA and DIC fluxes to the water column, ranging between 14 and 74 and 18 and 78 mmol m−2 d−1, respectively, were up to 8 times higher than dissolved oxygen uptake (DOU) rates (10.4±0.9 mmol m−2 d−1) close to the river mouth, but their intensity decreased offshore, as a result of the decline in OC inputs. In the zone close to the river mouth, pore water redox species indicated that TA and DIC were mainly produced by microbial sulfate and iron reduction. Despite the complete removal of sulfate from pore waters, dissolved sulfide concentrations were low and significant concentrations of FeS were found, indicating the precipitation and burial of iron sulfide minerals with an estimated burial flux of 12.5 mmol m−2 d−1 near the river mouth. By preventing reduced iron and sulfide reoxidation, the precipitation and burial of iron sulfide increases the alkalinity release from the sediments during the spring and summer months. Under these conditions, the sediment provides a net source of alkalinity to the bottom waters which mitigates the effect of the benthic DIC flux on the carbonate chemistry of coastal waters and weakens the partial pressure of CO2 increase in the bottom waters that would occur if only DIC was produced.

Continue reading ‘Benthic alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes in the Rhône River prodelta generated by decoupled aerobic and anaerobic processes’

Standing genetic variation fuels rapid adaptation to ocean acidification

Global climate change has intensified the need to assess the capacity for natural populations to adapt to abrupt shifts in the environment. Reductions in seawater pH constitute a conspicuous global change stressor that is affecting marine ecosystems globally. Here, we quantify the phenotypic and genetic modifications associated with rapid adaptation to reduced seawater pH in the Mediterranean mussel, Mytilus galloprovincialis. We reared a genetically diverse larval population in two pH treatments (pHT 8.1 and 7.4) and tracked changes in the shell-size distribution and genetic variation through settlement. Additionally, we identified differences in the signatures of selection on shell growth in each pH environment. Both phenotypic and genetic data show that standing variation can facilitate adaptation to declines in seawater pH. This work provides insight into the processes underpinning rapid evolution, and demonstrates the importance of maintaining variation within natural populations to bolster species’ adaptive capacity as global change progresses.

Continue reading ‘Standing genetic variation fuels rapid adaptation to ocean acidification’

Ocean acidification affects biological activities of seaweeds: a case study of Sargassum vulgare from Ischia volcanic CO2 vents

Highlights

  • Bioactivities of S. vulgare from Ischia CO2 vents and nearby control site were analysed.
  • Elevated DIC increases polysaccharide content in the algae at CO2 vents.
  • Algal extract from acidified population showed higher antimicrobial, and antiprotozoal activity.
  • Acidified population showed pronounced antimutagenic potential and anticancer activities.

Abstract

We utilized volcanic CO2 vents at Castello Aragonese off Ischia Island as a natural laboratory to investigate the effect of lowered pH/elevated CO2 on the bioactivities of extracts from fleshy brown algae Sargassum vulgare C. Agardh. We analysed the carbohydrate levels, antioxidant capacity, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anticancer properties and antimutagenic potential of the algae growing at the acidified site (pH ∼ 6.7) and those of algae growing at the nearby control site Lacco Ameno (pH∼8.1). The results of the present study show that the levels of polysaccharides fucoidan and alginate were higher in the algal population at acidified site. In general, extracts for the algal population from the acidified site showed a higher antioxidant capacity, antilipidperoxidation, antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, anticancer activities and antimutagenic potential compared to the control population. The increased bioactivity in acidified population could be due to elevated levels of bioactive compounds of algae and/or associated microbial communities. In this snapshot study, we performed bioactivity assays but did not characterize the chemistry and source of presumptive bioactive compounds. Nevertheless, the observed improvement in the medicinal properties of S. vulgare in the acidified oceans provides a promising basis for future marine drug discovery.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification affects biological activities of seaweeds: a case study of Sargassum vulgare from Ischia volcanic CO2 vents’

Linking internal carbonate chemistry regulation and calcification in corals growing at a Mediterranean CO2 vent

Corals exert a strong biological control over their calcification processes, but there is a lack of knowledge on their capability of long-term acclimatization to ocean acidification (OA). We used a dual geochemical proxy approach to estimate the calcifying fluid pH (pHcf) and carbonate chemistry of a Mediterranean coral (Balanophyllia europaea) naturally growing along a pH gradient (range: pHTS 8.07–7.74). The pHcf derived from skeletal boron isotopic composition (δ11B) was 0.3–0.6 units above seawater values and homogeneous along the gradient (mean ± SEM: Site 1 = 8.39 ± 0.03, Site 2 = 8.34 ± 0.03, Site 3 = 8.34 ± 0.02). Also carbonate ion concentration derived from B/Ca was homogeneous [mean ± SEM (μmol kg–1): Site 1 = 579 ± 34, Site 2 = 541 ± 27, Site 3 = 568 ± 30] regardless of seawater pH. Furthermore, gross calcification rate (GCR, mass of CaCO3 deposited on the skeletal unit area per unit of time), estimated by a “bio-inorganic model” (IpHRAC), was homogeneous with decreasing pH. The homogeneous GCR, internal pH and carbonate chemistry confirm that the features of the “building blocks” – the fundamental structural components – produced by the biomineralization process were substantially unaffected by increased acidification. Furthermore, the pH up-regulation observed in this study could potentially explain the previous hypothesis that less “building blocks” are produced with increasing acidification ultimately leading to increased skeletal porosity and to reduced net calcification rate computed by including the total volume of the pore space. In fact, assuming that the available energy at the three sites is the same, this energy at the low pH sites could be partitioned among fewer calicoblastic cells that consume more energy given the larger difference between external and internal pH compared to the control, leading to the production of less building blocks (i.e., formation of pores inside the skeleton structure, determining increased porosity). However, we cannot exclude that also dissolution may play a role in increasing porosity. Thus, the ability of scleractinian corals to maintain elevated pHcf relative to ambient seawater might not always be sufficient to counteract declines in net calcification under OA scenarios.

Continue reading ‘Linking internal carbonate chemistry regulation and calcification in corals growing at a Mediterranean CO2 vent’

Fish assemblages cope with ocean acidification in a shallow volcanic CO2 vent benefiting from an adjacent recovery area

Highlights

• pH played a role in shaping nekto-benthic fish assemblages.

• Fish diversity did not show unique spatial patterns or significant pH-relations.

• Species richness and abundance correlated with seagrass canopy, regardless of pH.

• Unexpected among-site similarity was found in the abundance of juveniles.

• The area close to low pH site seems to work as a recovery area for fish.

Abstract

Shallow CO2 vents are used to test ecological hypotheses about the effects of ocean acidification (OA). Here, we studied fish assemblages associated with Cymodocea nodosa meadows exposed to high pCO2/low pH conditions at a natural CO2 vent in the Mediterranean Sea. Using underwater visual census, we assessed fish community structure and biodiversity in a low pH site (close to the CO2 vent), a close control site and a far control site, hypothesising a decline in biodiversity and a homogenization of fish assemblages under OA conditions. Our findings revealed that fish diversity did not show a unique spatial pattern, or even significant relationships with pH, but correlated with seagrass leaf canopy. Among-site similarity was found in the abundance of juveniles, contrary to the expected impacts of OA on early life stages. However, pH seems an important driver in structuring fish assemblage in the low pH site, despite its high similarity with the close control site. This unexpected pattern may represent a combined response of fish mobility, enhanced food resources in the acidified site, and a ‘recovery area’ effect of the adjacent control site.

Continue reading ‘Fish assemblages cope with ocean acidification in a shallow volcanic CO2 vent benefiting from an adjacent recovery area’

Coralline algae in a changing Mediterranean Sea: how can we predict their future, if we do not know their present?

In this review we assess the state of knowledge for the coralline algae of the Mediterranean Sea, a group of calcareous seaweeds imperfectly known and considered highly vulnerable to long-term climate change. Corallines have occurred in the Mediterranean area for ~140 My and are well-represented in the subsequent fossil record; for some species currently common the fossil documentation dates back to the Oligocene, with a major role in the sedimentary record of some areas. Some Mediterranean corallines are key ecosystem engineers that produce or consolidate biogenic habitats (e.g., coralligenous concretions, Lithophyllum byssoides rims, rims of articulated corallines, maerl/rhodolith beds). Although bioconstructions built by corallines exist virtually in every sea, in the Mediterranean they reach a particularly high spatial and bathymetric extent (coralligenous concretions alone are estimated to exceed 2,700 km2 in surface). Overall, composition, dynamics and responses to human disturbances of coralline-dominated communities have been well-studied; except for a few species, however, the biology of Mediterranean corallines is poorly known. In terms of diversity, 60 species of corallines are currently reported from the Mediterranean. This number, however, is based on morphological assessments and recent studies incorporating molecular data suggest that the correct estimate is probably much higher. The responses of Mediterranean corallines to climate change have been the subject of several recent studies that documented their tolerance/sensitivity to elevated temperatures and pCO2. These investigations have focused on a few species and should be extended to a wider taxonomic set. Phylogeography, genomics, transcriptomics, and associated microbiomes are fields in which the information for Mediterranean corallines is very limited. We suggest that future work on Mediterranean corallines should be based on a multidisciplinary perspective combining different approaches, and that it should consist of large-scale efforts by scientists based both in western and eastern Mediterranean areas.

Continue reading ‘Coralline algae in a changing Mediterranean Sea: how can we predict their future, if we do not know their present?’

Elevated trace elements in sediments and seagrasses at CO2 seeps

Highlights
• Sandy CO2 seep sediments had higher concentration of trace elements.

• Metals can be more toxic in areas affected by CO2 acidification, with adverse effects on the sediment associated biota.

• Seagrasses element accumulation at CO2 seeps was highest in the roots.

Abstract
Seagrasses often occur around shallow marine CO2 seeps, allowing assessment of trace metal accumulation. Here, we measured Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn levels at six CO2 seeps and six reference sites in the Mediterranean. Some seep sediments had elevated metal concentrations; an extreme example was Cd which was 43x more concentrated at a seep than its reference. Three seeps had metal levels that were predicted to adversely affect marine biota, namely Vulcano (for Hg), Ischia (for Cu) and Paleochori (for Cd and Ni). There were higher-than-sediment levels of Zn and Ni in Posidonia oceanica and of Zn in Cymodocea nodosa, particularly in roots. High levels of Cu were found in Ischia seep sediments, yet seagrass was abundant, and the plants contained low levels of Cu. Differences in bioavailability and toxicity of trace elements helps explain why seagrasses can be abundant at some CO2 seeps but not others.

Continue reading ‘Elevated trace elements in sediments and seagrasses at CO2 seeps’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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