Acidification research has exploded in recent years, however, experiments testing effects of co-cycling hypoxia and pH on ecological and physiological processes are rare, despite the pervasiveness and potential importance of co-varying fluctuations in these parameters. Co-cycling dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH are difficult to precisely control, as gases used for manipulation influence both parameters. We successfully developed a LabVIEW™-based system capable of monitoring and controlling co-varying DO and pH in raw seawater flow-through aquaria. Using feedback from Oxyguard DO probes and Honeywell ion sensitive field effect transistor Durafet pH sensors, our system controls ratios of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, atmospheric air, and CO2-stripped air within a total gas flow rate through mass flow controllers, to achieve target co-cycling DO and pH values in five treatments. Our system performed well in two long-term experiments investigating effects of diel-cycling hypoxia and pH on eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) feeding, growth, fecundity, Perkinsus sp. (Dermo) infection dynamics and immune response. In our 2013 adult oyster experiment, the severe low DO treatment averaged only 0.04 mg L−1 higher than the 0.50 mg L−1 target, and the moderate hypoxia averaged only 0.05 mg L−1 higher than the 1.30 mg L−1 target over 48 d of cycles. Mean pH for the hypercapnia plateau was within 0.02 above the 7.00 target. In our 2013 spat experiment, daily minimum DO in the severe and moderate hypoxia treatments were both within 0.06 mg L−1 of the 0.50 and 1.3 mg L−1 targets, respectively; hypercapnia plateau pH values were within 0.01 of our 7.00 target.
Tags: chemistry, methods
Scientists and computer engineers at the University of Southampton have developed an interactive climate app – CO2 Modeller – which can fit in your pocket and help you to gauge the future effects of carbon emissions around key sensitivities of the Earth’s climate.
The new app, CO2 Modeller, provides an interactive tool to allow anyone – from members of the public to policy makers – to explore for themselves the implications of delaying emission reductions on their tablet or smartphone.
Using an easy-to-follow touchscreen, users of the app can review how carbon emission targets and outcomes will impact four key areas of climate change – future global warming, sea level rise, ocean acidification and CO2 concentration – over the next 85 years.
The app’s developers, from Ocean and Earth Science and Electronics and Computing Science, at the University of Southampton, believe that making climate modelling tools so accessible in this way will help us gain a greater understanding of the carbon emission targets and reduction policies proposed at international policy forums, such as the forthcoming COP21 Paris climate talks.
OA-ICC technical meeting on the management of biological response to ocean acidification data, 17-18 November 2015, MonacoPublished 26 November 2015 Meetings Leave a Comment
The IAEA Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre (OA-ICC) organized a technical meeting on the management of biological response data related to ocean acidification, focusing specifically on the discovery and access of these data via a common data portal. The meeting was hosted at the IAEA Environment Laboratories in Monaco, November 17 – 18, 2015 and was a follow-up to two previous meetings held at the facility:
- Technical meeting on the management of biological data related to ocean acidification (April 2014): https://www.iaea.org/ocean-acidification/page.php?page=2228
- Technical meeting: “Towards a GOA-ON data portal” (June 2015): http://news-oceanacidification-icc.org/2015/06/03/technical-meeting-towards-a-goa-on-data-portal-1-2-june-2015-iaea-environment-laboratories-monaco/
The meeting brought together scientific and technical experts actively involved in the dissemination or use of ocean acidification data via web based portals, and technical experts providing similar technical capabilities in support of other areas of research.
The objectives of the meeting were to:
1. Provide updates on metadata and portal activities from:
a. 2014 workshop: “Technical meeting on management of biological data related to ocean acidification: international cooperation and development of standards”
b. 2015 workshop: “Technical meeting: Towards a GOA-ON data portal”
2. Finalize the direction for addressing ocean acidification portal needs with a specific focus on biological effects data
3. Develop a plan and establish commitments for completing the portal activity
The meeting provided an opportunity for researchers to communicate the vision for what a common portal should provide, a one-stop shop for the discovery and harmonized access to ocean acidification data.
The 21st Conference of the Parties of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; COP21), will take place in Paris, 30 November to 11 December 2015. There will be many ocean-related side events, some of which will cover ocean acidification.
The following organizations and individuals will be live tweeting and/or blogging on the ocean during the conference.
Look out for the hashtag #OceanCOP21!
- Global Change Institute, University of Queensland: @GCITweet
- Scripps Institution of Oceanography: @scripps_ocean AND @ucrevelle
- Plymouth Marine Laboratory: @plymouthmarine
- LemonSea: @lemonseatron
- BIOACID project: @BIOACID_project
- Jean-Pierre Gattuso, CNRS/UPMC/IDDRI: @jpGattuso
Practical Training Course on Ocean Acidification: “How to set up relevant ocean acidification experiments with limited resources”, Mozambique, 8-12 February 2016Published 25 November 2015 Courses and training Leave a Comment
Deadline for applications: 21 December 2015!
Host institute: Inhaca Marine Biology Research Station, Inhaca Island, Mozambique
Dates: 8–12 February 2016
Organizers: The University of Gothenburg, Sweden; The Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON).
Support: This course is funded by the Ocean Science Foundation.
Purpose: To train early-career scientists and researchers from African countries entering the ocean acidification field. This course will be held with the ultimate goal to assist them in becoming able to set-up pertinent experiments on their own, avoiding typical pitfalls and ensuring comparability with other studies.
Expected outcome: Increased capacity to measure and study ocean acidification and increased networking among scientists working on ocean acidification in Africa. Initiate/deepen connections with the GOA-ON.
Scope and nature: The training will include lectures in plenary sessions but will have a strong focus on practical aspects related to setting up experimental facilities. Participants will learn techniques for carbonate chemistry manipulation and measurements as well as basis for experimental design. The course will address the challenge to set-up relevant ocean acidification experiments under financial and infrastructure constrains.
Sensitivity of Mediterranean bivalve mollusc aquaculture to climate change and ocean acidification: results from a producers’ surveyPublished 25 November 2015 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: fisheries, Mediterranean, mollusks, socio-economy
Human-induced climate change and ocean acidification are global environmental phenomena with a common driver: anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide. Both processes potentially threaten the Mediterranean bivalve mollusc aquaculture sector, which is economically relevant to several regions and countries. (…)
Effects of elevated CO2 on early life history development of the yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi, a large pelagic fishPublished 24 November 2015 Science Leave a Comment
Tags: biological response, fish, laboratory, morphology, mortality, performance, reproduction
An increasing number of studies have examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and ocean acidification on marine fish, yet little is known about the effects on large pelagic fish. We tested the effects of elevated CO2 on the early life history development and behaviour of yellowtail kingfish, Seriola lalandi. Eggs and larvae were reared in current day control (450 µatm) and two elevated CO2 treatments for a total of 6 d, from 12 h post-fertilization until 3 d post-hatching (dph). Elevated CO2 treatments matched projections for the open ocean by the year 2100 under RCP 8.5 (880 µatm CO2) and a higher level (1700 µatm CO2) relevant to upwelling zones where pelagic fish often spawn. There was no effect of elevated CO2 on survival to hatching or 3 dph. Oil globule diameter decreased with an increasing CO2 level, indicating potential effects of elevated CO2 on energy utilization of newly hatched larvae, but other morphometric traits did not differ among treatments. Contrary to expectations, there were no effects of elevated CO2 on larval behaviour. Activity level, startle response, and phototaxis did not differ among treatments. Our results contrast with findings for reef fish, where a wide range of sensory and behavioural effects have been reported. We hypothesize that the absence of behavioural effects in 3 dph yellowtail kingfish is due to the early developmental state of newly hatched pelagic fish. Behavioural effects of high CO2 may not occur until larvae commence branchial acid–base regulation when the gills develop; however, further studies are required to test this hypothesis. Our results suggest that the early stages of kingfish development are tolerant to rising CO2 levels in the ocean.