Posts Tagged 'photosynthesis'

Tidal action and macroalgal photosynthetic activity prevent coastal acidification in an eutrophic system within a semi-desert region

Highlights

  • Macroalgal photosynthesis (MP) controls daily pH variability during low tide.
  • Environmental factors control pH variability at seasonal scale.
  • Ulva lactuca photosynthetic activity increased the pH of seawater.
  • Macrotidal action and MP prevent coastal acidification in an eutrophic system.

Abstract

Nutrient input drive macroalgal blooms and increases in photosynthetic activity in coastal ecosystems. An intense macroalgal photosynthetic activity can increase the surrounding pH and it could prevent the acidification that often follows an eutrophication process. We tested this hypothesis with field sampling and experiments in a macrotidal (up to 9 m in amplitude) coastal system within a semi-desert region with contrasting eutrophic conditions and Ulva lactuca blooms in the northern Argentinean Patagonia (San Antonio Bay). Our results indicate that daily pH variability during low tide could be controlled by the photosynthetic activity of Ulva lactuca under eutrophic conditions. At seasonal scale, the pH variations were related to environmental features, particularly seawater temperature. Both environmental (i.e. high solar radiation, negligible freshwater inputs and, large tidal action) and anthropogenic nutrient inputs into the studied area promote the Ulva lactuca blooms, which in turn increases the surrounding pH in well oxygenated seawater through the intense photosynthetic activity. Our study shows that eutrophication instead of being a driver of acidification, could contribute to its prevention in well oxygenated marine coastal systems located within semi-desert regions.

Continue reading ‘Tidal action and macroalgal photosynthetic activity prevent coastal acidification in an eutrophic system within a semi-desert region’

Seasonal photophysiological performance of adult western Baltic Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae) under ocean warming and acidification

Shallow coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to intensive warming events in the last decade, threatening keystone macroalgal species such as the bladder wrack (Fucus vesiculosus, Phaeophyceae) in the Baltic Sea. Herein, we experimentally tested in four consecutive benthic mesocosm experiments, if the single and combined impact of elevated seawater temperature (Δ + 5°C) and pCO2 (1100 ppm) under natural irradiance conditions seasonally affected the photophysiological performance (i.e., oxygen production, in vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence, energy dissipation pathways and chlorophyll concentration) of Baltic Sea Fucus. Photosynthesis was highest in spring/early summer when water temperature and solar irradiance increases naturally, and was lowest in winter (December to January/February). Temperature had a stronger effect than pCO2 on photosynthetic performance of Fucus in all seasons. In contrast to the expectation that warmer winter conditions might be beneficial, elevated temperature conditions and sub-optimal low winter light conditions decreased photophysiological performance of Fucus. In summer, western Baltic Sea Fucus already lives close to its upper thermal tolerance limit and future warming of the Baltic Sea during summer may probably become deleterious for this species. However, our results indicate that over most of the year a combination of future ocean warming and increased pCO2 will have slightly positive effects for Fucus photophysiological performance.

Continue reading ‘Seasonal photophysiological performance of adult western Baltic Fucus vesiculosus (Phaeophyceae) under ocean warming and acidification’

Increased light availability modulates carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the macroalga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in response to ocean acidification

Highlights

  • The effects of light and elevated pCO2 on Gracilariopsis were examined.
  • Ocean acidification enhanced algal biomass, photosynthesis and total C/N ratios.
  • Increasing light and elevated pCO2 lowered nutritional quality of G. lemaneiformis.

Abstract

The economically important red macroalga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis has demonstrated positive ecological functions in nutrient bioextraction efficiency and high harvestable biomass, as well as being a food and agar source owing to its richness in proteins and polysaccharides. Carbon dioxide (CO2)-induced ocean acidification has resulted in mixed nutrient compound accumulations in this marine autotroph. G. lemaneiformis also experiences light variations resulting from self-shading and varied cultivation depths. Therefore, a factorial coupling experiment was conducted to examine how growth, photosynthesis performance, soluble cell components and metabolic enzyme-driven activities respond to light availability changes and CO2 enrichment. The ocean acidification enhanced the growth characteristics, total carbon/nitrogen ratios and metabolic nutrient accumulation processes in G. lemaneiformis regardless of the light level. Photosynthetic performances, including relative electron transport rate and maximum photochemical quantum yield, were increased by high pCO2 concentrations, resulting in soluble carbohydrate accumulation. The carbon and nitrogen accumulations might result from variations in carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase activities under high pCO2 conditions. The soluble protein and free amino acids contents declined in response to CO2 elevation, and this effect was more pronounced as the light intensity increased. Thus, future climate changes may cause greater algal biomass accumulations, but they may negatively affect the cell composition and nutritional quality of G. lemaneiformis.

Continue reading ‘Increased light availability modulates carbon and nitrogen accumulation in the macroalga Gracilariopsis lemaneiformis (Rhodophyta) in response to ocean acidification’

An intertidal life: combined effects of acidification and winter heatwaves on a coralline alga (Ellisolandia elongata) and its associated invertebrate community

Highlights

  • Coralline alga create a microhabitat with mitigating effect on ocean acidification
  • Temperature is the major driver of changes in the invertebrate reef community
  • Winter heatwaves and acidified conditions alter invertebrates community structure
  • Algal reef communities become dominated by opportunistic taxa

Abstract

In coastal marine ecosystems coralline algae often create biogenic reefs. These calcareous algal reefs affect their associated invertebrate communities via diurnal oscillations in photosynthesis, respiration and calcification processes. Little is known about how these biogenic reefs function and how they will be affected by climate change. We investigated the winter response of a Mediterranean intertidal biogenic reef, Ellisolandia elongate exposed in the laboratory to reduced pH conditions (i.e. ambient pH – 0.3, RCP 8.5) together with an extreme heatwave event (+1.4°C for 15 days). Response variables considered both the algal physiology (calcification and photosynthetic rates) and community structure of the associated invertebrates (at taxonomic and functional level). The combination of a reduced pH with a heatwave event caused Ellisolandia elongata to significantly increase photosynthetic activity. The high variability of calcification that occurred during simulated night time conditions, indicates that there is not a simple, linear relationship between these two and may indicate that it will resilient to future conditions of climate change.

In contrast, the associated fauna were particularly negatively affected by the heatwave event, which impoverished the communities as opportunistic taxa became dominant. Local increases in oxygen and pH driven by the algae can buffer the microhabitat in the algal fronds, thus favouring the survival of small invertebrates.

Continue reading ‘An intertidal life: combined effects of acidification and winter heatwaves on a coralline alga (Ellisolandia elongata) and its associated invertebrate community’

Viral-mediated microbe mortality modulated by ocean acidification and eutrophication: consequences for the carbon fluxes through the microbial food web

Anthropogenic carbon emissions are causing changes in seawater carbonate chemistry including a decline in the pH of the oceans. While its aftermath for calcifying microbes has been widely studied, the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on marine viruses and their microbial hosts is controversial, and even more in combination with another anthropogenic stressor, i.e., human-induced nutrient loads. In this study, two mesocosm acidification experiments with Mediterranean waters from different seasons revealed distinct effects of OA on viruses and viral-mediated prokaryotic mortality depending on the trophic state and the successional stage of the plankton community. In the winter bloom situation, low fluorescence viruses, the most abundant virus-like particle (VLP) subpopulation comprising mostly bacteriophages, were negatively affected by lowered pH with nutrient addition, while the bacterial host abundance was stimulated. High fluorescence viruses, containing cyanophages, were stimulated by OA regardless of the nutrient conditions, while cyanobacteria of the genus Synechococcus were negatively affected by OA. Moreover, the abundance of very high fluorescence viruses infecting small haptophytes tended to be lower under acidification while their putative hosts’ abundance was enhanced, suggesting a direct and negative effect of OA on viral–host interactions. In the oligotrophic summer situation, we found a stimulating effect of OA on total viral abundance and the viral populations, suggesting a cascading effect of the elevated pCO2 stimulating autotrophic and heterotrophic production. In winter, viral lysis accounted for 30 ± 16% of the loss of bacterial standing stock per day (VMMBSS) under increased pCO2 compared to 53 ± 35% in the control treatments, without effects of nutrient additions while in summer, OA had no significant effects on VMMBSS (35 ± 20% and 38 ± 5% per day in the OA and control treatments, respectively). We found that phage production and resulting organic carbon release rates significantly reduced under OA in the nutrient replete winter situation, but it was also observed that high nutrient loads lowered the negative effect of OA on viral lysis, suggesting an antagonistic interplay between these two major global ocean stressors in the Anthropocene. In summer, however, viral-mediated carbon release rates were lower and not affected by lowered pH. Eutrophication consistently stimulated viral production regardless of the season or initial conditions. Given the relevant role of viruses for marine carbon cycling and the biological carbon pump, these two anthropogenic stressors may modulate carbon fluxes through their effect on viruses at the base of the pelagic food web in a future global change scenario.

Continue reading ‘Viral-mediated microbe mortality modulated by ocean acidification and eutrophication: consequences for the carbon fluxes through the microbial food web’

Microalgal photosynthesis induces alkalization of aquatic environment as a result of H+ uptake independently from CO2 concentration – new perspectives for environmental applications

Highlights

  • Microalgae photosynthesis induces strongly H+ uptake reversing ocean acidification.
  • Water alkalization through algal H+ uptake is independent from CO2 concentration.
  • New management approaches for reversing ocean acidification using algal H+ uptake.
  • Algal H+ uptake depends on essential nutrients, cell density and light intensity.
  • Acidification of aquatic environment induces microalgal photosynthesis and growth.

Abstract

The photosynthetic process in microalgae and the extracellular proton environment interact with each other. The photosynthetic process in microalgae induces a pH increase in the aquatic environment as a result of cellular protons uptake rather than as an effect of CO2 consumption. The photosynthetic water photolysis and the reduction/oxidation cycle of the plastoquinone pool provide lumen with protons. Weak bases act as “permeant buffers” in lumen during the photosynthetic procedure, converting the ΔpH to Δψ. This is possibly the main reason for continuous light-driven proton uptake from the aquatic environment through cytosol and stroma, into the lumen. The proton uptake rate and, therefore, the microalgal growth is proportional to the light intensity, cell concentration, and extracellular proton concentration. The low pH in microalgae cultures, without limitation factors related to light and nutrients, strongly induces photosynthesis (and proton uptake) and, consequently, growth. In contrast, the mitochondrial respiratory process, in the absence of photosynthetic activity, does not substantially alter the culture pH. Only after intensification of the respiratory process, using exogenous glucose supply leads to significantly reduced pH values in the culture medium, almost exclusively through proton output. Enhanced dissolution of atmospheric CO2 in water causes the phenomenon of ocean acidification, which prevents the process of calcification, a significant process for numerous phytoplankton and zooplankton organisms, as well for corals. The proposed interaction between microalgal photosynthetic activity and proton concentration in the aquatic environment, independently from the CO2 concentration, paves the way for new innovative management strategies for reversing the ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘Microalgal photosynthesis induces alkalization of aquatic environment as a result of H+ uptake independently from CO2 concentration – new perspectives for environmental applications’

Seasonal marine carbon system processes in an Arctic coastal landfast sea ice environment observed with an innovative underwater sensor platform

Studying carbon dioxide in the ocean helps to understand how the ocean will be impacted by climate change and respond to increasing fossil fuel emissions. The marine carbonate system is not well characterized in the Arctic, where challenging logistics and extreme conditions limit observations of atmospheric CO2 flux and ocean acidification. Here, we present a high-resolution marine carbon system data set covering the complete cycle of sea-ice growth and melt in an Arctic estuary (Nunavut, Canada). This data set was collected through three consecutive yearlong deployments of sensors for pH and partial pressure of CO2 in seawater (pCO2sw) on a cabled underwater observatory. The sensors were remarkably stable compared to discrete samples: While corrections for offsets were required in some instances, we did not observe significant drift over the deployment periods. Our observations revealed a strong seasonality in this marine carbon system. Prior to sea-ice formation, air–sea gas exchange and respiration were the dominant processes, leading to increasing pCO2sw and reduced aragonite saturation state (ΩAr). During sea-ice growth, water column respiration and brine rejection (possibly enriched in dissolved inorganic carbon, relative to alkalinity, due to ikaite precipitation in sea ice) drove pCO2sw to supersaturation and lowered ΩAr to < 1. Shortly after polar sunrise, the ecosystem became net autotrophic, returning pCO2sw to undersaturation. The biological community responsible for this early switch to autotrophy (well before ice algae or phytoplankton blooms) requires further investigation. After sea-ice melt initiated, an under-ice phytoplankton bloom strongly reduced aqueous carbon (chlorophyll-a max of 2.4 µg L–1), returning ΩAr to > 1 after 4.5 months of undersaturation. Based on simple extrapolations of anthropogenic carbon inventories, we suspect that this seasonal undersaturation would not have occurred naturally. At ice breakup, the sensor platform recorded low pCO2sw (230 µatm), suggesting a strong CO2 sink during the open water season.

Continue reading ‘Seasonal marine carbon system processes in an Arctic coastal landfast sea ice environment observed with an innovative underwater sensor platform’

Partner preference in the intertidal: possible benefits of ocean acidification to sea anemone-algal symbiosis

Ocean acidification (OA) threatens many marine species and is projected to become more severe over the next 50 years. Areas of the Salish Sea and Puget Sound that experience seasonal upwelling of low pH water are particularly susceptible to even lower pH conditions. While ocean acidification literature often describes negative impacts to calcifying organisms, including economically important shellfish, and zooplankton, not all marine species appear to be
threatened by OA. Photosynthesizing organisms, in particular, may benefit from increased levels of CO2. The aggregating anemone (Anthopleura elegantissima), a common intertidal organism throughout the northeast Pacific, hosts two photosynthetic symbionts: Symbiodinium muscatinei (a dinoflagellate) and Elliptochloris marina (a chlorophyte). The holobiont, therefore, consists of both a cnidarian host and a photosymbiont that could be affected differently by the changing levels of environmental CO2. To determine the effects of OA on this important marine organism, A. elegantissima in each of four symbiotic conditions (hosting S. muscatinei, hosting E. marina, hosting mixed symbiont assemblages, or symbiont free) were subjected to one of three pCO2 levels (800 ppm, 1200 ppm, or 1800 ppm) of OA for 10 weeks. At regular intervals, gross photosynthesis and density of the symbionts, respiration rate of the hosts, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the host, and percent of organic carbon received by the host from the symbiont (CZAR) were measured. Over the 10-week period of the experiment, the densities of symbionts responded differently to an increase in pCO2, increasing in anemones hosting S. muscatinei but decreasing for those hosting E. marina. Similarly, anemones of mixed symbiont complement that started with approximately 50% of each symbiont type shifted toward a higher percentage of S. muscatinei with higher pCO2. Both gross photosynthesis and dark respiration were significantly affected by pCO2 and symbiont state, though we cannot say that the symbiontsv responded differently to increased OA. Symbiont state was a significant predictor for ROS concentration, with greatest levels seen in anemones hosting E. marina and for CZAR score, with greatest levels in anemones hosting S. muscatinei, our linear models did not reveal pCO2 as a significant factor in these responses. Together, these results suggest that S. muscatinei may benefit from elevated pCO2 levels and that A. elegantissima hosting that symbiont may have a competitive advantage under some future scenarios of ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘Partner preference in the intertidal: possible benefits of ocean acidification to sea anemone-algal symbiosis’

Ocean acidification state in the highly eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan: controls on seasonal and interannual variability

Seasonal and interannual variabilities in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), pH, and calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω) were investigated in the highly eutrophicated Tokyo Bay, Japan, based on monthly observations that were conducted from 2011 to 2017. There were large variabilities in these parameters for surface and bottom waters due to photosynthesis and respiration, respectively. Warming/cooling and freshwater input also altered the surface Ω. During the observation period, calcium carbonate undersaturation was observed twice in the anoxic bottom waters in summer. The data indicate that anaerobic remineralization under anoxic conditions lowers the Ω, causing undersaturation. These findings suggest that de-eutrophication can decelerate ocean acidification in the bottom waters of Tokyo Bay. However, if atmospheric CO2 exceeds 650 ppm, aragonite undersaturation will be a common feature in the summer bottom water, even if hypoxia/anoxia are alleviated by de-eutrophication.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification state in the highly eutrophic Tokyo Bay, Japan: controls on seasonal and interannual variability’

The combined effects of increased pCO2 and warming on a coastal phytoplankton assemblage: from species composition to sinking rate

In addition to ocean acidification, a significant recent warming trend in Chinese coastal waters has received much attention. However, studies of the combined effects of warming and acidification on natural coastal phytoplankton assemblages here are scarce. We conducted a continuous incubation experiment with a natural spring phytoplankton assemblage collected from the Bohai Sea near Tianjin. Experimental treatments used a full factorial combination of temperature (7 and 11°C) and pCO2 (400 and 800 ppm) treatments. Results suggest that changes in pCO2 and temperature had both individual and interactive effects on phytoplankton species composition and elemental stoichiometry. Warming mainly favored the accumulation of picoplankton and dinoflagellate biomass. Increased pCO2 significantly increased particulate organic carbon to particulate organic phosphorus (C:P) and particulate organic carbon to biogenic silica (C:BSi) ratios, and decreased total diatom abundance; in the meanwhile, higher pCO2 significantly increased the ratio of centric to pennate diatom abundance. Warming and increased pCO2 both greatly decreased the proportion of diatoms to dinoflagellates. The highest chlorophyll a biomass was observed in the high pCO2, high temperature phytoplankton assemblage, which also had the slowest sinking rate of all treatments. Overall, there were significant interactive effects of increased pCO2 and warming on dinoflagellate abundance, pennate diatom abundance, diatom vs. dinoflagellates ratio and the centric vs. pennate ratio. These findings suggest that future ocean acidification and warming trends may individually and cumulatively affect coastal biogeochemistry and carbon fluxes through shifts in phytoplankton species composition and sinking rates.

Continue reading ‘The combined effects of increased pCO2 and warming on a coastal phytoplankton assemblage: from species composition to sinking rate’

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