Posts Tagged 'photosynthesis'

Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthetic physiology of a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC7002

Ocean acidification due to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration and coastal eutrophication are growing global threats to affect marine organisms and ecosystem health. However, little is known about their interactive impacts on marine picocyanobacteria which contribute to a large proportion of primary production. In this study, we cultivated the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002 at ambient (380 ppmv) and high CO2 (1000 ppmv), across a range of nitrogen levels (LN, 10 μM NO3−; MN, 35 μM NO3−; HN, 110 μM NO3−). In LN media, elevated CO2 significantly decreased cellular chlorophyll a, but insignificantly affected growth rate, photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) and maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax). Nitrogen (N)-supply positively increased the growth, Fv/Fm, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and cellular carotenoids/Chl a ratios, but decreased the rETRmax in both ambient and elevated CO2 conditions. The cellular C/N ratios were significantly increased by either elevated CO2 or N-supply, and the cell size was significantly enhanced by elevated CO2, not by N-supply. In addition, we found the N-supply alone had no significant effects on the four main components of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (cDOM) in ambient CO2, while the N-supply interacted with elevated CO2 significantly decreasing the cDOM contents in the cultures. Our results indicated that elevated CO2 and N-supply interacted to alter the physiology and cellular biochemistry of Synechococcus sp. PCC7002, providing useful information for understanding the environmental adaptability of Synechococcus to coastal ocean acidification and eutrophication.

Continue reading ‘Effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen supply on the growth and photosynthetic physiology of a marine cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC7002’

Environmental controls on the growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates of a Southern Hemisphere strain of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

We conducted a series of diagnostic fitness response experiments on the coccolithophore, Emiliania huxleyi, isolated from the Subtropical Convergence east of New Zealand. Dose response curves (i.e., physiological rate vs. environmental driver) were constructed for growth, photosynthetic, and calcification rates of E. huxleyi relative to each of five environmental drivers (nitrate concentration, phosphate concentration, irradiance, temperature, and pCO2). The relative importance of each environmental driver on E. huxleyi rate processes was then ranked using a semi-quantitative approach by comparing the percentage change caused by each environmental driver on the measured physiological metrics under the projected conditions for the year 2100, relative to those for the present day, in the Subtropical Convergence. The results reveal that the projected future decrease in nitrate concentration (33%) played the most important role in controlling the growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates of E. huxleyi, whereas raising pCO2 to 75 Pa (750 ppm) decreased the calcification : photosynthesis ratios to the greatest degree. These findings reveal that other environmental drivers may be equally or more influential than CO2 in regulating the physiological responses of E. huxleyi, and provide new diagnostic information to better understand how this ecologically important species will respond to the projected future changes to multiple environmental drivers.

Continue reading ‘Environmental controls on the growth, photosynthetic and calcification rates of a Southern Hemisphere strain of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi’

Ecophysiological responses to elevated CO2 and temperature in Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Phaeophyceae)

Ocean acidification increases the amount of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) available in seawater which can benefit photosynthesis in those algae that are currently carbon limited, leading to shifts in the structure and function of seaweed communities. Recent studies have shown that ocean acidification-driven shifts in seaweed community dominance will depend on interactions with other factors such as light and nutrients. The study of interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming can help elucidate the likely effects of climate change on marine primary producers. In this study, we investigated the ecophysiological responses of Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Hudson) Papenfuss. This large brown macroalga plays an important structural role in coastal Mediterranean communities. Algae were collected from both oligotrophic and ultraoligotrophic waters in southern Spain. They were then incubated in tanks at ambient (ca. 400–500 ppm) and high CO2 (ca. 1200–1300 ppm), and at 20 °C (ambient temperature) and 24 °C (ambient temperature +4 °C). Increased CO2 levels benefited the algae from both origins. Biomass increased in elevated CO2 treatments and was similar in algae from both origins. The maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax), used to estimate photosynthetic capacity, increased in ambient temperature/high CO2 treatments. The highest polyphenol content and antioxidant activity were observed in ambient temperature/high CO2 conditions in algae from both origins; phenol content was higher in algae from ultraoligotrophic waters (1.5–3.0%) than that from oligotrophic waters (1.0–2.2%). Our study shows that ongoing ocean acidification can be expected to increase algal productivity (ETRmax), boost antioxidant activity (EC50), and increase production of photoprotective phenols. Cystoseira tamariscifolia collected from oligotrophic and ultraoligotrophic waters were able to benefit from increases in DIC at ambient temperatures. Warming, not acidification, may be the key stressor for this habitat as CO2 levels continue to rise.

Continue reading ‘Ecophysiological responses to elevated CO2 and temperature in Cystoseira tamariscifolia (Phaeophyceae)’

Nitrogen nutritional condition affects the response of energy metabolism in diatoms to elevated carbon dioxide

Marine phytoplankton are expected to benefit from enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2), attributable largely to down-regulation of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM) which saves energy resources for other cellular processes. However, the nitrogen (N) nutritional condition (N-replete vs. N-limiting) of phytoplankton may affect the responses of their intracellular metabolic processes to elevated CO2. We cultured the model diatoms Thalassiosira pseudonana, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, and Thalassiosira weissflogii at ambient and elevated CO2 levels under N-replete and N-limiting conditions. Key metabolic processes, including light harvesting, C fixation, photorespiration, respiration, and N assimilation, were assessed systematically and then incorporated into an energy budget to compare the effects of CO2 on the metabolic pathways and the consequent changes in photosynthesis and C fixation as a result of energy reallocation under the different N nutritional conditions. Under the N-replete condition, down-regulation of the CCM at high CO2 was the primary contributor to increased photosynthesis rates of the diatoms. Under N-limiting conditions, elevated CO2 significantly affected the photosynthetic photon flux and respiration, in addition to CCM down-regulation and declines in photorespiration, resulting in an increase of the C:N ratio in all 3 diatom species. In T. pseudonana and T. weissflogii, the elevated C:N ratio was driven largely by an increased cellular C quota, whereas in P. tricornutum it resulted primarily from a decreased cellular N quota. The N-limited diatoms therefore could fix more C per unit of N in response to elevated CO2, which could potentially provide a negative feedback to the ongoing increase in atmospheric CO2.

Continue reading ‘Nitrogen nutritional condition affects the response of energy metabolism in diatoms to elevated carbon dioxide’

Effects of ocean acidification on primary production in a coastal North Sea phytoplankton community

We studied the effect of ocean acidification (OA) on a coastal North Sea plankton community in a long-term mesocosm CO2-enrichment experiment (BIOACID II long-term mesocosm study). From March to July 2013, 10 mesocosms of 19 m length with a volume of 47.5 to 55.9 m3 were deployed in the Gullmar Fjord, Sweden. CO2 concentrations were enriched in five mesocosms to reach average CO2 partial pressures (pCO2) of 760 μatm. The remaining five mesocosms were used as control at ambient pCO2 of 380 μatm. Our paper is part of a PLOS collection on this long-term mesocosm experiment. Here, we here tested the effect of OA on total primary production (PPT) by performing 14C-based bottle incubations for 24 h. Furthermore, photoacclimation was assessed by conducting 14C-based photosynthesis-irradiance response (P/I) curves. Changes in chlorophyll a concentrations over time were reflected in the development of PPT, and showed higher phytoplankton biomass build-up under OA. We observed two subsequent phytoplankton blooms in all mesocosms, with peaks in PPT around day 33 and day 56. OA had no significant effect on PPT, except for a marginal increase during the second phytoplankton bloom when inorganic nutrients were already depleted. Maximum light use efficiencies and light saturation indices calculated from the P/I curves changed simultaneously in all mesocosms, and suggest that OA did not alter phytoplankton photoacclimation. Despite large variability in time-integrated productivity estimates among replicates, our overall results indicate that coastal phytoplankton communities can be affected by OA at certain times of the seasonal succession with potential consequences for ecosystem functioning.

Continue reading ‘Effects of ocean acidification on primary production in a coastal North Sea phytoplankton community’

Diurnal pH fluctuations of seawater influence the responses of an economic red macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis to future CO2-induced seawater acidification

The diurnal fluctuation of pH in costal seawater in sea-farming areas is larger than that the pH reduction induced by progressive seawater acidification by the end of this century. To best understand how seawater acidification influences the primary productivity of macroalgae in coastal waters under the pH fluctuation conditions, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, an important economical red macroalgae, was selected in our study. pH fluctuation (pH-F, high density cultivation) and pH stabilization (pH-S, low density cultivation) conditions were set to study the effects of seawater acidification on the production of G. lemaneiformis experiencing different pH fluctuation conditions. The results showed that seawater acidification significantly decreased the relative growth rate (RGR) of G. lemaneiformis grown at pH-S condition, but the enhancement of RGR was found in the pH-F-grown thalli. The similar trends were showed in the net photosynthetic rates of G. lemaneiformis. The different responses of RGR and net photosynthetic rates to seawater acidification between pH-S and pH-F conditions might be attributed to different daily pH variations. Under pH-S treatment, pH values varied < 0.2 units with all values < 8.3, indicating a relative sufficient CO2 supply. Therefore, the effect of seawater acidification was more determined by the negative effect of elevated acidity rather than positive effect of the increased CO2 supply. While under pH-F level, pH values varied > 0.6 units and it could reach 9.09 in the LC-grown thalli, suggesting limited CO2 supply as CO2 level decreases about 14.1 μmol kg− 1 (from 15.8 to 0.7 μmol kg− 1) with the increase of pH (from 8.11 to 9.09). Increased CO2 at the seawater acidification condition could significantly relieve this carbon resource limitation, resulting in the enhancement of RGR of HC-grown plants.

Statement of relevance: It can be predicted that the carbon resource limitation for high-density cultivation of G. lemaneiformis will be significantly relieved by coastal ocean acidification, resulting in the production increases in the future ocean, which can provide some reference values for the aquaculture of macroalgae.

Continue reading ‘Diurnal pH fluctuations of seawater influence the responses of an economic red macroalga Gracilaria lemaneiformis to future CO2-induced seawater acidification’

Ocean acidification changes abiotic processes but not biotic processes in coral reef sediments

In coral reefs, sediments play a crucial role in element cycling by contributing to primary production and the remineralization of organic matter. We studied how future ocean acidification (OA) will affect biotic and abiotic processes in sediments from two coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. This was investigated in the laboratory under conditions where water-sediment exchange was dominated by molecular diffusion (Magnetic Island) or by porewater advection (Davies Reef). OA conditions (+ΔpCO2: 170–900 µatm, -ΔpH: 0.1–0.4) did not affect photosynthesis, aerobic and anaerobic organic matter remineralization and growth of microphytobenthos. However, microsensor measurements showed that OA conditions reduced the porewater pH. Under diffusive conditions these changes were limited to the upper sediment layers. In contrast, advective conditions caused a deeper penetration of low pH water into the sediment resulting in an earlier pH buffering by dissolution of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). This increased the dissolution of Davis Reef sediments turning them from net precipitating (-0.8 g CaCO3 m-2 d-1) under ambient to net dissolving (1 g CaCO3 m-2 d-1) under OA conditions. Comparisons with in-situ studies on other reef sediments show that our dissolution rates are reasonable estimates for field settings. We estimate that enhanced dissolution due to OA will only have a minor effect on net ecosystem calcification of the Davies Reef flat (< 4%). However, it could decrease recent sediment accumulation rates in the lagoon by up to 31% (by 0.2–0.4 mm year-1), reducing valuable reef space. Furthermore, our results indicate that high-magnesium calcite is predominantly dissolving in the studied sediments and a drastic reduction in this mineral can be expected on Davis Reef lagoon in the near future, leaving sediments of an altered mineral composition. This study demonstrates that biotic sediment processes will likely not directly be affected by OA. Ensuing indirect effects of OA-induced sediment dissolution on biotic processes are discussed.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification changes abiotic processes but not biotic processes in coral reef sediments’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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