Posts Tagged 'photosynthesis'

Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and light on the picophytoplankton Synechococcus

Synechococcus is a major contributor to the primary production in tropic and subtropical oceans worldwide. Responses of this picophytoplankton to changing light and CO2 levels is of general concern to understand its ecophysiology in the context of ocean global changes. We grew Synechococcus sp. (WH7803), originally isolated from subtropic North Atlantic Ocean, under different PAR levels for about 15 generations and examined its growth, photochemical performance and the response of these parameters to elevated CO2 (1,000 μatm). The specific growth rate increased from 6 μmol m–2 s–1 to reach a maximum (0.547 ± 0.026) at 25 μmol m–2 s–1, and then became inhibited at PAR levels over 50 μmol m–2 s–1, with light use efficiency (α) and photoinhibition coefficient (β) being 0.093 and 0.002, respectively. When the cells were grown at ambient and elevated CO2 concentration (400 vs. 1,000 μatm), the high-CO2 grown cells showed significantly enhanced rates of electron transport and quantum yield as well as significant increase in specific growth rate at the limiting and inhibiting PAR levels. While the electron transport rate significantly increased at the elevated CO2 concentration under all tested light levels, the specific growth did not exhibit significant changes under the optimal growth light condition. Our results indicate that Synechococcus WH7803 grew faster under the ocean acidification (OA) treatment induced by CO2 enrichment only under limiting and inhibiting light levels, indicating the interactive effects and implying that the picophytoplankton respond differentially at different depths while exposing changing light conditions.

Continue reading ‘Interactive effects of elevated CO2 concentration and light on the picophytoplankton Synechococcus’

Effect of ocean acidification on bacterial metabolic activity and community composition in oligotrophic oceans, inferred from short-term bioassays

Increasing anthropogenic CO2 emissions in recent decades cause ocean acidification (OA), affecting carbon cycling in oceans by regulating eco-physiological processes of plankton. Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in carbon cycling in oceans. However, the effect of OA on bacteria in oceans, especially in oligotrophic regions, was not well understood. In our study, the response of bacterial metabolic activity and community composition to OA was assessed by determining bacterial production, respiration, and community composition at the low-pCO2 (400 ppm) and high-pCO2 (800 ppm) treatments over the short term at two oligotrophic stations in the northern South China Sea. Bacterial production decreased significantly by 17.1–37.1 % in response to OA, since bacteria with high nucleic acid content preferentially were repressed by OA, which was less abundant under high-pCO2 treatment. Correspondingly, shifts in bacterial community composition occurred in response to OA, with a high fraction of the small-sized bacteria and high bacterial species diversity in a high-pCO2 scenario at K11. Bacterial respiration responded to OA differently at both stations, most likely attributed to different physiological responses of the bacterial community to OA. OA mitigated bacterial growth efficiency, and consequently, a larger fraction of DOC entering microbial loops was transferred to CO2.

Continue reading ‘Effect of ocean acidification on bacterial metabolic activity and community composition in oligotrophic oceans, inferred from short-term bioassays’

Physiological responses of Skeletonema costatum to the interactions of seawater acidification and the combination of photoperiod and temperature (update)

Ocean acidification (OA), which is a major environmental change caused by increasing atmospheric CO2, has considerable influences on marine phytoplankton. But few studies have investigated interactions of OA and seasonal changes in temperature and photoperiod on marine diatoms. In the present study, a marine diatom Skeletonema costatum was cultured under two different CO2 levels (LC, 400 µatm; HC, 1000 µatm) and three different combinations of temperature and photoperiod length (8:16 L:D with 5 C, 12:12 L:D with 15 C, 16:8 L:D with 25 C), simulating different seasons in typical temperate oceans, to investigate the combined effects of these factors. The results showed that specific growth rate of S. costatum increased with increasing temperature and day length. However, OA showed contrasting effects on growth and photosynthesis under different combinations of temperature and day length: while positive effects of OA were observed under spring and autumn conditions, it significantly decreased growth (11 %) and photosynthesis (21 %) in winter. In addition, OA alleviated the negative effect of low temperature and short day length on the abundance of RbcL and key photosystem II (PSII) proteins (D1 and D2). These data indicated that future ocean acidification may show differential effects on diatoms in different clusters of other factors.

Continue reading ‘Physiological responses of Skeletonema costatum to the interactions of seawater acidification and the combination of photoperiod and temperature (update)’

Extreme levels of ocean acidification restructure the plankton community and biogeochemistry of a temperate coastal ecosystem: a mesocosm study

The oceans’ uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) decreases seawater pH and alters the inorganic carbon speciation – summarized in the term ocean acidification (OA). Already today, coastal regions experience episodic pH events during which surface layer pH drops below values projected for the surface ocean at the end of the century. Future OA is expected to further enhance the intensity of these coastal extreme pH events. To evaluate the influence of such episodic OA events in coastal regions, we deployed eight pelagic mesocosms for 53 days in Raunefjord, Norway, and enclosed 56–61 m3 of local seawater containing a natural plankton community under nutrient limited post-bloom conditions. Four mesocosms were enriched with CO2 to simulate extreme pCO2 levels of 1978 – 2069 μatm while the other four served as untreated controls. Here, we present results from multivariate analyses on OA-induced changes in the phyto-, micro-, and mesozooplankton community structure. Pronounced differences in the plankton community emerged early in the experiment, and were amplified by enhanced top-down control throughout the study period. The plankton groups responding most profoundly to high CO2 conditions were cyanobacteria (negative), chlorophyceae (negative), auto- and heterotrophic microzooplankton (negative), and a variety of mesozooplanktonic taxa, including copepoda (mixed), appendicularia (positive), hydrozoa (positive), fish larvae (positive), and gastropoda (negative). The restructuring of the community coincided with significant changes in the concentration and elemental stoichiometry of particulate organic matter. Results imply that extreme CO2 events can lead to a substantial reorganization of the planktonic food web, affecting multiple trophic levels from phytoplankton to primary and secondary consumers.

Continue reading ‘Extreme levels of ocean acidification restructure the plankton community and biogeochemistry of a temperate coastal ecosystem: a mesocosm study’

Phosphorus enrichment masked the negative effects of ocean acidification on picophytoplankton and photosynthetic performance in the oligotrophic Indian Ocean

Highlights

  • High pCO2 and P interactively increased the abundances of Syn, Pro and PEuks.
  • Rising pCO2 alone decreased the abundances of Syn, Pro and PEuks.
  • Elevated pCO2 alone facilitated the NPQNSV process significantly.
  • There was a strong coupling of picophytoplankton and the charge separation rates.
  • P enrichment masked the negative effects of OA on picophytoplankton and photosynthesis.

Abstract

Dynamics of picophytoplankton and photosynthesis will be inevitably impacted by changing marine environment, such as ocean acidification and nutrient supply, but related studies are very scarce. Here we cultured the picophytoplankton-dominated surface water of the oligotrophic Eastern Indian Ocean (EIO; R/V Shiyan-3, 20 March to 18 May 2019) at two levels of pCO2 (400 and 1000 ppm) and phosphate (0.05 and 1.50 µM) to investigate the interactive effects of elevated pCO2 and phosphate (P) on the dynamics of picophytoplankton and photosynthetic properties. High pCO2 and P levels interactively increased the abundances of SynechococcusProchlorococcus and picoeukaryotes by 33%, 18%, and 21%, respectively, of which high P level had a major promoting effect. Conversely, rising pCO2 alone decreased their abundances by 9%, 32%, and 46%, respectively. For the photophysiological responses in relation to the combination of high pCO2 and P levels, there was an increase in the maximum (Fv/Fm) and effective (Fq‘/Fm‘) photochemical efficiency, the electron transfer rates (ETRRCII) and the charge separation rates (JVPSII, an indicator of primary production), but a decrease in the non-photochemical quenching (NPQNSV). Elevated pCO2 alone facilitated the NPQNSV process significantly, ultimately leading to reduced light use efficiency (e.g., Fv/Fm, Fq‘/Fm‘ and ETRRCII) and primary production (JVPSII). There was a strong coupling of picophytoplankton and JVPSII, suggesting the EIO primary productivity was potentially controlled by picophytoplankton. Overall, our results indicate that the negative effects caused by ocean acidification may be masked or outweighted by the role that P availability plays in regulating growth and metabolism in this oligotrophic ecosystem.

Continue reading ‘Phosphorus enrichment masked the negative effects of ocean acidification on picophytoplankton and photosynthetic performance in the oligotrophic Indian Ocean’

Effect of environmental history on the habitat-forming kelp Macrocystis pyrifera responses to ocean acidification and warming: a physiological and molecular approach

The capacity of marine organisms to adapt and/or acclimate to climate change might differ among distinct populations, depending on their local environmental history and phenotypic plasticity. Kelp forests create some of the most productive habitats in the world, but globally, many populations have been negatively impacted by multiple anthropogenic stressors. Here, we compare the physiological and molecular responses to ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW) of two populations of the giant kelp Macrocystis pyrifera from distinct upwelling conditions (weak vs strong). Using laboratory mesocosm experiments, we found that juvenile Macrocystis sporophyte responses to OW and OA did not differ among populations: elevated temperature reduced growth while OA had no effect on growth and photosynthesis. However, we observed higher growth rates and NO3 assimilation, and enhanced expression of metabolic-genes involved in the NO3 and CO2 assimilation in individuals from the strong upwelling site. Our results suggest that despite no inter-population differences in response to OA and OW, intrinsic differences among populations might be related to their natural variability in CO2, NO3 and seawater temperatures driven by coastal upwelling. Further work including additional populations and fluctuating climate change conditions rather than static values are needed to precisely determine how natural variability in environmental conditions might influence a species’ response to climate change.

Continue reading ‘Effect of environmental history on the habitat-forming kelp Macrocystis pyrifera responses to ocean acidification and warming: a physiological and molecular approach’

Adaptation of a marine diatom to ocean acidification and warming reveals constraints and trade-offs

Highlights

  • Ocean warming is the main driver for the adaptation of a marine diatom
  • The adaptation resulting from warming can be constrained by ocean acidification
  • The adaptations to ocean acidification and warming come with trade-offs

Abstract

Ocean acidification and warming are recognized as two major anthropogenic perturbations of the modern ocean. However, little is known about the adaptive response of phytoplankton to them. Here we examine the adaptation of a marine diatom Thalassiosira weissflogiito ocean acidification in combination with ocean warming. Our results show that ocean warming have a greater effect than acidification on the growth of T. weissflogiiover the long-term selection experiment (~380 generations), as well as many temperature response traits (e.g., optimum temperatures for photosynthesis, maximal net photosynthetic oxygen evolution rates, activation energy) in thermal reaction norm. These results suggest that ocean warming is the main driver for the evolution of the marine diatom T. weissflogii, rather than oceanacidification. However, the evolution resulting fromwarming can be constrained by ocean acidification, where ocean warming did not impose any effects at high CO2level. Furthermore, adaptationsto ocean warming alone or to the combination of ocean acidification and warming comewith trade-offs by inhibiting photochemical performances. The constrains and trade-offs associated with the adaptation to ocean acidification and warming demonstrated in this study, should be considered for parameterizing evolutionary responses in eco-evolutionary models of phytoplankton dynamics in a future ocean.

Continue reading ‘Adaptation of a marine diatom to ocean acidification and warming reveals constraints and trade-offs’

Potential local adaptation of corals at acidified and warmed Nikko Bay, Palau

Ocean warming and acidification caused by the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide are now thought to be major threats to coral reefs on a global scale. Here we evaluated the environmental conditions and benthic community structures in semi-closed Nikko Bay at the inner reef area in Palau, which has high p CO 2 and seawater temperature conditions with high zooxanthellate coral coverage. This bay is a highly sheltered system with organisms showing low connectivity with surrounding environments, making this bay a unique site for evaluating adaptation and acclimatization responses of organisms to warmed and acidified environments. Seawater p CO 2 /Ω arag showed strong graduation ranging from 380 to 982 µatm (Ω arag : 1.79-3.66) and benthic coverage, including soft corals and turf algae, changed along with Ω arag while hard coral coverage did not. In contrast to previous studies, net calcification was maintained in Nikko Bay even under very low mean Ω arag (2.44). Reciprocal transplantation of the dominant coral Porites cylindrica showed that the calcification rate of corals from Nikko Bay did not change when transplanted to a reference site, while calcification of reference site corals decreased when transplanted to Nikko Bay. Corals transplanted out of their origin sites also showed the highest interactive respiration (R) and lower photosynthesis (P) to respiration (P:R). The results of this study give important insights about the potential local acclimatization and adaptation capacity of corals to different environmental conditions including p CO 2 and temperature.

Continue reading ‘Potential local adaptation of corals at acidified and warmed Nikko Bay, Palau’

Effects of ocean acidification on growth, pigment contents and antioxidant potential of the subtropical Atlantic red alga Hypnea pseudomusciformis Nauer, Cassano & M.C. Oliveira (Gigartinales) in laboratory

Marine ecosystems are subject to several modifications due to anthropogenic impacts, including ocean acidification caused by the absorption of excessive CO2 present in the atmosphere. Perspectives are for dramatic modifications in seawater pH and more than 60% of the ocean surface impacted over the next 100 years by global change. In this study, ocean acidification scenarios were simulated by CO2 enrichment into seawater in three pH levels (8.0, 7.6 and 7.2) using a bioreactor system in laboratory conditions. Experimental evaluation was performed with Hypnea pseudomusciformis Nauer, Cassano & M.C. Oliveira due to its great importance in coastal marine ecosystems for primary production and commercial interest. Contrary to our initial hypothesis, the growth rate of H. pseudomusciformis decreased significantly with decreased pH conditions, even with increased availability of CO2. The maximum quantum yield and chlorophyll a content were also negatively affected by the pH reduction, while an increase in antioxidant activity was observed, indicating physiological stress. The physiological responses to decreased pH conditions reflect the importance of species-level studies and corroborate the changes caused by the ocean acidification on the macroalgal species.

Continue reading ‘Effects of ocean acidification on growth, pigment contents and antioxidant potential of the subtropical Atlantic red alga Hypnea pseudomusciformis Nauer, Cassano & M.C. Oliveira (Gigartinales) in laboratory’

Sea‐ice microbial communities in the Central Arctic Ocean: limited responses to short‐term pCO2 perturbations

The Arctic Ocean is more susceptible to ocean acidification than other marine environments due to its weaker buffering capacity, while its cold surface water with relatively low salinity promotes atmospheric CO2 uptake. We studied how sea‐ice microbial communities in the central Arctic Ocean may be affected by changes in the carbonate system expected as a consequence of ocean acidification. In a series of four experiments during late summer 2018 aboard the icebreaker Oden, we addressed microbial growth, production of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), photosynthetic activity, and bacterial assemblage structure as sea‐ice microbial communities were exposed to elevated partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2). We incubated intact, bottom ice‐core sections and dislodged, under‐ice algal aggregates (dominated by Melosira arctica) in separate experiments under approximately 400, 650, 1000, and 2000 μatm pCO2 for 10 d under different nutrient regimes. The results indicate that the growth of sea‐ice algae and bacteria was unaffected by these higher pCO2 levels, and concentrations of DOC and EPS were unaffected by a shifted inorganic C/N balance, resulting from the CO2 enrichment. These central Arctic sea‐ice microbial communities thus appear to be largely insensitive to short‐term pCO2 perturbations. Given the natural, seasonally driven fluctuations in the carbonate system of sea ice, its resident microorganisms may be sufficiently tolerant of large variations in pCO2 and thus less vulnerable than pelagic communities to the impacts of ocean acidification, increasing the ecological importance of sea‐ice microorganisms even as the loss of Arctic sea ice continues.

Continue reading ‘Sea‐ice microbial communities in the Central Arctic Ocean: limited responses to short‐term pCO2 perturbations’

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