Posts Tagged 'reproduction'

Impacts of ocean acidification and warming on post-larval growth and metabolism in two populations of the great scallop (Pecten maximus L.) 

Ocean acidification and warming are key stressors for many marine organisms. Some organisms display physiological acclimatisation or plasticity, but this may vary across species ranges, especially if populations are adapted to local climatic conditions. Understanding how acclimatisation potential varies among populations is therefore important in predicting species responses to climate change. We carried out a common garden experiment to investigate how different populations of the economically important great scallop (Pecten maximus) from France and Norway responded to variation in temperature and pCO2 concentration. After acclimation, post-larval scallops (spat) were reared for 31 days at one of two temperatures (13°C and 19°C) under either ambient or elevated pCO2 (pH 8.0 and pH 7.7). We combined measures of proteomic, metabolic, and phenotypic traits to produce an integrative picture of how physiological plasticity varies between the populations. The proteome of French spat showed significant sensitivity to environmental variation, with 12 metabolic, structural and stress-response proteins responding to temperature and/or pCO2. Principal component analysis revealed seven energy metabolism proteins in French spat that were consistent with countering ROS stress under elevated temperature. Oxygen uptake in French spat did not change under elevated temperature, but increased under elevated pCO2. In contrast, Norwegian spat reduced oxygen uptake under both elevated temperature and pCO2. Metabolic plasticity seemingly allowed French scallops to maintain greater energy availability for growth than Norwegian spat. However, increased physiological plasticity and growth in French spat may come at a cost, as French (but not Norwegian) spat showed reduced survival under elevated temperature.

Continue reading ‘Impacts of ocean acidification and warming on post-larval growth and metabolism in two populations of the great scallop (Pecten maximus L.) ‘

Contrasting life cycles of Southern Ocean pteropods alter their vulnerability to climate change

Pteropods are a key part of biogeochemical cycling and epipelagic food webs in the Southern Ocean. However, shelled pteropods are vulnerable to climate change, due to their aragonite shells being particularly sensitive to ocean acidification. Currently our understanding of pteropod responses to environmental change is hindered by uncertainties surrounding their life cycles and population dynamics. In this study, we describe polar shelled pteropod diversity in the north-eastern Scotia Sea, inferring life history and population structures of the dominant pteropod species, Limacina rangii (formerly Limacina helicina antarctica) and Limacina retroversa. An annual timeseries of Limacina shell morphometrics was derived from individuals collected in a moored sediment trap at 400 m depth. We found that L. rangii and L. retroversa have contrasting life history strategies. L. rangii has a continuous spawning and recruitment period from November to March and can overwinter as juveniles and adults. L. retroversa has discrete spawning events from November to May, producing non–overlapping cohorts of juveniles and adults. Their development to the adult stage takes between two and five months, upon which they overwinter as adults. Our findings suggest different vulnerabilities of L. rangii and L. retroversa to a changing ocean. For example, since all life stages of L. rangii co-exist, vulnerability of one cohort is not detrimental to the stability of the overall population whereas, if one L. retroversa cohort fails to recruit, the entire population is threatened. Changes in pteropod populations could have cascading ramifications to Antarctic ecosystems and carbon cycling.

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The effects of the “deadly trio” (warming, acidification, and deoxygenation) on fish early ontogeny

The interaction between increased dissolved carbon dioxide, rising temperatures, and oxygen loss – the so-called “deadly trio” – is expected to strongly affect marine biota over the coming years, potentially undermining ocean services and uses. Nonetheless, no study has so far scrutinized the cumulative impact of these three stressors on fish embryonic and larval stages, known to be particularly vulnerable to environmental stress. To fill this knowledge gap, we implemented a fully multi-factorial design to investigate the effects of acute warming (Δ + 4°C; 22 ºC), acidification (Δ − 0.4 pH units; ~ 7.7 pCO2) and deoxygenation (Δ − 60% O2 saturation, ~ 3 mg O2 l− 1) over a comprehensive array of physiological (hatching success, survival rates, deformities rates, and heart rates) and behavioural responses (larvae responsiveness and phototaxis) across the early ontogeny of the temperate gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata). Deoxygenation was the main driver of negative impacts in the hatching success (64.25%), survival (46.71%), and heart rates (31.99%) of recently hatched larvae, being generally further exacerbated when warming and acidification co-occurred. On the other hand, acidification was the only factor to induce a significant decrease in the proportion of phototactic behaviour (50%). The behavioural and physiological responses showed to be highly correlated across experimental treatments, specifically, phototaxis was negatively correlated with the incidence of malformations, and positively correlated with heart rates. Overall, our findings indicate that the interaction between warming, acidification, and deoxygenation is markedly detrimental to fish early developmental stages, impacting several key features at this critical life stage that may eventually cause adverse carry-over effects. Importantly, our analysis highlights the need to assess the concurrent impacts of stressors’ interaction on marine taxa to better predict future ecosystem responses to ocean changes.

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Water quality and the CO2-carbonate system during the preconditioning of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in a recirculating aquaculture system

The continued increase of the demand for seed of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) has driven the aquaculture industry to produce land-based hatcheries using broodstock conditioning. This has led to the need to create closed systems to control the main factors involved in reproduction (temperature and food). Additionally, reproductive synchronization of broodstocks may be considered to ensure homogeneous maturation and spawning among the organisms. In this work, we synchronized the broodstock reproductive stage of Pacific oysters in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) using a “preconditioning” process and evaluated the effect of the water quality and the CO2-carbonate system on preconditioned broodstock. The oysters were kept at 12 °C for 45 days in a RAS containing a calcium reactor (C2) or without a calcium reactor (C1, control). Water quality parameters were measured daily, and the oyster’s condition and reproductive development were monitored using condition index, biometrics, and histology, on Days 0, 20, and 45. C1 and C2 systems kept the water quality within the ranges reported as favorable for bivalves. The calcium reactor kept the pH (8.03–8.10), alkalinity (200 mg/L as CaCO3), CO32− (≤ 80 µmol/kg), and Ω aragonite (≤ 1) closer to the ranges reported as optimal for bivalves. However, no significant differences were detected in the total weight and the condition index in C1 and C2. The preconditioning allowed to maintain the organisms in early reproductive development, allowing gametogenesis synchronization to start maturation.

Continue reading ‘Water quality and the CO2-carbonate system during the preconditioning of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) in a recirculating aquaculture system’

From marine snails to marine spatial planning : the science of human impacts and relationships with marine ecosystems

Extractive human systems are driving unprecedented biodiversity loss and exacerbating social inequity. The magnitude of the intertwined climate, biodiversity, and social inequity crises has prompted the development of interdisciplinary research approaches to address these complex problems. One such approach, social-ecological systems (SES), aims to understand the relationships between coupled human and ecological systems. This thesis applies an SES lens to understand the science of human impacts on and relationships with marine ecosystems and inform characterizations of system vulnerability. First, I examined the sensitivity of marine ectothermic animals to climate change by conducting a meta-analysis of the effects of ocean acidification and warming. My synthesis of nearly five hundred factorial studies demonstrates the negative effects of these two drivers, identifies specific taxonomic groups (molluscs), life- history traits (adults, sessile), and latitudes (tropical and temperate) that are more sensitive, and refutes two common assumptions about the drivers’ interactive effects. Next, I tested whether populations of a marine snail vary in their vulnerability to ocean warming based on thermal sensitivity and local rates of ocean warming. Using coupled lab and field experiments with snails from two regions in the middle of their range that differ in thermal characteristics, I found that snails from the warmer Salish Sea, an urban sea, showed greater vulnerability to ocean warming than those from the cooler central coast of British Columbia, Canada. Finally, to inform how humans can mitigate our impacts while sustaining complex relationships with the ocean, I partnered with the Sḵwx̲wú7mesh Úxwumixw (Squamish Nation) and regional stewardship organizations on a marine spatial planning project in the Salish Sea. I employed a mixed- methods community-based participatory mapping approach to characterize place-based values and outline opportunities to decolonize research and mapping processes. The results contribute important social data about place-based values, reveal value interactions, reflect knowledge system plurality, and identify avenues to advance reconciliation. Overall, this thesis highlights the vulnerability of marine life, particularly life within urban seas, to climate change and provides a roadmap for researchers and decision-makers to meaningfully steward the health and well-being of coastal social-ecological systems.

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How ocean warming and acidification affect the life cycle of six worldwide commercialised sea urchin species: a review

Ongoing global changes are expected to affect the worldwide production of many fisheries and aquaculture systems. Because invertebrates represent a relevant industry, it is crucial to anticipate challenges that are resulting from the current environmental alterations. In this review, we rely on the estimated physiological limits of six commercialised species of sea urchins (Loxechinus albusMesocentrotus franciscanusParacentrotus lividus, Strongylocentrotus droebachiensisStrongylocentrotus intermedius and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) to define the vulnerability (or resilience) of their populations facing ocean warming and acidification (OW&A). Considering that coastal systems do not change uniformly and that the populations’ response to stressors varies depending on their origin, we investigate the effects of OW&A by including studies that estimate future environmental mutations within their distribution areas. Cross-referencing 79 studies, we find that several sea urchin populations are potentially vulnerable to the predicted OW&A as environmental conditions in certain regions are expected to shift beyond their estimated physiological limit of tolerance. Specifically, while upper thermal thresholds seem to be respected for L. albus along the SW American coast, M. franciscanus and S. purpuratus southern populations appear to be vulnerable in NW America. Moreover, as a result of the strong warming expected in the Arctic and sub-Arctic regions, the local productivity of S. droebachiensis is also potentially largely affected. Finally, populations of S. intermedius and P. lividus found in northern Japan and eastern Mediterranean respectively, are supposed to decline due to large environmental changes brought about by OW&A. This review highlights the status and the potential of local adaptation of a number of sea urchin populations in response to changing environmental conditions, revealing possible future challenges for various local fishing industries.

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Embryonic encapsulated development of the gastropod Acanthina monodon is impacted by future environmental changes of temperature and pCO2

Egg capsules of the gastropod Acanthina monodon were maintained during the entire period of encapsulated development at three temperatures (10, 15, 20 °C) and two pCO2 levels (400, 1200 μatm). Embryos per capsule, size at hatching, time to hatching, embryonic metabolic rates, and the resistance of juveniles to shell breakage were quantified. No embryos maintained at 20 °C developed to hatching. The combination of temperature and pCO2 levels had synergistic effects on hatching time and developmental success, antagonistic effects on number of hatchlings per capsule, resistance to juvenile shell cracking and metabolism, and additive effect on hatching size. Juveniles hatched significantly sooner at 15 °C, independent of the pCO2 level that they had been exposed to, while individuals hatched at significantly smaller sizes if they had been held under 15 °C/1200 μatm rather than at 10 °C/low pCO2. Embryos held at the higher pCO2 had a significantly greater percentage of abnormalities. For capsules maintained at low pCO2 and 15 °C, emerging juveniles had less resistance to shell breakage. Embryonic metabolism was significantly higher at 15 °C than at 10 °C, independent of pCO2 level. The lower metabolism occurred in embryos maintained at the higher pCO2 level. Thus, in this study, temperature was the factor that had the greatest effect on the encapsulated development of A. monodon, increasing the metabolism of the embryos and consequently accelerating development, which was expressed in a shorter intracapsular development time, but with smaller individuals at hatching and a lower resistance of their shells to breakage. On the other hand, the high pCO2 level suppressed metabolism, prolonged intracapsular development, and promoted more incomplete development of the embryos. However, the combination of the two factors can mitigate–to some extent–the adverse effects of both incomplete development and lower resistance to shell breakage.

Continue reading ‘Embryonic encapsulated development of the gastropod Acanthina monodon is impacted by future environmental changes of temperature and pCO2’

Ocean acidification enhances the embryotoxicity of CuO nanoparticles to Oryzias melastigma

Concerns are raised towards individual effects of ocean acidification (OA) and engineered nanoparticles (NPs) on marine organisms. However, there are scarce studies regarding nanotoxicity under OA conditions. We investigated the combined effects of OA (pHs, 7.70 and 7.40) and CuO NPs on the embryotoxicity of marine medaka Oryzias melastigma and the bioavailability of CuO NPs in embryos. The results showed that OA alleviated the aggregation of CuO NPs and promoted the dissolution of CuO NPs in seawater (increased by 0.010 and 0.029 mg/L under pHs 7.70 and 7.40, respectively). Synergistic effects of OA with CuO NPs on medaka embryos were observed as indicated by much higher mortality and oxidative damage. Importantly, the enhanced toxicity of CuO NPs to medaka embryos under OA conditions mainly originated from the higher bioavailability of particulate CuO (e.g., 30.28 mg/kg at pH 7.40) rather than their released Cu2+ ions (e.g. 3.04 mg/kg at pH 7.40). The weaker aggregation of NPs under OA conditions resulted in higher penetration of individual particles (or small aggregates) into embryos through the micropyle and chorionic pores, causing enhanced bioavailability of NPs. The obtained results provided underlying insights into understanding the risk of NPs to marine ecosystem under OA conditions.

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Oyster biomineralisation in acidifying oceans: from genes to shells

Biomineralisation is the process of biologically controlled shell fabrication in marine calcifiers including edible oysters where shell matrix proteins and organic molecules secreted by mantle tissue controls calcium carbonate nucleation, crystallisation, growth, and mechanical properties. It is also one of the key processes that is notably affected in marine calcifiers under human induced environmental stressor, ocean acidification (OA). Understanding molecular changes in the biomineralisation process under OA, therefore, is key to developing conservation strategies for protecting ecologically and economically important oyster species. In this PhD thesis, I have presented hierarchical analyses of biomineralisation mechanisms of Crassostrea hongkongensis (Hong Kong oysters) under OA. The hierarchical analyses include study of changes in DNA methylation and gene expression of mantle tissue of juvenile Hong Kong oysters under OA. On top of studying molecular changes, this study also has incorporated shell mechanical properties in terms of micro-structure, shell crystal orientation and micro-hardness. In addition to juveniles, larvae which are known to be sensitive to OA than juveniles and adults, were also studied for understanding their shell fabrication capacity under OA. This study is also the first to attempt characterisation of shell proteome changes in an oyster species under OA. The results indicate moderate resilience of Hong Kong oyster biomineralisation to OA. Specifically, calcium binding or signalling related genes were subtly differentially expressed in mantle under OA, with no correlation between gene expression and DNA methylation changes. Hong Kong oysters were able to make unimpaired shells in terms of micro-structure and nanostructure (crystal orientation) in both larval and juvenile stages. We conclude that OA would be still a dissolution problem for resilient species such as Hong Kong oysters despite the organism’s ability to make error free shells under OA. We also define the concept directional dissolution – where shell dissolution is directional from hinge to shell edge; and from outer periostracum to inner layers. Ecologists can adapt the directional dissolution concept for accurate use of shell dissolution as a parameter for OA biomonitoring. This thesis will be of interest not only to marine molecular biologists and ecologists but also to material scientists who are interested in biomimetic material designing.

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Acclimatization in a changing environment: linking larval and juvenile performance in the quahog Mercenaria mercenaria

Marine invertebrates in coastal communities are currently experiencing unprecedented, rapid environmental change. These symptoms of climate change and ocean acidification are projected to worsen faster than can be accommodated by evolutionary processes like adaptation via natural selection, necessitating investigations of alternative mechanisms that facilitate adaptive responses to environmental change. This dissertation posits that in the absence of adaptation, early development (larval) exposure to stressors can increase population tolerance by leveraging existing variation in the energy metabolism and host-microbial interactions. Focusing specifically on resiliency to acidification (low pH), hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen), and elevated temperature stress in the clam, Mercenaria mercenaria, this dissertation uses a combination of laboratory and field experiments in conjunction with next-generation sequencing and physiological assays to investigate the relationship between host health, microbial community structure, and environmental change.

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The clam before the storm: a meta analysis showing the effect of combined climate change stressors on bivalves

Impacts of a range of climate change on marine organisms have been analysed in laboratory and experimental studies. The use of different taxonomic groupings, and assessment of different processes, though, makes identifying overall trends challenging, and may mask phylogenetically different responses. Bivalve molluscs are an ecologically and economically important data-rich clade, allowing for assessment of individual vulnerability and across developmental stages. We use meta-analysis of 203 unique experimental setups to examine how bivalve growth rates respond to increased water temperature, acidity, deoxygenation, changes to salinity, and combinations of these drivers. Results show that anthropogenic climate change will affect different families of bivalves disproportionally but almost unanimously negatively. Almost all drivers and their combinations have significant negative effects on growth. Combined deoxygenation, acidification, and temperature shows the largest negative effect size. Eggs/larval bivalves are more vulnerable overall than either juveniles or adults. Infaunal taxa, including Tellinidae and Veneridae, appear more resistant to warming and oxygen reduction than epifaunal or free-swimming taxa but this assessment is based on a small number of datapoints. The current focus of experimental set-ups on commercially important taxa and families within a small range of habitats creates gaps in understanding of global impacts on these economically important foundation organisms.

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Effects of ocean acidification and warming on the specific dynamic action of California Grunion (Leuresthes tenuis) larvae


  • SDA was measured as the difference in metabolic rate of fed and non-fed fish.
  • SDA is ∼15% of the daily metabolic energy costs for California Grunion larvae.
  • OA conditions shifted the SDA response earlier.
  • Changes in SDA with climate can have downstream effects on larval growth.


Ocean acidification (OA) and Ocean Warming (OW) are ongoing environmental changes that present a suite of physiological challenges to marine organisms. Larval stages may be especially sensitive to the effects of climate change because the larval phase is a time of critical growth and development. Of particular importance to growth is Specific Dynamic Action (SDA) – the energy used in digestion, absorption, and assimilation of food. Relatively little is known about the energetics of SDA for larval fishes and even less is known about how SDA may be affected by climate change. In this study we used feeding experiments and respirometry assays to characterize the functional form of SDA for California Grunion (Leuresthes tenuis). In a second set of experiments, we tested the independent and combined effects of ocean acidification and warming on SDA. Our first experiment revealed that an elevated metabolic rate was detectable within an hour of feeding, peaked at 3–6 h post feeding, and lasted about 24 h in total. Experiments testing the effects of acidification and warming revealed that temperature generally increased the maximum rate of postprandial respiration and the total amount of energy expended via SDA. In an experiment where feeding level was the same for fish held at different temperatures, elevated pCO2 increased the maximum rate of postprandial respiration and shortened the SDA response. However, in an experiment that allowed fish to consume more food at high temperatures, effects of pCO2 on SDA were minimal. The effects of OA on SDA may depend on a combination of temperature and food availability, and the disruption of SDA with OA may be part of a chain of events where digestion and assimilation efficiency are impaired with potential consequences for growth, survival, and population replenishment.

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Field development of Posidonia oceanica seedlings changes under predicted acidification conditions

Ocean acidification has been consistently evidenced to have profound and lasting impacts on marine species. Observations have shown seagrasses to be highly susceptible to future increased pCO2 conditions, but the responses of early life stages as seedlings are poorly understood. This study aimed at evaluating how projected Mediterranean Sea acidification affects the survival, morphological and biochemical development of Posidonia oceanica seedlings through a long-term field experiment along a natural low pH gradient. Future ocean conditions seem to constrain the morphological development of seedlings. However, high pCO2 exposures caused an initial increase in the degree of saturation of fatty acids in leaves and then improved the fatty acid adjustment increasing unsaturation levels in leaves (but not in seeds), suggesting a nutritional compound translocation. Results also suggested a P. oceanica structural components remodelling which may counteract the effects of ocean acidification but would not enhance seagrass seedling productivity.

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Effects of ocean acidification on the early life history processes of the breadcrumb sponge Halichondria panicea

Ocean acidification (OA) is predicted to result in reduced survival, growth, reproduction, and overall biodiversity of marine invertebrates, and yet we lack information about the response to OA of some major groups of marine organisms. In particular, we know relatively little about how OA will impact temperate sponges, which will experience more extreme low pH conditions than tropical species. In this study, we quantified OA-induced changes in early life history patterns (larval mortality and condition, settlement rate, recruit survival, and size) in the non-calcifying breadcrumb sponge Halichondria panicea collected from a temperate intertidal site in the California Current Large Marine Ecosystem. Sponge larvae were exposed to OA conditions for 15 days, and early life history patterns were observed. Compared with baseline (“present”) conditions, larval mortality and settlement rates increased in the acidified treatment (“future”). This effect was restricted to larval stages; treatment had no effect on the growth and survival of recruits. This study is significant in that it shows that H. panicea may be particularly vulnerable to changes in ocean pH during the larval stage, which could ultimately reduce total sponge abundance by diminishing the number of larvae that survive to settlement.

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Evaluating environmental controls on the exoskeleton density of larval Dungeness crab via micro computed tomography

Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) have significant socioeconomic value, but are threatened by ocean acidification (OA) and other environmental stressors that are driven by climate change. Despite evidence that adult harvests are sensitive to the abundance of larval populations, relatively little is known about how Dungeness megalopae will respond to these stressors. Here we evaluate the ability to use micro-computed tomography (μCT) to detect variations in megalope exoskeleton density and how these measurements reflect environmental variables and calcification mechanisms. We use a combination of field data, culture experiments, and model simulations to suggest resolvable differences in density are best explained by minimum pH at the time zoeae molt into megalopae. We suggest that this occurs because more energy must be expended on active ion pumping to reach a given degree of calcite supersaturation at lower pH. Energy availability may also be reduced due to its diversion to other coping mechanisms. Alternate models based on minimum temperature at the time of the zoea-megalope molt are nearly as strong and complicate the ability to conclusively disentangle pH and temperature influences. Despite this, our results suggest that carryover effects between life stages and short-lived extreme events may be particularly important controls on exoskeleton integrity. μCT-based estimates of exoskeleton density are a promising tool for evaluating the health of Dungeness crab populations that will likely provide more nuanced information than presence-absence observations, but future in situ field sampling and culture experiments are needed to refine and validate our results.

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Nanoplastics induce epigenetic signatures of transgenerational impairments associated with reproduction in copepods under ocean acidification

Graphical abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) is one of many major global climate changes that pose a variety of risks to marine ecosystems in different ways. Meanwhile, there is growing concern about how nanoplastics (NPs) affect marine ecosystems. Combined exposure of marine organisms to OA and NPs is inevitable, but their interactive effects remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the multi- and transgenerational toxicity of NPs on copepods under OA conditions for ten generations. The findings revealed that OA and NPs have a synergistic negative effect on copepod reproduction across generations. In particular, the transgenerational groups showed reproductive impairments in the F1 and F2 generations (F1T and F2T), even though they were never exposed to NPs. Moreover, our epigenetic examinations demonstrated that the observed intergenerational reproductive impairments are associated with differential methylation patterns of specific genes, suggesting that the interaction of OA and NPs can pose a significant threat to the sustainability of copepod populations through epigenetic modifications. Overall, our findings provide valuable insight into the intergenerational toxicity and underlying molecular mechanisms of responses to NPs under OA conditions.

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Directional fabrication and dissolution of larval and juvenile oyster shells under ocean acidification

Biomineralization is one of the key biochemical processes in calcifying bivalve species such as oysters that is affected by ocean acidification (OA). Larval life stages of oysters are made of aragonite crystals whereas the adults are made of calcite and/or aragonite. Though both calcite and aragonite are crystal polymorphs of calcium carbonate, they have different mechanical properties and hence it is important to study the micro and nano structure of different life stages of oyster shells under OA to understand the mechanisms by which OA affects biomineralization ontogeny. Here, we have studied the larval and juvenile life stages of an economically and ecologically important estuarine oyster species, Crassostrea hongkongensis, under OA with focus over shell fabrication under OA (pHNBS 7.4). We also look at the effect of parental exposure to OA on larvae and juvenile microstructure. The micro and nanostructure characterization reveals directional fabrication of oyster shells, with more organized structure as biomineralization progresses. Under OA, both the larval and juvenile stages show directional dissolution, i.e. the earlier formed shell layers undergo dissolution at first, owing to longer exposure time. Despite dissolution, the micro and nanostructure of the shell remains unaffected under OA, irrespective of parental exposure history.

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Elevated CO2 levels did not induce species- or tissue-specific damage in young-of-year salmonids

There are few studies that assess CO2 effects on fish tissues. To study these effects, young-of-year Arctic Charr (Salvelinus alpinus), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Brook Charr (S. fontinalis) were exposed to either control levels of CO2 (1,400 μatm) or elevated levels of CO2 (5,236 μatm) for 15 days. Fish were then sampled for gill, liver, and heart tissues and histologically analyzed. A species effect was observed for the length of secondary lamellae, as Arctic Charr had significantly shorter secondary lamellae than the other species. No notable changes within the gills and livers of Arctic Charr, Brook Charr, or Rainbow Trout exposed to elevated CO2 were observed. Generally, our results indicated that elevated CO2 levels over 15 days do not induce catastrophic tissue damage and it is unlikely that fish health would be seriously impacted. Ongoing research dedicated to examining how elevated CO2 long-term may affect internal tissues of fish will allow for a more comprehensive understanding of how fish may fair with ongoing climate change and in aquaculture facilities.

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Seawater carbonate parameters function differently in affecting embryonic development and calcification in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai)

pH or pCO2 are usually taken to study the impact of ocean acidification on molluscs. Here we studied the different impact of seawater carbonate parameters on embryonic development and calcification of the Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai). Early embryonic development was susceptible to elevated pCO2 level. Larvae hatching duration was positively and hatching rate was negatively correlated with the pCO2 level, respectively. Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) deposition of larval shell was found to be susceptible to calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω) rather than pCO2 or pH. Most larvae incubated in seawater with Ωarag = 1.5 succeeded in shell formation, even when seawater pCO2 level was higher than 3700 μatm and pHT was close to 7.4. Nevertheless, larvae failed to generate CaCO3 in seawater with Ωarag ≤ 0.52 and control level of pCO2, while seawater DIC level was lowered (≤ 852 μmol/kg). Surprisingly, some larvae completed CaCO3 deposition in seawater with Ωarag = 0.6 and slightly elevated DIC (2266 μmol/kg), while seawater pCO2 level was higher than 2700 μatm and pHT was lower than 7.3. This indicates that abalone may be capable of regulating carbonate chemistry to support shell formation, however, the capability was limited as surging pCO2 level lowered growth rate and jeopardized the integrity of larval shells. Larvae generated thicker shell in seawater with Ωarag = 5.6, while adult abalone could not deposit CaCO3 in seawater with Ωarag = 0.29 and DIC = 321 μmol/kg. This indicates that abalone may lack the ability to directly remove or add inorganic carbon at the calcifying sites. In conclusion, different seawater carbonate parameters play different roles in affecting early embryonic development and shell formation of the Pacific abalone, which may exhibit limited capacity to regulate carbonate chemistry.

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The multi-generational effect of seawater acidification on larval development, reproduction, ingestion rate, and ATPase activity of Tigriopus japonicus Mori, 1938

Ocean acidification threatens marine organisms continuously. To ascertain if adaptation of marine species to ocean acidification enhanced over multiple generations, we studied the transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on the development, reproduction, ingestion rate, and ATPase activity of a copepod Tigriopus japonicus Mori, 1938. In the first mode, individuals were exposed to either one of the pH levels (8.1 (control), 7.7, 7.3) for five successive generations. In the second mode, each successive generation was exposed to a lower pH level (pH levels: 8.1, 7.9, 7.7, 7.5, 7.3). After prolonged exposure to a constant seawater acidification level, the capacity to adapt to the stress increased. However, when exposed to seawater of descending pH, the detrimental effects gradually increased. Energy allocated to development and reproduction was reduced although the ingestion rate continued to improve in successive generations. Therefore, ongoing ocean acidification might lower the energy transfer of copepods to higher trophic levels.

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