Posts Tagged 'reproduction'

Evidence for stage-based larval vulnerability and resilience to acidification in Crassostrea virginica

Using image analysis of scanning electron micrographs (SEMs), we compared differences in growth of D-stage veligers [i.e. prodissoconch I and II (PI and PII) larvae] of eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica grown in mesohaline water under high- and low-CO2 conditions. We found SEMs to reveal no evidence of dissolution or shell structure deformity for larval shells in either of the CO2 treatments but detected prominent growth lines in the PII regions of larval shells. The number of growth lines closely approximated the duration of the experiment, suggesting that growth lines are generated daily. Mean growth line interval widths were 20% greater for larval shells cultured in low- vs high-CO2 conditions. Crassostrea virginica veliger larvae were shown to tolerate high CO2 levels and aragonite saturation states (Ωarag) < 1.0, but larval growth was slowed substantially under these conditions. Differences in growth line interval width translate into substantial changes in shell area and account for previously observed differences in total shell area between the treatments, as determined by light microscopy and image analysis. Other studies have documented high mortality and malformation of D-stage larvae in bivalves when pre-veliger life stages (i.e. eggs, gastrula and trochophores) were exposed to elevated CO2. Our experiments revealed statistical differences in rates of larval survival, settlement and subsequent early-stage spat mortality for veligers reared in high- and low-CO2 conditions. Although each of these rates was measurably affected by high CO2, the magnitude of these differences was small (range across categories = 0.7–6.3%) suggesting that the impacts may not be catastrophic, as implied by several previous studies. We believe the apparent disparity among experimental results may be best explained by differential vulnerability of pre-veliger stage larvae and veligers, whereby PI and PII larvae have greater physiological capacity to withstand environmental conditions that may be thermodynamically unfavourable to calcification (i.e. Ωarag < 1.0).

Continue reading ‘Evidence for stage-based larval vulnerability and resilience to acidification in Crassostrea virginica’

Ervilia castanea (Mollusca, Bivalvia) populations adversely affected at CO2 seeps in the North Atlantic

Highlights

  • The bivalve Ervilia castanea was studied at volcanic CO2 seeps and reference sites.
  • Abundance, size and net-calcification were inversely related to CO2 levels.
  • Large individuals were scarce or absent at high CO2 sites.
  • Recruitment of this bivalve was highest at the CO2 seeps.
  • Abundance and size of E. castanea were positively correlated with Chl-a in sediment.

Abstract

Sites with naturally high CO2 conditions provide unique opportunities to forecast the vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to ocean acidification, by studying the biological responses and potential adaptations to this increased environmental variability. In this study, we investigated the bivalve Ervilia castanea in coastal sandy sediments at reference sites and at volcanic CO2 seeps off the Azores, where the pH of bottom waters ranged from average oceanic levels of 8.2, along gradients, down to 6.81, in carbonated seawater at the seeps. The bivalve population structure changed markedly at the seeps. Large individuals became less abundant as seawater CO2 levels rose and were completely absent from the most acidified sites. In contrast, small bivalves were most abundant at the CO2 seeps. We propose that larvae can settle and initially live in high abundances under elevated CO2 levels, but that high rates of post-settlement dispersal and/or mortality occur. Ervilia castanea were susceptible to elevated CO2 levels and these effects were consistently associated with lower food supplies. This raises concerns about the effects of ocean acidification on the brood stock of this species and other bivalve molluscs with similar life history traits.

Continue reading ‘Ervilia castanea (Mollusca, Bivalvia) populations adversely affected at CO2 seeps in the North Atlantic’

Environmentally-induced parental or developmental conditioning influences coral offspring ecological performance

The persistence of reef building corals is threatened by human-induced environmental change. Maintaining coral reefs into the future requires not only the survival of adults, but also the influx of recruits to promote genetic diversity and retain cover following adult mortality. Few studies examine the linkages among multiple life stages of corals, despite a growing knowledge of carryover effects in other systems. We provide a novel test of coral parental conditioning to ocean acidification (OA) and tracking of offspring for 6 months post-release to better understand parental or developmental priming impacts on the processes of offspring recruitment and growth. Coral planulation was tracked for 3 months following adult exposure to high pCO2 and offspring from the second month were reciprocally exposed to ambient and high pCO2 for an additional 6 months. Offspring of parents exposed to high pCO2 had greater settlement and survivorship immediately following release, retained survivorship benefits during 1 and 6 months of continued exposure, and further displayed growth benefits to at least 1 month post release. Enhanced performance of offspring from parents exposed to high conditions was maintained despite the survivorship in both treatments declining in continued exposure to OA. Conditioning of the adults while they brood their larvae, or developmental acclimation of the larvae inside the adult polyps, may provide a form of hormetic conditioning, or environmental priming that elicits stimulatory effects. Defining mechanisms of positive acclimatization, with potential implications for carry over effects, cross-generational plasticity, and multi-generational plasticity, is critical to better understanding ecological and evolutionary dynamics of corals under regimes of increasing environmental disturbance. Considering environmentally-induced parental or developmental legacies in ecological and evolutionary projections may better account for coral reef response to the chronic stress regimes characteristic of climate change.

Continue reading ‘Environmentally-induced parental or developmental conditioning influences coral offspring ecological performance’

Ervilia castanea (Mollusca, Bivalvia) populations adversely affected at CO2 seeps in the North Atlantic

Highlights

  • The bivalve Ervilia castanea was studied at volcanic CO2 seeps and reference sites.
  • Abundance, size and net-calcification were inversely related to CO2 levels.
  • Large individuals were scarce or absent at high CO2 sites.
  • Recruitment of this bivalve was highest at the CO2 seeps.
  • Abundance and size of E. castanea were positively correlated with Chl-a in sediment.

 

Abstract

Sites with naturally high CO2 conditions provide unique opportunities to forecast the vulnerability of coastal ecosystems to ocean acidification, by studying the biological responses and potential adaptations to this increased environmental variability. In this study, we investigated the bivalve Ervilia castanea in coastal sandy sediments at reference sites and at volcanic CO2 seeps off the Azores, where the pH of bottom waters ranged from average oceanic levels of 8.2, along gradients, down to 6.81, in carbonated seawater at the seeps. The bivalve population structure changed markedly at the seeps. Large individuals became less abundant as seawater CO2 levels rose and were completely absent from the most acidified sites. In contrast, small bivalves were most abundant at the CO2 seeps. We propose that larvae can settle and initially live in high abundances under elevated CO2 levels, but that high rates of post-settlement dispersal and/or mortality occur. Ervilia castanea were susceptible to elevated CO2 levels and these effects were consistently associated to lower food supplies. This raises concerns about the effects of ocean acidification on the brood stock of this species and other bivalve molluscs of similar life history traits.

 

Continue reading ‘Ervilia castanea (Mollusca, Bivalvia) populations adversely affected at CO2 seeps in the North Atlantic’

A regional vulnerability assessment for the Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) to changing ocean conditions: insights from model projections and empirical experiments

Among global coastal regions, the Northern California Current System (N-CCS) is already experiencing effects from ocean acidification and hypoxia during the summer, primarily due to the region’s seasonal upwelling, current systems, and high productivity. Oxygen, pH, and temperature conditions are expected to become more stressful with continued fossil fuel emissions under global climate change, posing a serious threat to the region’s fisheries. N-CCS fishing communities rely heavily on the economically and culturally important Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister). The fishery is currently sustainably managed, but potential negative impacts from changing ocean conditions on Dungeness crab life stages and populations could have adverse effects for the fishery and the communities that rely on it. To quantify the vulnerability of Dungeness crab life stages and populations to predicted future conditions, both model projections and empirical experiments need to be employed. A semi-quantitative, life stage-specific framework was adapted here to assess the vulnerability of Dungeness crab to low pH, low dissolved oxygen, and high temperature under present and future projected conditions in the seasonally dynamic N-CCS. This was achieved using a combination of regional ocean models, species distribution maps, larval transport models, a population matrix model, and a literature review. This multi-faceted approach revealed that crab vulnerability to the three climate stressors will increase in the future (year 2100) under the most intense emissions scenario, with vulnerability to low oxygen being the most severe to the N-CCS population overall. Increases in vulnerability were largely driven by the adult life stage, which contributes the most to population growth. Empirical experiments demonstrated that adult crab respiration rates increase exponentially with temperature, potentially making this life stage more susceptible to hypoxia in the future. Together, this work provides novel insights into the effects of changing ocean conditions on Dungeness crab populations, which may help inform fishery management strategies.

Continue reading ‘A regional vulnerability assessment for the Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) to changing ocean conditions: insights from model projections and empirical experiments’

The success of the fertilization and early larval development of the tropical sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) is affected by the pH decrease and temperature increase

Highlights

• Temperature and pH were tested on embryo-larval development of sea urchins.

• Larval development test proved to be more sensitive compared to gamete fecundity test.

• Low pH as an isolated factor exhibit significant results on fertilization and embryo-larval development.

• Extreme high temperature associated with low pH affect only sea urchin’s embryo-larval.

• Combination of low pH and high temperature causes damages in sea urchin.

Abstract

The decrease in the pH of oceans and the increase in their temperature are the two main problems observed in the marine ecosystems due to the increasing emission of CO2 in the atmosphere. Both conditions can affect the ecological processes of reproduction, recruitment and survival of the marine biota. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pH decrease and temperature increase of seawater on the fertilization success and embryo-larval development of a species of tropical sea urchin. For this purpose, fertilization success (gametes) and embryo-larval development rate were determined by exposing gametes and embryos to decreasing pH values (8.0 (control), 7.7, and 7.4) and increasing temperatures (26 (control), 28, 30, 34, and 38 °C). These conditions were tested associated with each other (in synergy). The gamete test was sensitive to all investigated scenarios, the fertilization success was significantly reduced in the conditions of increased temperature (28, 30, 34, and 38 °C) associated with the ideal pH (pH 8.0) and the conditions of reduced pH (pH 7.7, and 7.4), remaining unchanged only in the ideal condition (pH 8.0 + 26 °C). However, the embryo test displayed enhanced sensitivity in the scenarios of temperature increase (28, 30, 34, and 38 °C) associated with pH decrease conditions. A significantly reduction of 29%, 23% and 10% was observed in all tested pH values at 38 °C, when compared to the control group (80%, 79.5% and 63%, respectively). Therefore, the present study suggests that the occurrence of both scenarios may have a significant impact, in the coming years, on the population of Echinometra lucunter.

Continue reading ‘The success of the fertilization and early larval development of the tropical sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) is affected by the pH decrease and temperature increase’

Temperature and salinity, not acidification, predict near-future larval growth and larval habitat suitability of Olympia oysters in the Salish Sea

Most invertebrates in the ocean begin their lives with planktonic larval phases that are critical for dispersal and distribution of these species. Larvae are particularly vulnerable to environmental change, so understanding interactive effects of environmental stressors on larval life is essential in predicting population persistence and vulnerability of species. Here, we use a novel experimental approach to rear larvae under interacting gradients of temperature, salinity, and ocean acidification, then model growth rate and duration of Olympia oyster larvae and predict the suitability of habitats for larval survival. We find that temperature and salinity are closely linked to larval growth and larval habitat suitability, but larvae are tolerant to acidification at this scale. We discover that present conditions in the Salish Sea are actually suboptimal for Olympia oyster larvae from populations in the region, and that larvae from these populations might actually benefit from some degree of global ocean change. Our models predict a vast decrease in mean pelagic larval duration by the year 2095, which has the potential to alter population dynamics for this species in future oceans. Additionally, we find that larval tolerance can explain large-scale biogeographic patterns for this species across its range.

Continue reading ‘Temperature and salinity, not acidification, predict near-future larval growth and larval habitat suitability of Olympia oysters in the Salish Sea’

Population growth, nauplii production and post-embryonic development of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Sewell, 1919) in response to temperature, light intensity, pH, salinity and diets

The present attempt revealed influence of salinity, temperature, pH, light intensity and diet on survival, fecundity, population density and embryonic development of the marine calanoid copepod, Pseudodiaptomus annandalei. Various levels of salinity viz., 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ppt; temperature (21, 24, 27, 30, 33, and 36 °C); pH (6.5, 7, 7.5, 8.0, and 8.5); light intensity (500, 1500, 3000, and 4500 lux); and different microalgal feed viz., Chlorella marina (CHL), Isochrysis galbana (ISO), Tetraselmis suecica (TET), Nannochloropsis occulata (NAN), Dunaliella salina (DUN), Picochlorum maculatum (PICO) and mixed microalgae (MIX) at equal ratio were employed to determine the impact on biology of P. annandalei. The better survival and reproduction was achieved under the salinity 25 ppt, temperature 27 °C, pH 8, light intensity 500 lux and with ISO diet. The developmental time was recorded to be short at 25 ppt, 30 ºC, pH 8 and light intensity 500 lux with ISO diet. Although, the highest yield was obtained under those parameter regimes, P. annandalei seems to be optimistic with wide range of environmental conditions. This study has confirmed that P. annandalei can be cultured at commercial scale as aqua feed and as model organism in toxicity experiments.

Continue reading ‘Population growth, nauplii production and post-embryonic development of Pseudodiaptomus annandalei (Sewell, 1919) in response to temperature, light intensity, pH, salinity and diets’

Effects of salinity and pH of seawater on the reproduction of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

Fertilization and early development are usually the most vulnerable stages in the life of marine animals, and the biological processes during this period are highly sensitive to the environment. In nature, sea urchin gametes are shed in seawater, where they undergo external fertilization and embryonic development. In a laboratory, it is possible to follow the exact morphological and biochemical changes taking place in the fertilized eggs and the developing embryos. Thus, observation of successful fertilization and the subsequent embryonic development of sea urchin eggs can be used as a convenient biosensor to assess the quality of the marine environment. In this paper, we have examined how salinity and pH changes affect the normal fertilization process and the following development of Paracentrotus lividus. The results of our studies using confocal microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and time-lapse Ca2+ image recording indicated that both dilution and acidification of seawater have subtle but detrimental effects on many aspects of the fertilization process. They include Ca2+ signaling and coordinated actin cytoskeletal changes, leading to a significantly reduced rate of successful fertilization and, eventually, to abnormal or delayed embryonic development.

Continue reading ‘Effects of salinity and pH of seawater on the reproduction of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus’

Comparative metabolome analysis provides new insights into increased larval mortality under seawater acidification in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius

Highlights

• Seawater acidification’s effects on Strongylocentrotus intermedius larvae were investigated.

• A comparative metabolomics analysis was performed.

• Significantly differentially expressed metabolites were identified and annotated.

• Metabolic pathways related to mortality induced by seawater acidification were observed.

Abstract

Mortality and metabolic responses of four-armed larvae of Strongylocentrotus intermedius under CO2-induced seawater acidification were investigated. Gametes of S. intermedius were fertilized and developed to the four-armed larval stage in either current natural seawater pH levels (as Control; pH = 7.99 ± 0.01) or laboratory-controlled acidified conditions (OA1: ΔpH = −0.3 units; OA2: ΔpH = −0.4 units; OA3: ΔpH = −0.5 units) according to the predictions of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The degrees of spicule exposure and asymmetry and mortality of four-armed larvae of S. intermedius were observed; each had a significant linearly increasing trend as the seawater pH level decreased. Comparative metabolome analysis identified a total of 87 significantly differentially expressed metabolites (SDMs, UP: 57, DOWN: 30) in OA-treated groups compared with the control group. Twenty-three SDMs, including carnitine, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) 18:3, lysophosphatidyl ethanolamine (LPE) 16:1, glutathione (GSH) and L-ascorbate, exhibited a linear increasing trend with decreasing seawater pH. Nine SDMs exhibited a linear decreasing trend as the seawater pH declined, including hypoxanthine, guanine and thymidine. Among all SDMs, we further mined 48 potential metabolite biomarkers responding to seawater acidification in four-armed larvae of S. intermedius. These potential metabolite biomarkers were mainly enriched in five pathways: glycerophospholipid metabolism, glutathione metabolism, purine metabolism, pyrimidine metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle). Our results will enrich our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms employed by sea urchins in response to CO2-induced seawater acidification.

Continue reading ‘Comparative metabolome analysis provides new insights into increased larval mortality under seawater acidification in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius’


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