Seagrass ecosystem is one of the most productive ecosystems in coastal waters providing numerous ecological functions and supporting a large biodiversity. However, various anthropogenic stressors including climate change are impacting these vulnerable habitats. Here, we investigated the independent and combined effects of ocean warming and ocean acidification on plant–herbivore interactions in a tropical seagrass community. Direct and indirect effects of high temperature and high pCO2 on the physiology of the tropical seagrass Thalassia hemprichii and sea urchin Tripneustes gratilla were evaluated. Productivity of seagrass was found to increase under high pCO2, while sea urchin physiology including feeding rate decreased particularly under high temperature. The present study indicated that future climate change will affect the bottom-up and top-down balance, which potentially can modify the ecosystem functions and services of tropical seagrass ecosystems.
Human activities and global climate change give rise to the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere, which is subsequently absorbed by the ocean surface, leading to ocean acidification (OA). At present, the global OA driven by CO2 is becoming more and more serious, which poses a great threat to marine ecosystems. A lot of investigations have shown that OA has disrupted various trophic levels of the food chain in marine ecosystems, including marine invertebrates and vertebrates. These impacts are harmful to the health and stability of marine ecosystems. As a typical representative of marine vertebrates, marine teleosts are suffering from the environmental stresses caused by OA, but our understanding of the impacts of OA on these species is not profound. This chapter systematically summarizes the effects of OA on marine teleosts, including acid–base and ion regulation, fertilization, embryonic development, growth, metabolism, reproduction, behaviors, and many other aspects. By analyzing the relevant research progress, we expect to deeply understand the responses of marine vertebrates such as teleosts to OA and the related underlying mechanisms, which will be conducive to effectively avoiding the threat of global climate change and providing theoretical references for formulating effective coping strategies against OA.
Behavioral modification is the distinct response exhibited by marine animals to stressors. Exposure to oceanic environmental changes can alter the behaviors of aquatic animals, such as foraging, antipredation, habitat selection, and social hierarchy. Ocean acidification (OA) can alter the animal behaviors of a single species and thereby affect the structure and function of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems. Recently, the effects of OA on the behavioral responses of marine animals have received much attention. Considering the essential ecological functions and fishery value of marine living resources, we need to remain vigilant about the subsequent risk of OA. Here, we provide a systematic review including some classical case studies to highlight the effects of CO2-driven OA on the most common behaviors studied in marine animals and synthesize the current understanding of how OA may impact marine animal behaviors.
In the past decades, the impacts of ocean acidification (OA) on marine animals have gained much attention. To date, numerous works in the literature have shown that OA can affect a variety of biological processes of marine animals, and our knowledge about its effects on marine organisms is mainly focused on the following aspects: (1) fertilization and early development; (2) biomineralization, metabolism, and growth; and (3) immunity and behaviors. However, there are still some limitations that currently exist in research on OA, which include (1) performing experiments with “constant acidification” rather than natural pH fluctuations that may not fully reflect their future true living conditions; (2) using pCO2 levels that were predicted to be reached in a hundred years in the future for experiments with relatively short exposure times, thus overlooking marine organisms’ potential for genetic adaptation or acclimation to the acidified seawater; (3) large amounts of experiments examining OA’s physiological impacts while leaving the potential affecting mechanisms largely unstudied; and (4) a lack of experiments investigating indirect effects of OA on marine organisms and the whole ecosystem. After providing a summary of the current knowledge of OA’s impacts on marine animals, this review aims to highlight potential directions for future studies.
Responses of marine populations to climate conditions reflect the integration of a suite of complex and interrelated physiological and behavioral responses at the individual level. Many of these responses are not immediately reflected in changes to survival, but may impact growth or survival at later life stages. Understanding the broad range of impacts of rising CO2 concentrations on marine fishes is critical to predicting the consequences of ongoing ocean acidification. Walleye pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus) support the largest single-species fishery in the world and provide a critical forage base throughout north Pacific ecosystems. Previous studies of high CO2 effects on early life stages of walleye pollock have suggested a general resiliency in this species, but those studies focused primarily on growth and survival rates. Here, we expand on earlier studies with an independent experiment focused on walleye pollock larval development, swimming behavior, and lipid composition from fertilization to 4 weeks post-hatch at ambient (~ 425 µatm) and elevated (~ 1230 µatm) CO2 levels. Consistent with previous observations, size metrics of walleye pollock were generally insensitive to CO2 treatment. However, 4-week post-hatch larvae had significantly reduced rates of swim bladder inflation. A modest change in the swimming behavior of post-feeding larvae was observed at four, but not at 2 weeks post-hatch. Although there were no differences in overall lipid levels between CO2 treatments, the ratio of energy storage lipids (triacylglycerols) to structural membrane lipids (sterols) was lower among larvae reared at high CO2 levels. Although we observed higher survival to 4 weeks post-hatch among fish reared at high CO2 levels, the observations of reduced swim bladder inflation rates and changes in lipid cycling suggest the presence of sub-lethal effects of acidification that may carry over and manifest in later life stages. These observations support the continued need to evaluate the impacts of ocean acidification on marine fishes across a wide range of traits and life stages with replicated, independent experiments.
Negative interactions among species are a major force shaping natural communities and are predicted to strengthen as climate change intensifies. Similarly, positive interactions are anticipated to intensify and could buffer the consequences of climate-driven disturbances. We used in situ experiments at volcanic CO2 vents within a temperate rocky reef to show that ocean acidification can drive community reorganization through indirect and direct positive pathways. A keystone species, the algal-farming damselfish Parma alboscapularis, enhanced primary productivity through its weeding of algae whose productivity was also boosted by elevated CO2. The accelerated primary productivity was associated with increased densities of primary consumers (herbivorous invertebrates), which indirectly supported increased secondary consumers densities (predatory fish) (i.e. strengthening of bottom-up fuelling). However, this keystone species also reduced predatory fish densities through behavioural interference, releasing invertebrate prey from predation pressure and enabling a further boost in prey densities (i.e. weakening of top-down control). We uncover a novel mechanism where a keystone herbivore mediates bottom-up and top-down processes simultaneously to boost populations of a coexisting herbivore, resulting in altered food web interactions and predator populations under future ocean acidification.
Climate change leads to multiple effects caused by simultaneous shifts in several physical factors which will interact with species and ecosystems in complex ways. In marine systems the effects of climate change include altered salinity, increased temperature, and elevated pCO2 which are currently affecting and will continue to affect marine species and ecosystems. Seaweeds are primary producers and foundation species in coastal ecosystems, which are particularly vulnerable to climate change. The brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus (bladderwrack) is an important foundation species in nearshore ecosystems throughout its natural range in the North Atlantic Ocean and the Baltic Sea. This study investigates how individual and interactive effects of temperature, salinity, and pCO2 affect F. vesiculosus, using a fully crossed experimental design. We assessed the effects on F. vesiculosus in terms of growth, biochemical composition (phlorotannin content, C:N ratio, and ∂13C), and susceptibility to the specialized grazer Littorina obtusata. We observed that elevated pCO2 had a positive effect on seaweed growth in ambient temperature, but not in elevated temperature, while growth increased in low salinity at ambient but not high temperature, regardless of pCO2-level. In parallel to the statistically significant, but relatively small, positive effects on F. vesiculosus growth, we found that the seaweeds became much more susceptible to grazing in elevated pCO2 and reduced salinity, regardless of temperature. Furthermore, the ability of the seaweeds to induce chemical defenses (phlorotannins) was strongly reduced by all the climate stressors. Seaweeds exposed to ambient conditions more than doubled their phlorotannin content in the presence of grazers, while seaweeds exposed to any single or combined stress conditions showed only minor increases in phlorotannin content, or none at all. Despite the minor positive effects on seaweed growth, the results of this study imply that climate change can strongly affect the ability of fucoid seaweeds to induce chemical defenses and increase their susceptibility to grazers. This will likely lead to widespread consequences under future climate conditions, considering the important role of F. vesiculosus and other fucoids in many coastal ecosystems.
- Global climate change and local stressors are the main threats to reef-building organisms and habitats they build, such as rhodolith beds.
- Through an experimental essay and ecological niche modelling, we were able to determine the environmental factors that determine the distribution and affect the physiology of an important rhodolith-forming species in the southwestern Atlantic.
- Our results raise the possibility of some rhodolith-forming species being resilient to future environmental change based on our current understanding of their distributions, a perspective that will need to be further explored by future studies.
- This information is helpful in informing policies for the conservation of priority areas, aiding the preservation of marine biodiversity in the South Atlantic.
Given the ecological and biogeochemical importance of rhodolith beds, it is necessary to investigate how future environmental conditions will affect these organisms. We investigated the impacts of increased nutrient concentrations, acidification, and marine heatwaves on the performance of the rhodolith-forming species Lithothamnion crispatum in a short-term experiment, including the recovery of individuals after stressor removal. Furthermore, we developed an ecological niche model to establish which environmental conditions determine its current distribution along the Brazilian coast and to project responses to future climate scenarios. Although L. crispatum suffered a reduction in photosynthetic performance when exposed to stressors, they returned to pre-experiment values following the return of individuals to control conditions. The model showed that the most important variables in explaining the current distribution of L. crispatum on the Brazilian coast were maximum nitrate and temperature. In future ocean conditions, the model predicted a range expansion of habitat suitability for this species of approximately 58.5% under RCP 8.5. Physiological responses to experimental future environmental conditions corroborated model predictions of the expansion of this species’ habitat suitability in the future. This study, therefore, demonstrates the benefits of applying combined approaches to examine potential species responses to climate-change drivers from multiple angles.
It is widely projected that under future climate scenarios the economic importance of Arctic Ocean fish stocks will increase. The Arctic Ocean is especially vulnerable to ocean acidification and already experiences low pH levels not projected to occur on a global scale until 2100. This paper outlines how ocean acidification must be considered with other potential stressors to accurately predict movement of fish stocks toward, and within, the Arctic and to inform future fish stock management strategies. First, we review the literature on ocean acidification impacts on fish, next we identify the main obstacles that currently preclude ocean acidification from Arctic fish stock projections. Finally, we provide a roadmap to describe how satellite observations can be used to address these gaps: improve knowledge, inform experimental studies, provide regional assessments of vulnerabilities, and implement appropriate management strategies. This roadmap sets out three inter-linked research priorities: (1) Establish organisms and ecosystem physiochemical baselines by increasing the coverage of Arctic physicochemical observations in both space and time; (2) Understand the variability of all stressors in space and time; (3) Map life histories and fish stocks against satellite-derived observations of stressors.
Aim: The current study undertook manipulative experiments to observe changes in snapping shrimp sound signals in relation to temperature and pH changes.
Methodology: Sounds of intertidal snapping shrimp (Alpheus edwardsii) sequentially exposed to different temperature/pH treatments manipulation for a period of 2 week each, were recorded in the laboratory and analysed. The acoustic characteristics of snapping sound signal were examined to relate to the change in temperature, pH and combination of both parameters.
Results: Our results showed that there was a significant reduction in the frequency of peak amplitude of snapping sound wave following a two week exposure to a combination of temperature and pH treatments. The frequency of snapping shrimp sound decreased by approximately 30% when exposed to a 2°C increase in temperature and a 0.7 unit decrease in pH, however, elevated temperature alone caused no significant effect on the peak frequency of snapping shrimp sound.
Interpretation: The finding suggests that following the prediction values of temperature and pH changes due to climate change in the coming century may implicate the ambient noise at habitats where snapping shrimps dominate.
Emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals from human waste, are continuously released into aquatic systems. Although pharmaceuticals alone can adversely impact marine organisms, the bioavailability of many pharmaceuticals are dependent on ambient physical conditions, like pH. As few studies have considered the interactive effects of pharmaceutical pollution and anthropogenic ocean acidification, this study investigated the behavioral response of larval sea urchins (Heliocidaris crassispina) and ascidians (Styela plicata) to environmentally-relevant concentrations of fluoxetine (10 and 100 ng L-1) under ambient (pH 8.0) and acidified conditions (pH 7.7). Larval ascidians reared at pH 8.0 exhibited swam in slower, more directed paths with increasing fluoxetine. Interestingly, this effect was absent at pH 7.7. On the other hand, I only observed independent effects of fluoxetine and acidification on urchin swimming behavior. My findings highlight the importance of using behavioral endpoints when assessing the realistic sub-lethal organismal and ecological impacts of anthropogenic stressors, and that considering differences in species traits may allow for the generation of more realistic predictions of the impact of emerging pollutants under future climate scenarios.
Coral reefs are declining worldwide due to global changes in the marine environment. The increasing frequency of massive bleaching events in the tropics is highlighting the need to better understand the stages of coral physiological responses to extreme conditions. Moreover, like many other coastal regions, coral reef ecosystems are facing additional localized anthropogenic stressors such as nutrient loading, increased turbidity, and coastal development. Different strategies have been developed to measure the health status of a damaged reef, ranging from the resolution of individual polyps to the entire coral community, but techniques for measuring coral physiology in situ are not yet widely implemented. For instance, while there are many studies of the coral holobiont response in single or limited-number multiple stressor experiments, they provide only partial insights into metabolic performance under more complex and temporally and spatially variable natural conditions. Here, we discuss the current status of coral reefs and their global and local stressors in the context of experimental techniques that measure core processes in coral metabolism (respiration, photosynthesis, and biocalcification) in situ, and their role in indicating the health status of colonies and communities. We highlight the need to improve the capability of in situ studies in order to better understand the resilience and stress response of corals under multiple global and local scale stressors.
- Elevated CO2 altered behaviour in zebrafish but not in an additive manner.
- Acclimations to ~900, 2200, and 4200 μatm cause increased, normal, and decreased anxiety-like behaviour.
- Exploratory behaviour was not affected by any CO2 treatment.
- Elevated CO2 to ~4200 μatm decreased locomotion.
CO2-induced aquatic acidification is predicted to affect fish neuronal GABAA receptors leading to widespread behavioural alterations. However, the large variability in the magnitude and direction of behavioural responses suggests substantial species-specific CO2 threshold differences, life history and parental acclimation effects, experimental artifacts, or a combination of these factors. As an established model organism, zebrafish (Danio rerio) can be reared under stable conditions for multiple generations, which may help control for some of the variability observed in wild-caught fishes. Here, we used two standardized tests to investigate the effect of 1-week acclimatization to four pCO2 levels on zebrafish anxiety-like behaviour, exploratory behaviour, and locomotion. Fish acclimatized to 900 μatm CO2 demonstrated increased anxiety-like behaviour compared to control fish (~480 μatm), however, the behaviour of fish exposed to 2200 μatm CO2 was indistinguishable from that of controls. In addition, fish acclimatized to 4200 μatm CO2 had decreased anxiety-like behaviour; i.e. the opposite response than the 900 μatm CO2 treatment. On the other hand, exploratory behaviour did not differ among any of the pCO2 exposures that were tested. Thus, zebrafish behavioural responses to elevated pCO2 are not linear; with potential important implications for physiological, environmental, and aquatic acidification studies.
Elemental ratios in biogenic marine calcium carbonates are widely used in geobiology, environmental science, and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. It is generally accepted that the elemental abundance of biogenic marine carbonates reflects a combination of the abundance of that ion in seawater, the physical properties of seawater, the mineralogy of the biomineral, and the pathways and mechanisms of biomineralization. Here we report measurements of a suite of nine elemental ratios (Li/Ca, B/Ca, Na/Ca, Mg/Ca, Zn/Ca, Sr/Ca, Cd/Ca, Ba/Ca, and U/Ca) in 18 species of benthic marine invertebrates spanning a range of biogenic carbonate polymorph mineralogies (low-Mg calcite, high-Mg calcite, aragonite, mixed mineralogy) and of phyla (including Mollusca, Echinodermata, Arthropoda, Annelida, Cnidaria, Chlorophyta, and Rhodophyta) cultured at a single temperature (25°C) and a range of pCO2 treatments (ca. 409, 606, 903, and 2856 ppm). This dataset was used to explore various controls over elemental partitioning in biogenic marine carbonates, including species-level and biomineralization-pathway-level controls, the influence of internal pH regulation compared to external pH changes, and biocalcification responses to changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. The dataset also enables exploration of broad scale phylogenetic patterns of elemental partitioning across calcifying species, exhibiting high phylogenetic signals estimated from both uni- and multivariate analyses of the elemental ratio data (univariate: λ = 0–0.889; multivariate: λ = 0.895–0.99). Comparing partial R2 values returned from non-phylogenetic and phylogenetic regression analyses echo the importance of and show that phylogeny explains the elemental ratio data 1.4–59 times better than mineralogy in five out of nine of the elements analyzed. Therefore, the strong associations between biomineral elemental chemistry and species relatedness suggests mechanistic controls over element incorporation rooted in the evolution of biomineralization mechanisms.
Globally, kelp forests are threatened by multiple stressors, including increasing grazing by sea urchins. With coastal upwelling predicted to increase in intensity and duration in the future, understanding whether kelp forest and urchin barren urchins are differentially affected by upwelling-related stressors will give insight into how future conditions may affect the transition between kelp forests and barrens. We assessed how current and future-predicted changes in the duration and magnitude of upwelling-associated stressors (low pH, dissolved oxygen, and temperature) affected the performance of purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) sourced from rapidly-declining bull kelp (Nereocystis leutkeana) forests and nearby barrens and maintained on habitat-specific diets. Kelp forest urchins were of superior condition to barrens urchins, with ~ 6–9 times more gonad per body mass. Grazing and condition in kelp forest urchins were more negatively affected by distant-future and extreme upwelling conditions, whereas grazing and survival in urchins from barrens were sensitive to both current-day and all future-predicted upwelling, and to increases in acidity, hypoxia, and temperature regardless of upwelling. We conclude that urchin barren urchins are more susceptible to increases in the magnitude and duration of upwelling-related stressors than kelp forest urchins. These findings have important implications for urchin population dynamics and their interaction with kelp.
- The effects of ocean acidification (OA) on extra-cellular acid–base parameters are reported in the European abalone H. tuberculata, a commercially and ecologically important gastropod.
- Adult abalone were exposed for 15 days to three different pH levels (7.9, 7.7, 7.4) representing current and predicted near-future conditions.
- Abalones are able to buffer a moderate acidification of seawater (−0.2 pH units).
- Haemolymph pH was significantly decreased after 5 days of exposure to pH 7.4 (−0.5 pH units) indicating that abalone do not compensate for higher decreases of in seawater pH.
- OA would impact both the ecology and aquaculture of H. tuberculata in the near future.
Ocean acidification (OA) and the associated changes in seawater carbonate chemistry pose a threat to calcifying organisms. This is particularly serious for shelled molluscs, in which shell growth and microstructure has been shown to be highly sensitive to OA. To improve our understanding of the responses of abalone to OA, this study investigated the effects of CO2-induced ocean acidification on extra-cellular acid–base parameters in the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata. Three-year-old adult abalone were exposed for 15 days to three different pH levels (7.9, 7.7, 7.4) representing current and predicted near-future conditions. Hæmolymph pH and total alkalinity were measured at different time points during exposure and used to calculate the carbonate parameters of the extracellular fluid. Total protein content was also measured to determine whether seawater acidification influences the composition and buffer capacity of hæmolymph. Extracellular pH was maintained at seawater pH 7.7 indicating that abalones are able to buffer moderate acidification (−0.2 pH units). This was not due to an accumulation of HCO3− ions but rather to a high hæmolymph protein concentration. By contrast, hæmolymph pH was significantly decreased after 5 days of exposure to pH 7.4, indicating that abalone do not compensate for higher decreases in seawater pH. Total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon were also significantly decreased after 15 days of low pH exposure. It is concluded that changes in the acid–base balance of the hæmolymph might be involved in deleterious effects recorded in adult H. tuberculata facing severe OA stress. This would impact both the ecology and aquaculture of this commercially important species.
This literature overview focuses on how shark species, are faring with the anthropogenically induced climatic changes. The ocean is drastically affected by this, which has major implications on the aquatic life. Some effects include increasing temperature, carbon dioxide and acidity levels. This has led to shifts in the predatory success in sharks, which will only increase in severity as climate change intensifies, because changes in climate induce other changes in most aspects of the shark’s life. These can be grouped into three categories: shifts in body functions, behaviors and habitat. Some changes in body function include difficulty integrating sensory cues through reduced neuron receptor function, decreased brain/muscle aerobic potential and changes in growth/development. Behavioral changes include shifted swimming patterns, interacting with different species assemblages and prey behaviors. Lastly, habitat changes affect the shark’s ability to capture prey through increases in salinity, degradation of critical habitat and reduction in dissolved oxygen.
Anthropogenic CO2 is changing the pCO2, temperature, and carbonate chemistry of seawater. These processes are termed ocean acidification (OA) and ocean warming. Previous studies suggest two opposing hypotheses for the way in which marine climate stress will influence echinoderm calcification, metabolic efficiency, and reproduction: either an additive or synergistic effect. Sea stars have a regenerative capacity, which may be particularly affected while rebuilding calcium carbonate arm structures, leading to changes in arm growth and calcification. In this study, Asterias forbesi were exposed to ocean water of either ambient, high temperature, high pCO2, or high temperature and high pCO2 for 60 days, and the regeneration length of the amputated arm was measured weekly. Ocean acidification conditions (pCO2 ~1180 μatm) had a negative impact on regenerated arm length, and an increase in temperature of +4°C above ambient conditions (Fall, Southern Gulf of Maine) had a positive effect on regenerated arm length, but the additive effects of these two factors resulted in smaller regenerated arms compared to ambient conditions. Sea stars regenerating under high pCO2 exhibited a lower proportion of calcified mass, which could be the result of a more energetically demanding calcification process associated with marine climate stress. These results indicate that A. forbesi calcification is sensitive to increasing pCO2, and that climate change will have an overall net negative effect on sea star arm regeneration. Such effects could translate into lower predation rates by a key consumer in the temperate rocky intertidal of North America.
- Long-term exposure to reduced pH was performed with sea urchins from different sites
- Seawater acidification affected sea urchin physiological and behavioral parameters
- The effects of reduced pH were less evident in lagoon sea urchins than in coastal ones
- Sea urchin responses change over time possibly related to the gametogenic cycle
- Overall results suggested adaptability of P. lividus to future pH levels
CO2-driven ocean acidification affects many aspects of sea urchin biology. However, even in the same species, OA effects are often not univocal due to non-uniform exposure setups or different ecological history of the experimental specimens. In the present work, two groups of adult sea urchins Paracentrotus lividus from different environments (the Lagoon of Venice and a coastal area in the Northern Adriatic Sea) were exposed to OA in a long-term exposure. Animals were maintained for six months in both natural seawater (pHT 8.04) and end-of-the-century predicted condition (-0.4 units pH). Monthly, physiological (respiration rate, ammonia excretion, O:N ratio) and behavioural (righting, sheltering) endpoints were investigated. Both pH and time of exposure significantly influenced sea urchin responses, but differences between sites were highlighted, particularly in the first months. Under reduced pH, ammonia excretion increased and O:N decreased in coastal specimens. Righting and sheltering were impaired in coastal animals, whereas only righting decreased in lagoon ones. These findings suggested a higher adaptation ability in sea urchins from a more variable environment. Interestingly, as the exposure continued, animals from both sites were able to acclimate. Results revealed plasticity in the physiological and behavioural responses of sea urchins under future predicted OA conditions.
- We measured and compared traits at sub-organismal and organismal level.
- Temperature, pH and predator cues affected the mussels’ traits.
- Largest mussels were found at 15 °C (control) in presence of predators.
- Crab cues increased mussel’s wet mass and calcification rate.
In order to make adequate projections on the consequences of climate change stressors on marine organisms, it is important to know how impacts of these stressors are affected by the presence of other species. Here we assessed the direct effects of ocean warming (OW) and acidification (OA) along with non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of a predatory crab and/or a predatory snail on the habitat-forming mussel Perumytilus purpuratus. Mussels were exposed for 10–14 weeks to contrasting pCO2 (500 and 1400 μatm) and temperature (15 and 20 °C) levels, in the presence/absence of cues from one or two predator species. We compared mussel traits at sub-organismal (nutritional status, metabolic capacity-ATP production-, cell stress condition via HSP70 expression) and organismal (survival, oxygen consumption, growth, byssus biogenesis, clearance rates, aggregation) levels. OA increased the mussels’ oxygen consumption; and OA combined with OW increased ATP demand and the use of carbohydrate reserves. Mussels at present-day pCO2 levels had the highest protein content. Under OW the predatory snail cues induced the highest cell stress condition on the mussels. Temperature, predator cues and the interaction between them affected mussel growth. Mussels grew larger at the control temperature (15 °C) when crab and snail cues were present. Mussel wet mass and calcification were affected by predator cues; with highest values recorded in crab cue presence (isolated or combined with snail cues). In the absence of predator cues in the trails, byssus biogenesis was affected by OA, OW and the OA × OW and OA × predator cues interactions. At present-day pCO2 levels, more byssus was recorded with snail than with crab cues. Clearance rates were affected by temperature, pCO2 and the interaction between them. The investigated stressors had no effects on mussel aggregation. We conclude that OA, OW and the NCEs may lead to neutral, positive or negative consequences for mussels.