Posts Tagged 'otherprocess'

Bioprocess strategies for enhancing the outdoor production of Nannochloropsis gaditana: an evaluation of the effects of pH on culture performance in tubular photobioreactors

A priority of the industrial applications of microalgae is the reduction of production costs while maximizing algae biomass productivity. The purpose of this study was to carry out a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of pH control on the production of Nannochloropsis gaditana in tubular photobioreactors under external conditions while considering the environmental, biological, and operational parameters of the process. Experiments were carried out in 3.0 m3 tubular photobioreactors under outdoor conditions. The pH values evaluated were 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, 9.0, and 10.0, which were controlled by injecting pure CO2 on-demand. The results have shown that the ideal pH for microalgal growth was 8.0, with higher values of biomass productivity (Pb) (0.16 g L−1 d−1), and CO2 use efficiency (ECO2) (74.6% w w−1); RCO2/biomass value obtained at this pH (2.42 gCO2 gbiomass−1) was close to the theoretical value, indicating an adequate CO2 supply. At this pH, the system was more stable and required a lower number of CO2 injections than the other treatments. At pH 6.0, there was a decrease in the Pb and ECO2; cultures at pH 10.0 exhibited a lower Pb and photosynthetic efficiency as well. These results imply that controlling the pH at an optimum value allows higher CO2 conversions in biomass to be achieved and contributes to the reduction in costs of the microalgae production process.

Continue reading ‘Bioprocess strategies for enhancing the outdoor production of Nannochloropsis gaditana: an evaluation of the effects of pH on culture performance in tubular photobioreactors’

Acclimation history modulates effect size of calcareous algae (Halimeda opuntia) to herbicide exposure under future climate scenarios


•Calcifying algae were exposed to herbicide and future climate scenarios combined.

•Half of the algae were given long acclimation to future climate-change conditions.

•Experimental effects were exaggerated for algae that were not acclimated.

•Still, herbicide effects on acclimated algae stronger in future climate conditions

•Results show the need of climate-adjusted thresholds for water quality guidelines.


Tropical marine habitat-builders such as calcifying green algae can be susceptible to climate change (warming and acidification). This study evaluated the cumulative effects of ocean warming (OW), ocean acidification (OA) and the herbicide diuron on the calcifying green algae Halimeda opuntia. We also assessed the influence of acclimation history to experimental climate change conditions on physiological responses. H. opuntia were exposed for 15 days to orthogonal combinations of three climate scenarios [ambient (28 °C, pCO2 = 378 ppm), 2050 (29 °C, pCO2 = 567 ppm) and 2100 (30 °C, pCO2 = 721 ppm)] and to six diuron concentrations (up to 29 μg L−1). Half of the H. opuntia had been acclimated for eight months to the climate scenarios in a mesocosm approach, while the remaining half were not pre-acclimated, as is current practice in most experiments. Climate effects on quantum yield (ΔF/Fm′), photosynthesis and calcification in future climate scenarios were significantly stronger (by −24, −46 and +26%, respectively) in non-acclimated algae, suggesting experimental bias may exaggerate effects in organisms not appropriately acclimated to future-climate conditions. Thus, full analysis was done on acclimated plants only. Interactive effects of future climate scenarios and diuron were observed for ΔF/Fm′, while the detrimental effects of climate and diuron on net photosynthesis and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were additive. Calcification-related enzymes were negatively affected only by diuron, with inhibition of Ca-ATPase and upregulation of carbonic anhydrase. The combined and consistent physiological and biochemical evidence of negative impacts (across six indicators) of both herbicide and future-climate conditions on the health of H. opuntia highlights the need to address both climate change and water quality. Guideline values for contaminants may also need to be lowered considering ‘climate adjusted thresholds’. Importantly, this study highlights the value of applying substantial future climate acclimation periods in experimental studies to avoid exaggerated organism responses to OW and OA.

Continue reading ‘Acclimation history modulates effect size of calcareous algae (Halimeda opuntia) to herbicide exposure under future climate scenarios’

The ability of fragmented kelp forests to mitigate ocean acidification and the effects of seasonal upwelling on kelp-purple sea urchin interactions

Bull kelp (Nereocystis leutkeana) forests along the coast for northern California have decreased dramatically as a result of a ‘perfect storm’ of multiple environmental stressors. The disappearance of a predatory sea star and subsequent increase in purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) and the recurrence of marine heat waves have caused these once diverse ecosystems to be rapidly converted into relative species-depauperate urchin barrens. By examining the interactive effects of both a rapidly changing abiotic environment and the increase in urchin grazing pressure that is affecting this vital ecosystem, we can better understand its ultimate fate and make better-informed decisions to manage and protect it. As once large and persistent kelp forests are converted into fragmented landscapes of small kelp patches, kelp’s ability to take up dissolved inorganic carbon and reduce nearby acidity and increase both dissolved oxygen and bio-available calcium carbonate may be reduced, preventing it from serving as an environmental stress-free ‘oasis’ of reduced environmental stresses for local marine organisms and affecting ecosystem dynamics. In my first chapter, I examined whether small, fragmented kelp patches are able to retain their ability to alter local seawater chemistry to the same extent a large persistent kelp forests that have been studied previously. I found that in the canopies of small kelp patches, multiple parameters of carbonate chemistry fluctuated more than in the kelp benthos and in adjacent urchin barrens, consistent with metabolic activity by the kelp. Further, kelp fragments increased pH and aragonite saturation and decreased pCO2 during the day to a similar degree as large, intact kelp forests. These results suggest that small kelp patches could mitigate OA stress during the day and serve as spatial and temporal refugia for canopy-dwelling organisms. I also found that the benthic environment in kelp forests and adjacent urchin barrens is subject to unbuffered decreases in temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. Thus, in chapter two, I assessed how current-day and future-predicted fluctuations in the duration and magnitude of these upwelling-associated stressors would impact the grazing, growth, and survivorship of purple urchins from kelp forest and urchin barren habitats. With upwelling predicted to increase in both intensity and duration with global climate change, understanding whether urchins from different habitats are differentially affected by upwelling-related stressors will give insight into how current and future stressors may be able to help ‘tip the scales’ and convert the increasing number of urchin barrens back into healthy productive kelp forests. I found condition-dependent susceptibility in urchins to increased magnitude and duration upwelling-related stressors. Grazing and gonadal development in kelp forest urchins was most negatively affected by distant future upwelling conditions, whereas in urchin barren urchins, grazing and survival were sensitive to exposure to upwelling in general, and also to increase in magnitudes of acidity, hypoxia, and temperature across both upwelling and non-upwelling events in the future. These results have important implications for population dynamics of urchins and their interactions with bull kelp, which could strongly affect ecosystem dynamics and transitions between kelp forests and urchin barrens. Taken together, the two chapters my thesis provide valuable insight into the potential resilience of bull kelp, a critical foundation species in northeastern Pacific coastal habitats, in the face of a rapidly changing multi-stressor environment.

Continue reading ‘The ability of fragmented kelp forests to mitigate ocean acidification and the effects of seasonal upwelling on kelp-purple sea urchin interactions’

Effects of ocean acidification on Antarctic microbial communities

Antarctic waters are amongst the most vulnerable in the world to ocean acidification due to their cold temperatures, naturally low levels of calcium carbonate and upwelling that brings deep CO2-rich waters to the surface. A meta-analysis demonstrated groups of Antarctic marine biota in waters south of 60!S have a range of tolerances to ocean acidification. Invertebrates and phytoplankton showed negative effects above 500 μatm and 1000 μatm CO2 respectively, while bacteria appear tolerant to elevated CO2. Phytoplankton studied as part of a natural microbial community were found to be more
sensitive than those studied as a single species in culture. This highlights the importance of community and ecosystem level studies, which incorporate the interaction and competition among species and trophic levels, to accurately assess the effects of ocean acidification on the Antarctic ecosystem.

Antarctic marine microbes (comprising phytoplankton, protozoa and bacteria) drive ocean productivity, nutrient cycling and mediate trophodynamics and the biological pump. While they appear vulnerable to changes in ocean chemistry, little is known about the nature and magnitude of their responses to ocean acidification, especially for natural communities. To address this lack of information, a six level, dose-response ocean acidification experiment was conducted in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica, using 650 L incubation tanks (minicosms). The minicosms were filled with Antarctic nearshore water and adjusted to a gradient of carbon dioxide (CO2) from 343 to 1641 μatm. Microscopy
and phylogenetic marker gene sequence analysis found the microbial community
composition altered at CO2 levels above approximately 1000 μatm. The CO2-
induced responses of microeukaryotes (>20 μm) and nanoeukaryotes (2 to 20 μm) were taxon-specific. For diatoms the response of taxa was related to cell size with micro-sized diatoms (>20 μm) increasing in abundance with moderate CO2 (506 to 634 μatm), while above this level their abundance declined. In contrast, nano-size diatoms (<20 μm) tolerated elevated CO2. Like large diatoms, Phaeocystis antarctica increased in abundance between 343 to 634 μatm CO2 but fell at higher levels. 18S and 16S rDNA sequencing showed that picoeukaryotic and prokaryotic composition was unaffected by CO2, despite having higher abundances at CO2 levels !634 μatm. This was likely due to the lower abundance of heterotrophic nanoflagellates at CO2 levels exceeding 953 μatm, which reduced the top-down control of their pico- and nanoplanktonic prey. As a result of the differences in the tolerance of individual taxa/size categories, CO2 caused a
significant change in the microbial community structure to one dominated by nano-sized diatoms, picoeukaryotes and prokaryotes.

Based on the CO2-induced changes in the microbial community, modelling was performed to investigate the future effects of different levels of elevated CO2 on the structure and function of microbial communities in Antarctic coastal systems. These models indicate CO2 levels predicted toward the end of the century under a “business as usual scenario” elicit changes in microbial composition, significantly altering trophodynamic pathways, reducing energy transfer to higher trophic levels and favouring respiration of carbon within the microbial loop. Such responses would alter elemental cycles, jeopardise the productivity that underpins the wealth and diversity of life for which Antarctica is renowned. In addition, it would reduce carbon sequestration in coastal Antarctic waters thereby having a positive feedback on global climate change.

Continue reading ‘Effects of ocean acidification on Antarctic microbial communities’

Response of phytoplankton assemblages from naturally acidic coastal ecosystems to elevated pCO2

The interplay of coastal oceanographic processes usually results in partial pressures of CO2 (pCO2) higher than expected from the equilibrium with the atmosphere and even higher than those expected by the end of the century. Although this is a well-known situation, the natural variability of seawater chemistry at the locations from which tested organisms or communities originate is seldom considered in ocean acidification experiments. In this work, we aimed to evaluate the role of the carbonate chemistry dynamics in shaping the response of coastal phytoplankton communities to increased pCO2 levels. The study was conducted at two coastal ecosystems off Chile, the Valdivia River estuary and the coastal upwelling ecosystem in the Arauco Gulf. We characterized the seasonal variability (winter/summer) of the hydrographic conditions, the carbonate system parameters, and the phytoplankton community structure at both sites. The results showed that carbonate chemistry dynamics in the estuary were mainly related to seasonal changes in freshwater discharges, with acidic and corrosive conditions dominating in winter. In the Arauco Gulf, these conditions were observed in summer, mainly associated with the upwelling of cold and high pCO2 (>1,000 μatm) waters. Diatoms dominated the phytoplankton communities at both sites, yet the one in Valdivia was more diverse. Only certain phytoplankton groups in this latter ecosystem showed a significant correlations with the carbonate system parameters. When the impact of elevated pCO2 levels was investigated by pCO2 manipulation experiments, we did not observe any significant effect on the biomass of either of the two communities. Changes in the phytoplankton species composition and abundance during the incubations were related to other factors, such as competition and growth phases. Our findings highlight the importance of the natural variability of coastal ecosystems and the potential for local adaptation in determining responses of coastal phytoplankton communities to increased pCO2 levels.

Continue reading ‘Response of phytoplankton assemblages from naturally acidic coastal ecosystems to elevated pCO2’

Trace metal accumulation in the commercial mussel M. galloprovincialis under future climate change scenarios


•The increase in CO2 alone did not display biological or chemical changes in mussels.

•At 25 °C byssus strength and condition index of Galician mussel decreased.

•The increase in temperature amplified metal bioaccumulation in mussels.


The current trend of climatic alterations will accelerate the modification of the ocean system by, among other aspects, changing the metal speciation and its bioavailability which may have an impact in their accumulation by marine organisms. Understanding the impact of these potential changes is essential for future risk assessment of metal contamination. In the present study, we selected the species Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) as the main European aquaculture production bivalve and due to its widespread use for biomonitoring purposes. A long-term test (2 months) was carried out to explore the impact that global change in the marine environment (warming and CO2 increase) may exert on the accumulation of dissolved trace metals (Cu, Co, Pb, Cd, Cr, As and Ni) in different body parts of mussels (foot and soft tissue).

Studied mussels were collected at two different climatic locations (Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea) and exposed to unspiked, unpolluted seawater from the Vigo Ria (NW Iberian Peninsula). Results showed that under the global change conditions proposed in this study (1100 pCO2 and 25 °C), the increase in temperature resulted in a lower condition index and byssus strength for mussels from Atlantic Sea, while Mediterranean sea mussels, adapted to higher temperatures, did not show remarkable variations. According to trace metals accumulation in different body parts of the studied mussels, it was observed that the effect of increasing CO2 alone did not show to have an impact in the bioaccumulation, but the combined stressors (increase in CO2 and temperature) may lead to an increase in the bioaccumulation for some elements. The increase in temperature resulted in a decrease of the Cu content of foot tissue (byssus gland) in mussels from Atlantic Sea, which is in accordance with the lower byssus strength observed under such conditions. Our results indicate that the expected seawater temperature increase, which will be produced gradually during next decades, should be further study to ensure the species adaptability and aquaculture production.

Continue reading ‘Trace metal accumulation in the commercial mussel M. galloprovincialis under future climate change scenarios’

Risks of consuming cadmium-contaminated shellfish under seawater acidification scenario: estimates of PBPK and benchmark dose


•Seawater acidification (SA) increases 13%–67% of the Cd intake from shellfish.

•Urinary Cd among the female population was increased ~13% under the SA scenario.

•There is a potential impact of SA on renal dysfunction for males shellfish consumers.


We aim to assess the risks of renal dysfunction and osteoporosis that is attributed to the seawater acidification caused cadmium (Cd) level increase in human consumed shellfish. A physiology-based pharmacokinetic model was used to estimate Cd concentrations in urine and blood among shellfish-only consumers and among the general population. We used the benchmark dose (BMD) method to determine the threshold limits of Cd in urine for renal dysfunction and in blood for osteoporosis for assessing the human health risk. Our results revealed that seawater acidification could increase the Cd accumulation in shellfish by 10–13% compared to the situations under current pH levels. Under the lower seawater pH level, the daily intake of Cd could increase by 21%–67% among shellfish-only consumers, and by 13%–17% among the general population. Our findings indicated that seawater acidification would lead to a marginal increase in Cd intake among humans in shellfish-only consumers. The results of BMDs of urinary Cd showed that the threshold limits for renal dysfunction at 5% were 3.00 μg g−1 in males and 12.35 μg g−1 in females. For osteoporosis, the estimated BMDs of blood Cd were 7.95 μg L−1 in males and 1.23 μg L−1 in females. These results of the risk of Cd intake showed that the consumption of Cd-contaminated shellfish in the general population is largely unaffected by changes in seawater pH levels. Notably, the potential impact of seawater acidification on renal dysfunction for males in shellfish-only consumers face a 14% increase of risk.

Continue reading ‘Risks of consuming cadmium-contaminated shellfish under seawater acidification scenario: estimates of PBPK and benchmark dose’

Transgenerational plasticity and acclimation of tropical sea urchins to ocean warming and acidification

Anthropogenic CO2 emissions are causing the oceans to simultaneously warm and become increasingly acidic, with rates of change that are putting evolutionary pressure on many marine organisms. As a result, both short-term responses and the ability of organisms to acclimate to rapid environmental change through phenotypic plasticity are expected to play a considerable role in persistence of many species under future ocean change. Evidence is accumulating that non-genetic inheritance and transgenerational plasticity (TGP) may be important mechanisms which may facilitate acclimation to ocean warming and acidification. This thesis tests the overarching hypothesis that TGP and parental acclimation to predicted ocean warming and acidification conditions promote greater resilience in offspring using two tropical sea urchins, Tripneustes gratilla and Echinometra sp. A, as model organisms.

Continue reading ‘Transgenerational plasticity and acclimation of tropical sea urchins to ocean warming and acidification’

Changes in biofilm bacterial communities in response to combined effects of hypoxia, ocean acidification and nutrients from aquaculture activity in Three Fathoms Cove


•Combined occurrence of hypoxia, acidification and nutrients increased biofilm bacterial diversity and richness

•Elevated nutrients, and depleted oxygen and pH levels resulted in different bacterial community composition

•Higher abundance of Flavobacteriales, Epsilonproteobacteria and Vibrionales, but less Oceanospirillales and Alteromonadales

•Suggests the identities of bacterial groups affected under the ocean trend of pollution, deoxygenation and acidification


Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment results in hypoxia, ocean acidification and elevated nutrients (HOAN) in coastal environments throughout the world. Here, we examined the composition of biofilm bacterial communities from a nutrient-excessive fish farm with low dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH levels using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. HOAN was accompanied by higher bacterial diversity and richness, and resulted in an altered community composition than the control site. HOAN resulted in more Flavobacteriales, Rhizobiales, Epsilonproteobacteria and Vibrionales, but less Oceanospirillales and Alteromonadales. Photobacterium sp. and Vibrio sp. were mostly found to be exclusive to HOAN conditions, suggesting that HOAN could possibly proliferate the presence of these potential pathogens. Our study suggests the complexity of bacterial communities to hypoxia and acidification in response to increased nutrient loads, along with identities of nutrient, oxygen and pH-susceptible bacterial groups that are most likely affected under this ocean trend.

Continue reading ‘Changes in biofilm bacterial communities in response to combined effects of hypoxia, ocean acidification and nutrients from aquaculture activity in Three Fathoms Cove’

Porewater carbonate chemistry dynamics in a temperate and a subtropical seagrass system

Seagrass systems are integral components of both local and global carbon cycles and can substantially modify seawater biogeochemistry, which has ecological ramifications. However, the influence of seagrass on porewater biogeochemistry has not been fully described, and the exact role of this marine macrophyte and associated microbial communities in the modification of porewater chemistry remains equivocal. In the present study, carbonate chemistry in the water column and porewater was investigated over diel timescales in contrasting, tidally influenced seagrass systems in Southern California and Bermuda, including vegetated (Zostera marina) and unvegetated biomes (0–16 cm) in Mission Bay, San Diego, USA and a vegetated system (Thallasia testudinium) in Mangrove Bay, Ferry Reach, Bermuda. In Mission Bay, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) exhibited strong increasing gradients with sediment depth. Vertical porewater profiles differed between the sites, with almost twice as high concentrations of DIC and TA observed in the vegetated compared to the unvegetated sediments. In Mangrove Bay, both the range and vertical profiles of porewater carbonate parameters such as DIC and TA were much lower and, in contrast to Mission Bay where no distinct temporal signal was observed, biogeochemical parameters followed the semi-diurnal tidal signal in the water column. The observed differences between the study sites most likely reflect a differential influence of biological (biomass, detritus and infauna) and physical processes (e.g., sediment permeability, residence time and mixing) on porewater carbonate chemistry in the different settings.

Continue reading ‘Porewater carbonate chemistry dynamics in a temperate and a subtropical seagrass system’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book