Posts Tagged 'otherprocess'

Interaction between elevated CO2 and phytoplankton-derived organic matter under solar radiation on bacterial metabolism from coastal waters

Microcosm experiments to assess bacterioplankton response to phytoplankton-derived organic matter obtained under current and future-ocean CO2 levels were performed. Surface seawater enriched with inorganic nutrients was bubbled for 8 days with air (current CO2 scenario) or with a 1000 ppm CO2–air mixture (future CO2 scenario) under solar radiation. The organic matter produced under the current and future CO2 scenarios was subsequently used as inoculum. Triplicate 12 L flasks filled with 1.2 µm-filtered natural seawater enriched with the organic matter inocula were incubated in the dark for 8 days under CO2 conditions simulating current and future CO2 scenarios to study the bacterial response. The acidification of the media increased bacterial respiration at the beginning of the experiment while the addition of the organic matter produced under future levels of CO2 was related to changes in bacterial production and abundance. The balance between both, respiration and production, made that the bacteria grown under future CO2 levels with an addition of non-acidified matter showed the best growth efficiency at the end of the incubation. However cells grown under future scenarios with high CO2 levels and acidified organic matter additions did not perform differently than those grown under present CO2 conditions, independently of the addition of acidified or non-acidified organic matter. This study demonstrates that the increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can affect bacterioplankton directly by changes in the respiration rate and indirectly by changes on the organic matter with concomitant effects on bacterial production and abundance.

Continue reading ‘Interaction between elevated CO2 and phytoplankton-derived organic matter under solar radiation on bacterial metabolism from coastal waters’

Ocean acidification of a coastal Antarctic marine microbial community reveals a critical threshold for CO2 tolerance in phytoplankton productivity (update)

High-latitude oceans are anticipated to be some of the first regions affected by ocean acidification. Despite this, the effect of ocean acidification on natural communities of Antarctic marine microbes is still not well understood. In this study we exposed an early spring, coastal marine microbial community in Prydz Bay to CO2 levels ranging from ambient (343 µatm) to 1641 µatm in six 650 L minicosms. Productivity assays were performed to identify whether a CO2 threshold existed that led to a change in primary productivity, bacterial productivity, and the accumulation of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and particulate organic matter (POM) in the minicosms. In addition, photophysiological measurements were performed to identify possible mechanisms driving changes in the phytoplankton community. A critical threshold for tolerance to ocean acidification was identified in the phytoplankton community between 953 and 1140 µatm. CO2 levels  ≥ 1140 µatm negatively affected photosynthetic performance and Chl a-normalised primary productivity (csGPP14C), causing significant reductions in gross primary production (GPP14C), Chl a accumulation, nutrient uptake, and POM production. However, there was no effect of CO2 on C : N ratios. Over time, the phytoplankton community acclimated to high CO2 conditions, showing a down-regulation of carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) and likely adjusting other intracellular processes. Bacterial abundance initially increased in CO2 treatments  ≥ 953 µatm (days 3–5), yet gross bacterial production (GBP14C) remained unchanged and cell-specific bacterial productivity (csBP14C) was reduced. Towards the end of the experiment, GBP14C and csBP14C markedly increased across all treatments regardless of CO2 availability. This coincided with increased organic matter availability (POC and PON) combined with improved efficiency of carbon uptake. Changes in phytoplankton community production could have negative effects on the Antarctic food web and the biological pump, resulting in negative feedbacks on anthropogenic CO2 uptake. Increases in bacterial abundance under high CO2 conditions may also increase the efficiency of the microbial loop, resulting in increased organic matter remineralisation and further declines in carbon sequestration.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification of a coastal Antarctic marine microbial community reveals a critical threshold for CO2 tolerance in phytoplankton productivity (update)’

Climate change could drive marine food web collapse through altered trophic flows and cyanobacterial proliferation

Global warming and ocean acidification are forecast to exert significant impacts on marine ecosystems worldwide. However, most of these projections are based on ecological proxies or experiments on single species or simplified food webs. How energy fluxes are likely to change in marine food webs in response to future climates remains unclear, hampering forecasts of ecosystem functioning. Using a sophisticated mesocosm experiment, we model energy flows through a species-rich multilevel food web, with live habitats, natural abiotic variability, and the potential for intra- and intergenerational adaptation. We show experimentally that the combined stress of acidification and warming reduced energy flows from the first trophic level (primary producers and detritus) to the second (herbivores), and from the second to the third trophic level (carnivores). Warming in isolation also reduced the energy flow from herbivores to carnivores, the efficiency of energy transfer from primary producers and detritus to herbivores and detritivores, and the living biomass of detritivores, herbivores, and carnivores. Whilst warming and acidification jointly boosted primary producer biomass through an expansion of cyanobacteria, this biomass was converted to detritus rather than to biomass at higher trophic levels—i.e., production was constrained to the base of the food web. In contrast, ocean acidification affected the food web positively by enhancing trophic flow from detritus and primary producers to herbivores, and by increasing the biomass of carnivores. Our results show how future climate change can potentially weaken marine food webs through reduced energy flow to higher trophic levels and a shift towards a more detritus-based system, leading to food web simplification and altered producer–consumer dynamics, both of which have important implications for the structuring of benthic communities.

Continue reading ‘Climate change could drive marine food web collapse through altered trophic flows and cyanobacterial proliferation’

Increased fitness of a key appendicularian zooplankton species under warmer, acidified seawater conditions

Ocean warming and acidification (OA) may alter the fitness of species in marine pelagic ecosystems through community effects or direct physiological impacts. We used the zooplanktonic appendicularian, Oikopleura dioica, to assess temperature and pH effects at mesocosm and microcosm scales. In mesocosms, both OA and warming positively impacted O. dioica abundance over successive generations. In microcosms, the positive impact of OA, was observed to result from increased fecundity. In contrast, increased pH, observed for example during phytoplankton blooms, reduced fecundity. Oocyte fertility and juvenile development were equivalent under all pH conditions, indicating that the positive effect of lower pH on O. dioica abundance was principally due to increased egg number. This effect was influenced by food quantity and quality, supporting possible improved digestion and assimilation at lowered pH. Higher temperature resulted in more rapid growth, faster maturation and earlier reproduction. Thus, increased temperature and reduced pH had significant positive impacts on O. dioica fitness through increased fecundity and shortened generation time, suggesting that predicted future ocean conditions may favour this zooplankton species.

Continue reading ‘Increased fitness of a key appendicularian zooplankton species under warmer, acidified seawater conditions’

Community composition in mangrove ponds with pulsed hypoxic and acidified conditions

The potential resilience of biological communities to accelerating rates of global change has received considerable attention. We suggest that some shallow aquatic ecosystems, where temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and pH can exhibit extreme variation on short timescales of hours or days, provide an opportunity to develop a mechanistic understanding of species persistence and community assembly under harsh environmental conditions. Extreme diel swings in DO and pH have been observed in eutrophic temperate ecosystems, and here, we describe a similar phenomenon consistently occurring across tropical sites that included relatively remote atolls on the Meso-American barrier reefs in Belize and oligotrophic coastal lagoons in Panama. In particular, we documented large daily swings in temperature, DO, and pH within shallow ponds of Caribbean mangrove forests. Water in seven of 13 ponds went hypoxic (<2 mg/L DO) during the multiday sampling period, and pH dipped nightly to low levels, falling below 7.0 in some ponds. Minimum pH and minimum DO were correlated, and showed a similar relationship in Belize and Panama, suggesting a common mechanism produced diel cycles. Remarkably, most ponds exhibited high abundance of macroalgae, macroinvertebrates, and fish, despite potentially stressful abiotic conditions. Although fish diversity was negatively correlated with pH range, our overall results from the ponds suggest that many species are sufficiently resistant such that a functionally complex community can persist in the midst of pulsed stressful conditions. We propose that the mangrove ponds could serve as a model ecosystem for investigating resistance and resilience of coastal marine communities to global change factors such as climate change, hypoxia, and ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘Community composition in mangrove ponds with pulsed hypoxic and acidified conditions’

A mineralogical record of ocean change: decadal and centennial patterns in the California mussel

Ocean acidification, a product of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide, may already have affected calcified organisms in the coastal zone, such as bivalves and other shellfish. Understanding species’ responses to climate change requires the context of long-term dynamics. This can be particularly difficult given the longevity of many important species in contrast with the relatively rapid onset of environmental changes. Here, we present a unique archival dataset of mussel shells from a locale with recent environmental monitoring and historical climate reconstructions. We compare shell structure and composition in modern mussels, mussels from the 1970s, and mussel shells dating back to 1000–2420 years BP. Shell mineralogy has changed dramatically over the past 15 years, despite evidence for consistent mineral structure in the California mussel, Mytilus californianus, over the prior 2500 years. We present evidence for increased disorder in the calcium carbonate shells of mussels and greater variability between individuals. These changes in the last decade contrast markedly from a background of consistent shell mineralogy for centuries. Our results use an archival record of natural specimens to provide centennial-scale context for altered minerology and variability in shell features as a response to acidification stress and illustrate the utility of long-term studies and archival records in global change ecology. Increased variability between individuals is an emerging pattern in climate change responses, which may equally expose the vulnerability of organisms and the potential of populations for resilience.

Continue reading ‘A mineralogical record of ocean change: decadal and centennial patterns in the California mussel’

Increased CO2 and iron availability effects on carbon assimilation and calcification on the formation of Emiliania huxleyi blooms in a coastal phytoplankton community

Highlights

• Increased dFe enhanced carbon fixation promoting a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi.
• High CO2 decreased carbon production during a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi.
• Carbon uptake was unaffected by CO2 and Fe availability in a bloom of Emiliania huxleyi.

Abstract

In the present work, we exposed a natural phytoplankton community to either present (390-μatm, LC) or future CO2 levels predicted for year-2100 (900-μatm, HC) combined with ambient (4.5 nmol L−1, −DFB) or high (12 nmol L−1, +DFB) dissolved iron (dFe) levels, during 25 days by using mesocosms. We report on changes in carbon assimilation processes (acquisition, fixation, and calcification) of the phytoplankton community due to increased dissolved CO2 and dFe and to the interaction of both factors. The isotopic disequilibrium assay results showed that inorganic carbon (Ci) acquisition by the community was unaffected by CO2 and Fe availability. The main Ci source for photosynthesis was HCO3 and external carbonic anhydrase activity was only detected at the beginning of the experiment, suggesting a relevant role for HCO3 transporters in the phytoplankton community developed in all treatments. However, there was a significant effect of both factors on particulate organic carbon (POC) content, particulate calcium production and carbon fixation rates. Increased dFe at LC conditions led to the highest values of carbon fixation and POC of all treatments, promoting a massive Emiliania huxleyi bloom. This response was not observed in the HC treatments. The latter indicates a negative impact of increased CO2 on the formation of E. huxleyi blooms, in agreement with the observed significant reduction in calcium production under HC. Our results suggest that ocean acidification can decrease primary production under iron-replete conditions in E. huxleyi blooming areas, affecting the biological carbon pump in coastal ecosystems.

Continue reading ‘Increased CO2 and iron availability effects on carbon assimilation and calcification on the formation of Emiliania huxleyi blooms in a coastal phytoplankton community’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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