Posts Tagged 'otherprocess'

Responses of carbonic anhydrases and Rubisco to abrupt CO2 changes of seawater in two marine diatoms

Diatoms are experiencing striking fluctuations in seawater carbonate chemistry in the natural marine environment, especially in coastal seawaters. Here, we show that the diatoms Thalassiosira weissflogii and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, which utilize different carbon acquisition mechanisms, respond differently to short-term changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. Our results showed that T. weissflogii showed significantly higher photosynthetic oxygen evolution rates than that of P. tricornutum at low levels of CO2 or HCO3−. This suggests that T. weissflogii had higher affinities for CO2 or HCO3− when their concentrations were not sufficient to support saturated growth and photosynthesis. While the activity of Rubisco in P. tricornutum positively correlated with carbonic anhydrases (CA), we observed negative relationship between Rubisco and CA activity in the diatom T. weissflogii. These contrasting physiological responses of diatoms with varied carbon acquisition mechanisms indicate different abilities to cope up with abrupt changes in seawater carbonate chemistry. We propose that the ability to respond to varying carbonate chemistry may act as one determinant of the diatom distributions and phytoplankton community structures.

Continue reading ‘Responses of carbonic anhydrases and Rubisco to abrupt CO2 changes of seawater in two marine diatoms’

In situ response of Antarctic under-ice primary producers to experimentally altered pH

Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations are contributing to ocean acidification (reduced seawater pH and carbonate concentrations), with potentially major ramifications for marine ecosystems and their functioning. Using a novel in situ experiment we examined impacts of reduced seawater pH on Antarctic sea ice-associated microalgal communities, key primary producers and contributors to food webs. pH levels projected for the following decades-to-end of century (7.86, 7.75, 7.61), and ambient levels (7.99), were maintained for 15 d in under-ice incubation chambers. Light, temperature and dissolved oxygen within the chambers were logged to track diurnal variation, with pH, O2, salinity and nutrients assessed daily. Uptake of CO2 occurred in all treatments, with pH levels significantly elevated in the two extreme treatments. At the lowest pH, despite the utilisation of CO2 by the productive microalgae, pH did not return to ambient levels and carbonate saturation states remained low; a potential concern for organisms utilising this under-ice habitat. However, microalgal community biomass and composition were not significantly affected and only modest productivity increases were noted, suggesting subtle or slightly positive effects on under-ice algae. This in situ information enables assessment of the influence of future ocean acidification on under-ice community characteristics in a key coastal Antarctic habitat.

Continue reading ‘In situ response of Antarctic under-ice primary producers to experimentally altered pH’

Analyzing the impacts of elevated-CO2 levels on the development of a subtropical zooplankton community during oligotrophic conditions and simulated upwelling

Ocean acidification (OA) is affecting marine ecosystems through changes in carbonate chemistry that may influence consumers of phytoplankton, often via trophic pathways. Using a mesocosm approach, we investigated OA effects on a subtropical zooplankton community during oligotrophic, bloom, and post-bloom phases under a range of different pCO2 levels (from ∼400 to ∼1480 μatm). Furthermore, we simulated an upwelling event by adding 650 m-depth nutrient-rich water to the mesocosms, which initiated a phytoplankton bloom. No effects of pCO2 on the zooplankton community were visible in the oligotrophic conditions before the bloom. The zooplankton community responded to phytoplankton bloom by increased abundances in all treatments, although the response was delayed under high-pCO2 conditions. Microzooplankton was dominated by small dinoflagellates and aloricate ciliates, which were more abundant under medium- to high-pCO2 conditions. The most abundant mesozooplankters were calanoid copepods, which did not respond to CO2 treatments during the oligotrophic phase of the experiment but were found in higher abundance under medium- and high-pCO2 conditions toward the end of the experiment, most likely as a response to increased phyto- and microzooplankton standing stocks. The second most abundant mesozooplankton taxon were appendicularians, which did not show a response to the different pCO2 treatments. Overall, CO2 effects on zooplankton seemed to be primarily transmitted through significant CO2 effects on phytoplankton and therefore indirect pathways. We conclude that elevated pCO2 can change trophic cascades with significant effects on zooplankton, what might ultimately affect higher trophic levels in the future.

Continue reading ‘Analyzing the impacts of elevated-CO2 levels on the development of a subtropical zooplankton community during oligotrophic conditions and simulated upwelling’

Changing structure of benthic foraminiferal communities due to declining pH: results from laboratory culture experiments

The ocean absorbs large amounts of CO2 emitted from human activities, which results in a decrease in seawater pH. Marine calcifying organisms such as foraminifera, are most likely to be affected by this declining pH. In this study, we collected sediments from five stations of different depths (34–73 m) in a continental shelf of the Yellow Sea. The entire benthic foraminiferal communities together with sea sediments were cultured under three constant pHs (8.3, 7.8, and 7.3) for 6 and 12 weeks in the laboratory to study their responses to pH or incubation time. The microcosm’s experimental results obtained showed that most of the foraminiferal community parameters (abundance, species richness, Margalef index, and Shannon-Wiener diversity) decreased significantly (p<0.05) with the decline in pH in all the tested stations. The responses of foraminifera to the decline in pH were species-specific, for instance, Protelphidium tuberculatum and Cribroelphidiumfrigidum were highly sensitive to declining pH and were finally eliminated at low pH, while some species (e.g., Lagenammina atlantica, Verneuilinulla advena, V. propinqua, Haplophragmoides applanata, and H. canariensis) could tolerate low pH and acted as pH-tolerant species. In addition, the proportion of hyaline taxa showed a significant (p<0.05) positive correlation with pH, while agglutinated type showed a negative response. Furthermore, different incubation times (6 and 12 weeks) showed significant effects on the nearshore communities other than the offshore treatments, which were, however, entirely declined after 6 weeks’ incubation under low pH manipulation. Our results indicated that nearshore foraminiferal communities showed rather a resilience to the declining pH and the offshore foraminifera, especially those in the central area of the Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass were found to be more sensitive to the decline in pH in the continental shelf sediments of the Yellow Sea.

Continue reading ‘Changing structure of benthic foraminiferal communities due to declining pH: results from laboratory culture experiments’

Response of the Arctic marine inorganic carbon system to ice algae and under‐ice phytoplankton blooms: a case study along the fast‐ice edge of Baffin Bay

Past research in seasonally ice‐covered Arctic seas has suggested that ice algae play a role in reducing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) during spring, preconditioning surface waters to low dissolved CO2 (pCO2sw), and uptake of atmospheric CO2 during the ice‐free season. The potential role of under‐ice phytoplankton blooms on DIC and pCO2sw has not often been considered. In this study we examined the inorganic carbon system beneath landfast sea ice starting midway through a bottom ice algae bloom and concluding in the early stages of an under‐ice phytoplankton bloom. During most of the ice algae bloom we observed a slight increase in DIC/pCO2sw in surface waters, as opposed to the expected reduction. Biomass calculations confirm that the role of ice algae on DIC/pCO2sw in the study region were minor and that this null result may be widely applicable. During snow melt, we observed an under‐ice phytoplankton bloom (to 10 mg/m3 Chl a) that did reduce DIC and pCO2sw. We conclude that under‐ice phytoplankton blooms are an important biological mechanism that may predispose some Arctic seas to act as a CO2 sink at the time of ice breakup. We also found that pCO2sw was undersaturated at the study location even at the beginning of our sampling period, consistent with several other studies that have measured under‐ice pCO2sw in late winter or early spring. Finally, we present the first measurements of carbonate saturation states for this region, which may be useful for assessing the vulnerability of a local soft‐shelled clam fishery to ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘Response of the Arctic marine inorganic carbon system to ice algae and under‐ice phytoplankton blooms: a case study along the fast‐ice edge of Baffin Bay’

pH variability exacerbates effects of ocean acidification on a Caribbean crustose coralline alga

Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are among the most sensitive marine taxa to the pH changes predicted with ocean acidification (OA). However, many CCA exist in habitats where diel cycles in pH can surpass near-future OA projections. The prevailing theory that natural variability increases the tolerance of calcifiers to OA has not been widely tested with tropical CCA. Here, we assess the response of the reef-building species Lithophyllum congestum to stable and variable pH treatments, including an ambient control (amb/stable). The amb/variable treatment simulated an ambient diel cycle in pH (7.65–7.95), OA/stable simulated constant low pH reflecting worst-case year 2100 predictions (7.7), and OA/variable combined diel cycling with lower mean pH (7.45–7.75). We monitored the effects of pH on total calcification rate and photophysiology (maximum quantum yield) over 16 weeks. To assess the potential for acclimatization, we also quantified calcification rates during the first (0–8 weeks), and second (8–16 weeks) halves of the experiment. Calcification rates were lower in all pH treatments relative to ambient controls and photophysiology was unaffected. At the end of the 16-week experiment, total calcification rates were similarly low in the amb/variable and OA/stable treatment (27–29%), whereas rates declined by double in the OA/variable treatment (60%). When comparing the first and second halves of the experiment, there was no acclimatization in stable treatments as calcification rates remained unchanged in both the amb/stable and OA/stable treatments. In contrast, calcification rates deteriorated between periods in the variable treatments: from a 16–47% reduction in the amb/variable treatment to a 49–79% reduction in the OA/variable treatment, relative to controls. Our findings provide compelling evidence that pH variability can heighten CCA sensitivity to reductions in pH. Moreover, the decline in calcification rate over time directly contrasts prevailing theory that variability inherently increases organismal tolerances to low pH, and suggests that mechanisms of tolerance may become limited with increasing time of exposure. The significant role of diel pH cycling in CCA responses to OA indicates that organisms in habitats with diel variability could respond more severely to rapid changes in ocean pH associated with OA than predicted by experiments conducted under static conditions.

Continue reading ‘pH variability exacerbates effects of ocean acidification on a Caribbean crustose coralline alga’

Ocean acidification regulates the activity, community structure and functional potential of heterotrophic bacterioplankton in an oligotrophic gyre

Ocean acidification (OA), a consequence of increased global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, is considered a major threat to marine ecosystems. Its effects on bacterioplankton activity, diversity and community composition have received considerable attention. However, the direct impact of OA on heterotrophic bacterioplankton is often masked by the significant response of phytoplankton due to the close coupling of heterotrophic bacterioplankton and autotrophs. Here, we investigated the responses of a heterotrophic bacterioplankton assemblage to high pCO2 (790 ppm) treatment in warm tropical western Pacific waters by conducting a microcosm experiment in dark for 12 days. Heterotrophic bacterioplankton abundance and production were enhanced by OA over the first 6 days of incubation, while the diversity and species richness were negatively affected. Bacterioplankton community composition in the high pCO2 treatment changed faster than that in the control. The molecular ecological network analysis showed that the elevated CO2changed the overall connections among the bacterial community and resulted in a simple network under high CO2 condition. Species‐specific responses to OA were observed and could be attributed to the different life strategies and to the ability of a given species to adapt to environmental conditions. In addition, high‐throughput functional gene array analysis revealed that genes related to carbon and nitrogen cycling were positively affected by acidification. Together, our findings suggest that OA has direct effects on heterotrophic bacterioplankton in a low‐latitude warm ocean and may therefore affect global biogeochemical cycles.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification regulates the activity, community structure and functional potential of heterotrophic bacterioplankton in an oligotrophic gyre’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book