Posts Tagged 'crustaceans'

Combined effects of ocean acidification and elevated temperature on feeding, growth, and physiological processes of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba

Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is a key species in the Southern Ocean, where its habitat is projected to undergo continued warming and increases in pCO2. Experiments during 2 summer field seasons at Palmer Station, Antarctica, investigated the independent and interactive effects of elevated temperature and pCO2 (decreased pH) on feeding, growth, acid-base physiology, metabolic rate, and survival of adult Antarctic krill. Ingestion and clearance rates of chlorophyll were depressed under low pH (7.7) compared to ambient pH (8.1) after a 48 h acclimation period, but this difference disappeared after a 21 d acclimation. Growth rates were negligible and frequently negative, but were significantly more negative at high (3°C, -0.03 mm d-1) compared to ambient temperature (0°C, -0.01 mm d-1) with no effect of pH. Modest elevations in tissue total CO2 and tissue pH were apparent at low pH but were short-lived. Metabolic rate increased with temperature but was suppressed at low pH in smaller but not larger krill. Although effects of elevated temperature and/or decreased pH were mostly sublethal, mortality was higher at high temperature/low pH (58%) compared to ambient temperature/pH or ambient temperature/low pH (>90%). This study identified 3 dominant patterns: (1) shorter-term effects were primarily pH-dependent; (2) krill compensated for lower pH relatively quickly; and (3) longer-term effects on krill growth and survival were strongly driven by temperature with little to no pH effect.

Continue reading ‘Combined effects of ocean acidification and elevated temperature on feeding, growth, and physiological processes of Antarctic krill Euphausia superba’

Elevated pCO2 reinforces preference among intertidal algae in both a specialist and generalist herbivore


  • Elevated pCO2 influences growth and chemical composition of some intertidal algae.
  • Herbivore preference is reinforced by resilience of preferred alga to pCO2 exposure.
  • Preference is also influenced by changes in lesser-preferred algal species.
  • Specialist and generalist feeding may be indirectly affected by ocean acidification.


Ocean acidification (OA) can induce changes in marine organisms and species interactions. We examined OA effects on intertidal macroalgal growth, palatability, and consumption by a specialist crab (Pugettia producta) and a generalist snail (Tegula funebralis) herbivore. Moderate increases in pCO2 increased algal growth in most species, but effects of pCO2 on C:N and phenolic content varied by species. Elevated pCO2 had no effect on algal acceptability to herbivores, but did affect their preference ranks. Under elevated pCO2, electivity for a preferred kelp (Egregia menziesii) and preference rankings among algal species strengthened for both P. producta and T. funebralis, attributable to resilience of E. menziesii in elevated pCO2 and to changes in palatability among less-preferred species. Preferred algae may therefore grow more under moderate pCO2 increases in the future, but their appeal to herbivores may be strengthened by associated shifts in nutritional quality and defensive compounds in other species.

Continue reading ‘Elevated pCO2 reinforces preference among intertidal algae in both a specialist and generalist herbivore’

Projected near-future ocean acidification decreases mercury toxicity in marine copepods


  • Copepods were subjected to OA and Hg pollution under multigenerational exposure.
  • OA reduced Hg accumulation and its toxicity to the growth/reproduction in copepods.
  • Copepod proteome enabled its physiological resilience to decreasing pH.
  • Proteomics indicated many toxic events, ensuring Hg toxicity to the copepod’s traits.
  • Proteome compensation was accounting for the alleviative effect of OA on Hg toxicity.


Here, we examined the combinational effect of ocean acidification (OA) and mercury (Hg) in the planktonic copepod Pseudodiaptomus annandalei in cross-factored response to different pCO2 (400, 800 μatm) and Hg (control, 1.0 and 2.5 μg/L) exposures for three generations (F0-F2), followed by single-generation recovery (F3) under clean condition. Several phenotypic traits and Hg accumulation were analyzed for F0-F3. Furthermore, shotgun-based quantitative proteomics was performed for F0 and F2. Our results showed that OA insignificantly influenced the traits. During F0-F2, combined exposure reduced Hg accumulation as compared with the counterpart Hg treatment, supporting the mitigating effect of OA on Hg toxicity in copepods. Proteomics analysis indicated that the copepods probably increased energy production/storage and stress response to ensure physiological resilience against OA. However, Hg induced many toxic events (e.g., energy depletion and degenerated organomorphogenesis/embryogenesis for F0; cell cycle arrest and detrimental stress-defense for F2), which were translated to the population-level adverse outcome, i.e., compromised growth/reproduction. Particularly, compensatory proteome response was identified (e.g., increased immune defense for F0; energetic compensation and enhanced embryogenesis for F2), accounting for a negative interaction between OA and Hg. Together, this study provides the molecular mechanisms behind the effects of OA and Hg pollution in marine copepods.

Continue reading ‘Projected near-future ocean acidification decreases mercury toxicity in marine copepods’

Osmotic response of Dotilla fenestrata (sand bubbler crab) exposed to combined water acidity and varying metal (Cd and Pb)

This study assessed the interactive effects of near-future coastal acidification in combination with varying sub lethal metal concentrations on the haemolymph osmolality of Dotilla fenestrata. Crabs were exposed to acute combination of near-future pH scenarios of estuarine systems (7.2, 7.4 and 7.6) by bubbling CO2 into holding tanks and metal concentrations (Cd = 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 mg/l), (Pb = 6.50, 8.50 and 10.50 mg/l) and (Cd & Pb = 4.50, 5.75 and 7.00 mg/l) at 32 psu salinity and 18 °C for 96 h and compared with the control group that were acclimated in water medium (salinity 32 psu, temperature 18 °C and pH 8.1). Mean haemolymph osmolality of crabs exposed to a combination of varying pH and metal concentrations were not significantly different (ANOVA HSD: df 9; p > 0.05) from the crabs acclimated close to background water parameters. The study showed that near-future coastal pH has no significant effect on the haemolymph osmolality of the crab Dotilla exposed to sublethal concentrations of Cd and Pb at salinity level of 32 ppt.

Continue reading ‘Osmotic response of Dotilla fenestrata (sand bubbler crab) exposed to combined water acidity and varying metal (Cd and Pb)’

Risk assessment for key socio-economic and ecological species in a sub-arctic marine ecosystem under combined ocean acidification and warming

The Arctic may be particularly vulnerable to the consequences of both ocean acidification (OA) and global warming, given the faster pace of warming and acidification. Here, we use the Atlantis ecosystem model to assess how the trophic network of marine fishes and invertebrates in the Icelandic waters is responding to the combined pressures of OA and warming. We develop an approach which allows us to focus on species of economic (catch-value), social (number of participants in fisheries), or ecological (keystone species) importance. We parameterize the model with literature-determined ranges of sensitivity to OA and warming for different species and functional groups in the Icelandic waters. We found divergent species responses to warming and acidification levels; (mainly) planktonic groups and forage fish benefited while (mainly) benthic groups and predatory fish decreased under warming and acidification scenarios. Assuming conservative harvest rates for the largest catch-value species, Atlantic cod, we see that the population is projected to remain stable under even the harshest acidification and warming scenario. Further, for the scenarios where the model projects reductions in biomass of Atlantic cod, other species in the ecosystem increase, likely due to a reduction in competition and predation. These results highlight the interdependencies of multiple global change drivers and their cascading effects on trophic organization, and the supply of an important species from a socio-economic perspective in the Icelandic fisheries.

Continue reading ‘Risk assessment for key socio-economic and ecological species in a sub-arctic marine ecosystem under combined ocean acidification and warming’

Multiple-stressor effects of warming and acidification on the embryonic development of an estuarine fiddler crab


  • Elevated temperature accelerated early and late embryonic development.
  • Reduced pH accelerated late embryonic development.
  • Elevated temperature reduced survivorship in later stages.
  • A negative synergetic effect between pH and temperature was evidenced in egg volume.
  • > 70% of embryos well-developed under elevated temperature and reduced pH.


Predicted effects of anthropogenic climate change on estuarine and coastal organisms are complex, and early life history stages of calcified ectotherms are amongst the most sensitive groups. Despite the importance of understanding their vulnerability, we lack information on the effects of multiple stressors on the embryonic development of estuarine and burrowing organisms, mainly mangrove-associated species. Here, we determined the combined effects of elevated temperature and decreased pH on the embryonic development of the estuarine fiddler crab Leptuca thayeri. Initially, the microhabitat (burrow) of ovigerous (egg-bearing) females was measured for temperature, pH, and salinity, which provided control values in our laboratory experiment. Embryos at the early stage of development were subjected to cross-factored treatments of predicted temperature and pH and evaluated for development rate, survivorship, and volume until their later embryonic stage. Embryo development was faster at early and later stages of development, and survivorship was lower under elevated temperature. Embryos under reduced pH showed advanced embryonic stages at their late development stage. Higher egg volume was observed in a warmer and acidified environment, and lower volume in warmer and non-acidified conditions, indicating that embryo development is synergistically affected by warming and acidification. More than 70% of embryos developed until late stages under the multiple-stressors treatment, giving insights on the effects of a warm and acidified environment on burrowing estuarine organisms and their early stages of development.

Continue reading ‘Multiple-stressor effects of warming and acidification on the embryonic development of an estuarine fiddler crab’

Effects of cadmium alone and in combination with pH on bioaccumulation, tissue structure, and enzyme activity of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis


• Determined bioaccumulation and tissue distribution of cadmium alone and in combination with pH in Eriocheir sinensis

• Cadmium bioaccumulation decreased as gill > hepatopancreas > muscle

• The highest cadmium residue concentration was detected in 14 days

• With reduced values of pH, cadmium bioaccumulation decreased in tissues

• Lower pH reduced the toxicity of cadmium to Eriocheir sinensis


In this study, Chinese mitten crabs (Eriocheir sinensis) were exposed to various combinations of reduced pH (7.8, 7.3, and 6.5) and cadmium (Cd; 0 and 1 mg·L−1) for 7, 14, and 21 days. The reduced pH and 1 mg·L−1 Cd treatment significantly decreased the Cd concentration in crab tissues in the order of pH 7.8 > pH 7.3 > pH 6.5. The exposure to Cd resulted in edema, tubular vacuolization in epithelial cells, and hepatic duct degeneration in the hepatopancreas and indistinct cellular structure and disconnected epithelial layer in the gills. However, low pH alleviated the toxic effects of Cd on the tissues. In gill and hepatopancreas tissues, low pH and Cd exposure caused a significant increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and oxidized glutathione content, but metallothionein activity was not affected. In contrast, the activity of glutathione-S-transferase decreased. Thus, indirect effects of pH on metal accumulation and antagonistic toxicities were observed in E. sinensis, and reduced pH and Cd exposure modulated the oxidative balance via different mechanisms.

Continue reading ‘Effects of cadmium alone and in combination with pH on bioaccumulation, tissue structure, and enzyme activity of the Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis’

An integrated field-laboratory investigation of the effects of low oxygen and pH on North Pacific krill (Euphausia pacifica)

Krill are abundant and ecologically important zooplankton that inhabit dynamic environments characterized by strong natural variability, but global ocean change is shifting the range of conditions that they experience. Laboratory tests reveal that krill are sensitive to ocean acidification despite residing in naturally low pH areas, showing the importance of modulating factors for determining their responses. This study combines laboratory manipulations with field observations across a strong natural water chemistry gradient in Puget Sound, Washington, USA to investigate the effects of pH and oxygen on adult female North Pacific krill, Euphausia pacifica. Enzyme activities of the Electron Transport System (ETS) and aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (AARS) were used as indices of zooplankton metabolism and growth, respectively, and were paired with traditional incubation methods. Acclimation to pH and oxygen conditions in the laboratory did not reveal effects on respiration rate, ETS, or AARS activity of krill. However, field observations showed that respiratory potential, as estimated by ETS activity, decreased with decreasing oxygen, declining 9% (95% confidence interval 2.5–15%) over the range of conditions we observed (3.9–8.1 mg O2 L−1). This reduction would depress the metabolic potential of krill in areas of stressful conditions (concurrent low pH), though krill also displayed a high degree of inter-individual variability. Although differences in age structure suggest different patterns of recruitment between E. pacifica populations in areas with stressful conditions and those without, populations persist at stressful sites. Lower temperature of waters with low oxygen and pH, as well as high food concentrations, may contribute to these populations’ success.

Continue reading ‘An integrated field-laboratory investigation of the effects of low oxygen and pH on North Pacific krill (Euphausia pacifica)’

The future is now: marine aquaculture in the anthropocene

Aquaculture now produces more seafood than wild capture fisheries and this production is expected to at least double by 2050. Representing almost half of global production, marine aquaculture will contribute to sustainably feeding the growing humanity. However, climate change will undoubtedly challenge the future growth of marine aquaculture. Temperature and sea-level rise, shifts in precipitation, freshening from glacier melt, changing ocean productivity, and circulation patterns, increasing occurrence of extreme climatic events, eutrophication, and ocean acidification are all stressors that will influence marine aquaculture. The objective of this themed article set was to bring together contributions on the broad theme of the potential impacts, adaptation, and mitigation strategies of marine aquaculture to climate change. Here we present 14 papers covering a diverse set of approaches including experimentation, modelling, meta-analysis and review, and disciplines like biology, ecology, economics, and engineering. These articles focus on the impacts of climate change-related stressors on the aquaculture potential itself and on the resulting ecological interactions (e.g. parasitism and predation), on phenotypic plasticity and adaptation potential of species, and on measures to mitigate the effects of climate change on aquaculture and vice versa. Considering this, adaptation of the aquaculture sector relies on anticipating the biogeographical changes in the distribution of species, determining their potential for adaptation and selective breeding for resistance or tolerance to climate-induced stressors, and fostering ecosystem resilience by means of conservation, restoration, or remediation. By will or by force, aquaculture will contribute to the low carbon economy of tomorrow. Aquaculture must move towards a new paradigm where the carbon footprint and the analysis of the life cycle of products are at least as important as economic profitability.

Continue reading ‘The future is now: marine aquaculture in the anthropocene’

Effects of salinity, pH and alkalinity on hatching rate of fertilized eggs of Penaeus monodon

The fertilized eggs of “Nanhai 2” Penaeus monodon bred by our research group were incubated at the same temperature (30°C), different salinity (20, 25, 30, 35, 40), different pH (7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, 9.0) and different alkalinity (2.0 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L, 3.5 mmol/L, 4.0 mmol/L) to explore the effects of salinity, pH and alkalinity on hatching rate of fertilized eggs of P. monodon. The results showed that the hatching rate of fertilization rate of P. monodon was closely related to salinity, and the best hatching rate was obtained when the seawater salinity was 30 with the average hatching rate was 82.60%. The hatching rate was very low when the salinity was as low as 20 or as high as 40, which was significantly lower than that of other treatments (P<0.05). The hatching effect of the fertilized eggs of P. monodon was closely related to the pH value of seawater, and the slightly alkaline seawater was conducive to the normal development of the fertilized eggs. Among them, the hatching effect of the seawater pH value of 8.0 was the best, and the average hatching rate of the fertilized eggs was 80.62%. Too low or too high pH value of the seawater was not conducive to the development of the embryo, and the hatching rate of the fertilized eggs decreased in varying degrees. There was no significant correlation between the hatching effect of fertilized eggs and the change of seawater alkalinity. The average hatching rate of fertilized eggs ranged from 78.65% to 83.12% in the alkalinity range of 2.0-4.0 mmol/L

Continue reading ‘Effects of salinity, pH and alkalinity on hatching rate of fertilized eggs of Penaeus monodon’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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