Posts Tagged 'crustaceans'

Transcriptomic response to decreased pH in adult, larval and juvenile red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, and interactive effects of pH and temperature on juveniles

Ocean warming and acidification are expected to influence the biology of the ecologically and economically important red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus. We investigated transcriptome responses of adult, larval and juvenile red king crab to assess sensitivity to reduced pH and elevated temperature. In adults, gill tissue (but not heart or cuticle) responded to reduced pH by differentially regulating many genes involved in metabolic, membrane and cuticular processes, but not ionic or acid/base regulation. In larval crabs, we found little evidence for a strong transcriptomic response to pH, but did observe large differences in the transcriptomes of newly hatched and one-week old larvae. In juvenile crabs, we found that there was a strong transcriptomic response to temperature across all pH conditions, but that only extreme low pH caused transcriptomic shifts. Most of the genes in juveniles that were differentially expressed were for cuticular and calcification processes. While inferences regarding the specific biological responses associated with changes in gene expression are likely to change as resources for red king crab genomics enabled studies continue to improve (i.e. better assemblies and annotation), our inferences about general sensitivities to temperature and pH across the life stages of red king crab are robust and unlikely to shift. Overall, our data suggest that red king crab are more sensitive to warming than acidification, and that responses to acidification at the transcriptomic level occur at different levels of pH across life stages, with juveniles being less pH sensitive than adults.

Continue reading ‘Transcriptomic response to decreased pH in adult, larval and juvenile red king crab, Paralithodes camtschaticus, and interactive effects of pH and temperature on juveniles’

Exoskeleton dissolution with mechanoreceptor damage in larval Dungeness crab related to severity of present-day ocean acidification vertical gradients

Highlights

• Coastal habitats with the steepest ocean acidification gradients are most detrimental for larval Dungeness crabs.

• Severe carapace dissolution was observed in larval Dungeness crabs along the US west coast.

• Mechanoreceptors with important sensory and behavioral functions were destabilized.

• Dissolution is negatively related to the growth, demonstrating energetic trade-offs.

• 10% dissolution increase over the last two decades estimated due to atmospheric CO2.

Abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) along the US West Coast is intensifying faster than observed in the global ocean. This is particularly true in nearshore regions (<200 m) that experience a lower buffering capacity while at the same time providing important habitats for ecologically and economically significant species. While the literature on the effects of OA from laboratory experiments is voluminous, there is little understanding of present-day OA in-situ effects on marine life. Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) is perennially one of the most valuable commercial and recreational fisheries. We focused on establishing OA-related vulnerability of larval crustacean based on mineralogical and elemental carapace to external and internal carapace dissolution by using a combination of different methods ranging from scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, elemental mapping and X-ray diffraction. By integrating carapace features with the chemical observations and biogeochemical model hindcast, we identify the occurrence of external carapace dissolution related to the steepest Ω calcite gradients (∆Ωcal,60) in the water column. Dissolution features are observed across the carapace, pereopods (legs), and around the calcified areas surrounding neuritic canals of mechanoreceptors. The carapace dissolution is the most extensive in the coastal habitats under prolonged (1-month) long exposure, as demonstrated by the use of the model hindcast. Such dissolution has a potential to destabilize mechanoreceptors with important sensory and behavioral functions, a pathway of sensitivity to OA. Carapace dissolution is negatively related to crab larval width, demonstrating a basis for energetic trade-offs. Using a retrospective prediction from a regression models, we estimate an 8.3% increase in external carapace dissolution over the last two decades and identified a set of affected OA-related sublethal pathways to inform future risk assessment studies of Dungeness crabs.

Continue reading ‘Exoskeleton dissolution with mechanoreceptor damage in larval Dungeness crab related to severity of present-day ocean acidification vertical gradients’

Paths to growth: exploring the effects of reduced pH and increased temperature on a fisheries-important prawn

Crustaceans are relatively understudied in regards to their vulnerability to the changing ocean conditions of ocean acidification and ocean warming. Although they are generally considered less vulnerable to reduced pH and increased temperature than other calcifying groups, studies have found potential effects on their growth, energy storage, and prey detection. In this study, we examined the vulnerability of the ridgeback prawn, Sicyonia ingentis, which is a commercially important species along the West coast of the United States. Prawn were exposed to reduced pH (7.50 ± 0.02; pCO₂ = 1475 ± 25 µatm) and increased temperature (16.2 ± 0.7°C) conditions in a full factorial design for twelve weeks. Prawns were monitored for survival and growth throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, their prey detection was analyzed via antennular flicking rates, and they were dissected for Gonadosomatic Index (GSI) and Hepatosomatic Index (HSI) measurements, which are indicators of gonad development, energy storage, and the trade-off between the two. No significant effect of treatment was found for antennular flicking, GSI, or HSI. The second molt increment was significantly less in the reduced pH/increased temperature treatment in comparison to the control (ANOVA: F3,18 = 3.36, p = 0.04), but growth over the experiment did not differ among treatments. Survival was significantly lower in the reduced pH/increased temperature treatment. S. ingentis is robust to a pH below its natural range, but the synergistic effects of reduced pH and increased temperature have a significant impact on mortality.

Continue reading ‘Paths to growth: exploring the effects of reduced pH and increased temperature on a fisheries-important prawn’

Predator prey interactions between predatory gastropod Reishia clavigera, barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite amphitrite and mussel Brachidontes variabilis under ocean acidification

Since the response to ocean acidification is species specific, differences in responses between predator and prey will alter their interactions, hence affect the population dynamics of both species. Changes in predator prey interactions between a predatory muricid gastropod Reishia clavigera and its prey, the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite amphitrite and mussel Brachidontes variabilis under three pCO2 levels (380, 950, and 1250 μatm) were investigated. The searching time for barnacles increased and the ability to locate them decreased at higher pCO2 levels. The movement speed and the prey consumption rate, however, were independent of pCO2. There was no preference towards either B. variabilis or A. amphitrite amphitrite regardless of pCO2. Exposure experiments involving multiple generations are suggested to assess transgenerational effects of ocean acidification and the potential compensation responses before any realistic predictions on the long term changes of population dynamics of the interacting species can be made.

Continue reading ‘Predator prey interactions between predatory gastropod Reishia clavigera, barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite amphitrite and mussel Brachidontes variabilis under ocean acidification’

Behavioral defenses of shellfish prey under ocean acidification

Biological interactions between predators and prey constitute a key component of the ecology and evolution of marine systems, and animal behavior can affect the outcome of predator–prey interactions. It has been recently demonstrated that CO2-induced ocean acidification can alter the behavior of marine organisms and potentially alter predator–prey dynamics. This study combines both quantitative (meta-analysis) and qualitative approaches to review the effects of ocean acidification on behavioral prey defenses in marine invertebrates. A systematic literature search identified 34 studies that experimentally assessed behavioral defenses under elevated pCO2 spanning three phyla: crustaceans, echinoderms, and molluscs. A meta-analysis suggested that exposure to elevated seawater pCO2 can negatively affect behavioral defenses in bivalve molluscs and malacostracan crustaceans. By contrast, defenses of cephalopod molluscs seem to be positively impacted by elevated pCO2, whereas gastropods and echinoids appear unaffected. A qualitative assessment of studies on combined effects of ocean acidification and warming revealed that combined effects typically differ from ocean acidification–only effects. Based on a qualitative assessment of three studies to date, neurological interference of GABAA receptors under elevated pCO2 may play a major role in ocean acidification effects on prey defense behaviors; however, more research is needed, and other mechanistic underpinnings are also important to consider. Ultimately, the results of this study suggest that behavioral prey defenses in some shellfish taxa may be vulnerable to ocean acidification, that the effects of ocean acidification are often different under warming scenarios than under present-day temperature scenarios, and that GABAA interference may be an important mechanism underpinning behavioral responses of shellfish prey under ocean acidification. Despite the importance of shellfish behavioral defenses in the ecology and evolution of marine biological communities, however, research to date has only scraped the surface in understanding ocean acidification effects. Increased research efforts on the effects of multiple stressors, acclimation and adaptation, environmental variability, and complex situational and ecological contexts are needed. Studies of fish behavioral defenses under ocean acidification can help streamline hypotheses and experimental approaches, particularly given the similar effects of elevated pCO2 on GABAA function.

Continue reading ‘Behavioral defenses of shellfish prey under ocean acidification’

Effects of elevated CO2 on survival, growth, digestive enzymes and glucose concentration of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931) from postlarvae 15 to juvenile stage (in Vietnamese)

This study was carried out to determine the effects of CO2 on survival, growth, digestive enzyme activity and glucose concentration of white leg shrimp from 15-day postlarvae to juvenile stage. The study was designed using a completely randomized with 4-CO2 treatments including 2.32, 7.81, 19.0 and 45.6 mg/L equal to pH of 8.1, 7.6, 7.2 and 6.8, respectively. Postlarvae of 0.019 g and 1.20 cm length were stocked at the density of 100 ind./200-L tank. After 45 days, the survival rate of shrimp in control treatment (2.32 mg/L CO2 or pH=8.1) was 70.0%, and the lowest survival rate occurred in the CO2 treatment of 45.6 mg/L (28.3%). The lowest final individual weight and length in CO2 concentration of 45.6 mg/L were 1.09 g and 4.69 cm. The lowest enzyme activities were in CO2 treatment of 45.6 mg/L. Glucose concentration was highest in 37.5 mg/100 mL. The high CO2 concentration will adversely affect growth, survival rate, reduce some digestive enzymes and increase glucose concentration in hemolymph of white leg shrimp.

Continue reading ‘Effects of elevated CO2 on survival, growth, digestive enzymes and glucose concentration of white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei Boone, 1931) from postlarvae 15 to juvenile stage (in Vietnamese)’

Antagonistic interplay between pH and food resources affects copepod traits and performance in a year-round upwelling system

Linking pH/pCO2 natural variation to phenotypic traits and performance of foundational species provides essential information for assessing and predicting the impact of ocean acidification (OA) on marine ecosystems. Yet, evidence of such linkage for copepods, the most abundant metazoans in the oceans, remains scarce, particularly for naturally corrosive Eastern Boundary Upwelling systems (EBUs). This study assessed the relationship between pH levels and traits (body and egg size) and performance (ingestion rate (IR) and egg reproduction rate (EPR)) of the numerically dominant neritic copepod Acartia tonsa, in a year-round upwelling system of the northern (23° S) Humboldt EBUs. The study revealed decreases in chlorophyll (Chl) ingestion rate, egg production rate and egg size with decreasing pH as well as egg production efficiency, but the opposite for copepod body size. Further, ingestion rate increased hyperbolically with Chl, and saturated at ~1 µg Chl. L−1. Food resources categorized as high (H, >1 µg L−1) and low (L,  7.89) and future (>400 µatm pCO2, pH < 7.89) were used to compare our observations to values globally employed to experimentally test copepod sensitivity to OA. A comparison (PERMANOVA) test with Chl/pH (2*2) design showed that partially overlapping OA levels expected for the year 2100 in other ocean regions, low-pH conditions in this system negatively impacted traits and performance associated with copepod fitness. However, interacting antagonistically with pH, food resource (Chl) maintained copepod production in spite of low pH levels. Thus, the deleterious effects of ocean acidification are modulated by resource availability in this system.

Continue reading ‘Antagonistic interplay between pH and food resources affects copepod traits and performance in a year-round upwelling system’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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