Posts Tagged 'crustaceans'

Influence of water quality parameters on the prevalence of Livoneca redmanii (Isopoda; Cymothoidae) infestation of Mediterranean Sea fishes, Egypt

The quality of water in the aquatic ecosystem is a very sensitive issue and is controlled by many physical and chemical factors. The deterioration of water quality has variable effect on parasitic population and their rate of infestation and consequently the negative impact can impede fish viability and productivity. The current study aimed to: i) Surveying the parasitic isopod infesting some of the edible fish species inhabit the Egyptian Mediterranean Sea water ii) Assess the seasonal variations in water quality parameters of Mediterranean coastal water of Egypt. iii) Investigating the effect of water quality parameters on the rate of parasitic isopod infestation among the examined fishes. Water samples during each season were analyzed for physico-chemical parameters using standard methods. The selected parameters namely: temperature, pH, salinity, oxidizable organic matter (OOM), ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and some heavy metals (Lead, Copper, Arsenic and Mercury). A total of 400 Mediterranean Sea fish of Tilapia zilli, Solea spp, Mugil capito and Sardinella species were examined for isopod parasites. Parasites were preserved and identified. The results revealed isolation of the isopod species Livoneca redmanii, with an infestation rate of 19% among the examined fish species with the highest rate among Mugil capito (36%) and reached its total maximum value during summer (32%). Correlation analysis revealed that infestation rates were highly correlated (positively) with certain water quality parameters, such as temperature, oxidzable organic matter (OOM) and nitrite. High water temperatures during summer and spring seasons, and high nitrite concentrations were significantly associated with high infestation rates in Tilapia zilli (R2=0.91, P=0.046 and R2 = 0.97, P=0.015). The findings suggested that deterioration of water quality with varying seasons was stressful to fish, and consequently increased the incidences of the parasitic Isopod (Livoneca redmanii) so considered as a predisposing agent to parasitism. The study recommended
periodical monitoring of water quality parameters in fish water resources and the need to take all measures by the responsible authorities to prevent pollution of these resources to minimized and control the prevalence of parasite
infestations particularly of isopods.

Continue reading ‘Influence of water quality parameters on the prevalence of Livoneca redmanii (Isopoda; Cymothoidae) infestation of Mediterranean Sea fishes, Egypt’

Near-future ocean acidification does not alter the lipid content and fatty acid composition of adult Antarctic krill

Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) is a keystone species in the Southern Ocean, but little is known about how it will respond to climate change. Ocean acidification, caused by sequestration of carbon dioxide into ocean surface waters (pCO2), alters the lipid biochemistry of some organisms. This can have cascading effects up the food chain. In a year-long laboratory experiment adult krill were exposed to ambient seawater pCO2 levels (400 μatm), elevated pCO2 levels mimicking near-future ocean acidification (1000, 1500 and 2000 μatm) and an extreme pCO2 level (4000 μatm). Total lipid mass (mg g−1 DM) of krill was unaffected by near-future pCO2. Fatty acid composition (%) and fatty acid ratios associated with immune responses and cell membrane fluidity were also unaffected by near-future pCO2, apart from an increase in 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 ratios in krill in 1500 μatm pCO2 in winter and spring. Extreme pCO2 had no effect on krill lipid biochemistry during summer. During winter and spring, krill in extreme pCO2 had elevated levels of 18:2n-6 (up to 1.2% increase), 20:4n-6 (up to 0.8% increase), lower 18:3n-3/18:2n-6 and 20:5n-3/20:4n-6 ratios, and showed evidence of increased membrane fluidity (up to three-fold increase in phospholipid/sterol ratios). These results indicate that the lipid biochemistry of adult krill is robust to near-future ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘Near-future ocean acidification does not alter the lipid content and fatty acid composition of adult Antarctic krill’

Climate change erodes competitive hierarchies among native, alien and range-extending crabs

Highlights

• Ocean warming and acidification can alter species behaviour and competition.

• We tested this on co-occurring native, alien, and range-extending crab species.

• Range-extending crabs outperformed the alien and native crabs in current conditions.

• Under future climate conditions, the three crabs no longer differed in competition.

• Climate change can drive homogenisation in behavioural competitiveness.

Abstract

Global warming and ocean acidification alter a wide range of animal behaviours, yet the effect on resource competition among species is poorly understood. We tested whether the combination of moderate levels of ocean acidification and warming altered the feeding success of co-occurring native, alien, and range-extending crab species, and how these changes affected their hierarchical dominance. Under contemporary conditions the range-extending species spent more time feeding, than the alien and the native species. Under conditions simulating future climate there was no difference in the proportion of time spent feeding among the three species. These behavioural changes translated to alterations in their dominance hierarchy (based on feeding success) with the most dominant species under present day conditions becoming less dominant under future conditions, and vice versa for the least dominant species. While empirical studies have predicted either reversal or strengthening of hierarchical dominance in animal species, we suggest that even moderate increases in ocean temperature and acidification can drive a homogenisation in behavioural competitiveness, eroding dominance differences among species that are linked to fitness-related traits in nature and hence important for their population persistence.

Continue reading ‘Climate change erodes competitive hierarchies among native, alien and range-extending crabs’

Uncovering mechanisms of global ocean change effects on the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) through metabolomics analysis

The Dungeness crab is an economically and ecologically important species distributed along the North American Pacific coast. To predict how Dungeness crab may physiologically respond to future global ocean change on a molecular level, we performed untargeted metabolomic approaches on individual Dungeness crab juveniles reared in treatments that mimicked current and projected future pH and dissolved oxygen conditions. We found 94 metabolites and 127 lipids responded in a condition-specific manner, with a greater number of known compounds more strongly responding to low oxygen than low pH exposure. Pathway analysis of these compounds revealed that juveniles may respond to low oxygen through evolutionarily conserved processes including downregulating glutathione biosynthesis and upregulating glycogen storage, and may respond to low pH by increasing ATP production. Most interestingly, we found that the response of juveniles to combined low pH and low oxygen exposure was most similar to the low oxygen exposure response, indicating low oxygen may drive the physiology of juvenile crabs more than pH. Our study elucidates metabolic dynamics that expand our overall understanding of how the species might respond to future ocean conditions and provides a comprehensive dataset that could be used in future ocean acidification response studies.

Continue reading ‘Uncovering mechanisms of global ocean change effects on the Dungeness crab (Cancer magister) through metabolomics analysis’

Hsp70 knockdown reduced the tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae to low pH and salinity

Highlights

• Injection of the white-leg shrimp with Hsp70 dsRNA eliminated Hsp70 mRNA and protein in post-larvae but had no apparent effect on survival.

• However, the survival of post larvae lacking Hsp70, as compared to those containing the heat shock protein, was reduced more than two-fold 48 h after exposure to low salinity and pH, strongly indicating that Hsp70 is required for protection against these abiotic stressors.

• This is the first time to our knowledge that RNAi has been used to demonstrate a role for Hsp70 in protecting P. vannamei post larvae against salinity and pH stress, an effect undoubtedly due to the importance Hsp70 assumes in maintaining protein homeostasis within cells.

Abstract

To better understand stress tolerance of the White leg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, RNA interference (RNAi) was used to assess the role of the molecular chaperone, Hsp70 in protecting post larvae against low pH and salinity. As revealed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoprobing of western blots, injection of L. vannamei post larvae with Hsp70 and Hsc70 dsRNA reduced Hsp70 but had no apparent effect on survival. However, the survival of post larvae lacking Hsp70, as compared to those containing the heat shock protein, was reduced more than two-fold 48 h after exposure to low salinity and pH, strongly indicating that Hsp70 is required for protection against these abiotic stressors. This is the first time to our knowledge that RNAi has been used to demonstrate a role for Hsp70 in protecting L. vannamei post larvae against salinity and pH stress, an effect undoubtedly due to the importance Hsp70 assumes in maintaining protein homeostasis within cells. Information generated in this work provides further understanding of Hsp70 function in the stress response of Penaeid shrimp and will assist in the development of strategies to mitigate abiotic stresses experienced by aquatic invertebrates during aquaculture.

Continue reading ‘Hsp70 knockdown reduced the tolerance of Litopenaeus vannamei post larvae to low pH and salinity’

Multifaceted mass spectrometric investigation of neuropeptide changes in Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, in response to low pH stress

The decrease of pH level in the water affects animals living in aquatic habitat, such as crustaceans. The molecular mechanisms enabling these animals to survive this environmental stress remain unknown. To understand the modulatory function of neuropeptides in crustaceans when encountering drops in pH level, we developed and implemented a multifaceted mass spectrometric platform to investigate the global neuropeptide changes in response to water acidification in the Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus. Neural tissues were collected at different incubation periods to monitor dynamic changes of neuropeptides under different stress conditions occurring in the animal. Neuropeptide families were found to exhibit distinct expression patterns in different tissues and even each isoform had its specific response to the stress. Circulating fluid in the crabs (hemolymph) was also analyzed after 2-h exposure to acidification, and together with results from tissue analysis, enabled the discovery of neuropeptides participating in the stress accommodation process as putative hormones. Two novel peptide sequences were detected in the hemolymph that appeared to be involved in the stress-related regulation in the crabs.

Continue reading ‘Multifaceted mass spectrometric investigation of neuropeptide changes in Atlantic blue crab, Callinectes sapidus, in response to low pH stress’

The potential impact of underwater exhausted CO2 from innovative ships on invertebrate communities

Liquefied natural gas (LNG) powered ships equipped with an underwater exhaust system to reduce the ship’s water resistance could form a future generation of energy-efficient ships. The potential consequences of the underwater exhaust gas to the local ecosystems are still unknown. Especially, the CO2 levels may locally exceed estimated future global levels. The present study exposes marine communities to a wide range of CO2 dosages, resulting in pH 8.6–5.8 that was remained for 49 days. We found that the zooplankton and benthic community were adversely affected by high CO2 exposure levels. In detail, (1) between pH 6.6 and 7.1 polychaete worms became the dominating group of the benthic community and their larvae dominated the zooplankton group. (2) Due to the reduced grazing pressure and the flux of nutrients from decaying organic material planktonic microalgae (phytoplankton) stared blooming at the highest exposure level. The periphyton (fouling microalgae) community was not able to take advantage under these conditions. (3) Marine snails’ (periwinkle) shell damage and high mortality were observed at pH < 6.6. However, the growth of the surviving periwinkles was not directly related to pH, but was positively correlated with the availability of periphyton and negatively correlated with the polychaete worm density that most likely also used the periphyton as food source. Our result indicates that the impact of underwater exhaust gasses depends on various factors including local biological and abiotic conditions, which will be included in future research.

Continue reading ‘The potential impact of underwater exhausted CO2 from innovative ships on invertebrate communities’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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