Posts Tagged 'BRcommunity'

Impact of carbonate saturation on large Caribbean benthic foraminifera assemblages

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and its dissolution in seawater have reduced ocean pH and carbonate ion concentrations, with potential implications on calcifying organisms. To assess the response of large Caribbean benthic foraminifera to low carbonate saturation conditions, we analyzed benthic foraminifers’ abundance and relative distribution in surface sediments in proximity to low-carbonate-saturation submarine springs and at adjacent control sites. Our results show that the total abundance of large benthic foraminifera was significantly lower at the low-pH submarine springs than at control sites, although responses were species specific. The relative abundance of high-magnesium, porcelaneous foraminifera was higher than that of hyaline foraminifera at the low-pH springs due to the abundant Archaias angulatus, a chlorophyte-bearing foraminifer, which secretes a large and robust test that is more resilient to dissolution at low-calcite saturation. The different assemblages found at the submarine springs indicate that calcareous symbiont-barren foraminifera are more sensitive to the effects of ocean acidification than agglutinated and symbiont-bearing foraminifera, suggesting that future ocean acidification will likely impact natural benthic foraminifera populations.

Continue reading ‘Impact of carbonate saturation on large Caribbean benthic foraminifera assemblages’

Spatio-temporal influence of physicochemical parameters on phytoplankton assemblage in coastal brackish lagoon: Gomishan Lagoon, Caspian Sea, Iran

The objective of this study was to determine the spatiotemporal distribution pattern of phytoplankton assemblage due to physico-chemical heterogeneity in coastal brackish lagoon of Gomishan. An inter-annual cycle of sampling period (April 2014-March 2015) and spatially stratified random sampling were established to examine 24 spatiotemporal scenarios. Water samples were preserved in 1 and 0.5 liter dark Polythene bottles from each station for assessing plankton community and chlorophyll a, respectively. The applied multivariate approach including hierarchical cluster analysis for (dis)similarity test of environmental factors, principle component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to illustrate the pattern of phytoplankton variability in relation to environmental characteristics. The results showed that mean salinity, temperature, pH, total nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, turbidity, and electrical conductivity (EC) were 22.8±5.9 (ppt), 23.4° C, 8.18, 2.49 (mg.l-1), 0.258 (mg.l-1), 3.39 (mg.l-1), 42.12 (NTU), and 3.78 (dS/m3), respectively. Scenarios S5AT, S5W, S6W, S6AT were distinguished from other scenarios with more than 90% similarity, subsequently S1SU and S5SU with about 80% similarity. Inter-annual mean density of total phytoplankton (cell.l-1) was 2.45×106, whereas in northern sector it was constant with only a peak in June, but in southern sector it was more tolerant, so in April it tended to increase with a peak (7.2×106) in July which was the maximum density over the year. The phytoplankton assemblage of the lagoon comprised 47 species from 5 different classes including Bacillariophyta, Pyrrophyta, Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, and Euglenophyta.

Continue reading ‘Spatio-temporal influence of physicochemical parameters on phytoplankton assemblage in coastal brackish lagoon: Gomishan Lagoon, Caspian Sea, Iran’

Elevated CO2 has little influence on the bacterial communities associated with the pH-tolerant coral, massive Porites spp.

Ocean acidification (OA) as a result of increased anthropogenic CO2 input into the atmosphere carries consequences for all ocean life. Low pH can cause a shift in coral-associated microbial communities of pCO2-sensitive corals, however, it remains unknown whether the microbial community is also influenced in corals known to be more tolerant to high pCO2/low pH. This study profiles the bacterial communities associated with the tissues of the pCO2-tolerant coral, massive Porites spp., from two natural CO2 seep sites in Papua New Guinea. Amplicon sequencing of the hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that microbial communities remained stable across CO2 seep sites (pH = 7.44–7.85) and adjacent control sites (ambient pH = 8.0–8.1). Microbial communities were more significantly influenced by reef location than pH, with the relative abundance of dominant microbial taxa differing between reefs. These results directly contrast with previous findings that increased CO2 has a strong effect on structuring microbial communities. The stable structure of microbial communities associated with the tissues of massive Porites spp. under high pCO2/low pH conditions confirms a high degree of tolerance by the whole Porites holobiont to OA, and suggest that pH tolerant corals such as Porites may dominate reef assemblages in an increasingly acidic ocean.

Continue reading ‘Elevated CO2 has little influence on the bacterial communities associated with the pH-tolerant coral, massive Porites spp.’

Coral reef carbonate budgets and ecological drivers in the central Red Sea – a naturally high temperature and high total alkalinity environment

The structural framework provided by corals is crucial for reef ecosystem function and services, but high seawater temperatures can be detrimental to the calcification capacity of reef-building organisms. The Red Sea is very warm, but total alkalinity (TA) is naturally high and beneficial for reef accretion. To date, we know little about how such detrimental and beneficial abiotic factors affect each other and the balance between calcification and erosion on Red Sea coral reefs, i.e., overall reef growth, in this unique ocean basin. To provide estimates of present-day reef growth dynamics in the central Red Sea, we measured two metrics of reef growth, i.e., in situ net-accretion/-erosion rates (Gnet) determined by deployment of limestone blocks and ecosystem-scale carbonate budgets (Gbudget), along a cross-shelf gradient (25km, encompassing nearshore, midshore, and offshore reefs). Along this gradient, we assessed multiple abiotic (i.e., temperature, salinity, diurnal pH fluctuation, inorganic nutrients, and TA) and biotic (i.e., calcifier and epilithic bioeroder communities) variables. Both reef growth metrics revealed similar patterns from nearshore to offshore: net-erosive, neutral, and net-accretion states. The average cross-shelf Gbudget was 0.66kg CaCO3m−2yr−1, with the highest budget of 2.44kg CaCO3m−2yr−1 measured in the offshore reef. These data are comparable to the contemporary Gbudgets from the western Atlantic and Indian oceans, but lie well below optimal reef production (5–10kg CaCO3m−2yr−1) and below maxima recently recorded in remote high coral cover reef sites. However, the erosive forces observed in the Red Sea nearshore reef contributed less than observed elsewhere. A higher TA accompanied reef growth across the shelf gradient, whereas stronger diurnal pH fluctuations were associated with negative carbonate budgets. Noteworthy for this oligotrophic region was the positive effect of phosphate, which is a central micronutrient for reef building corals. While parrotfish contributed substantially to bioerosion, our dataset also highlights coralline algae as important local reef builders. Altogether, our study establishes a baseline for reef growth in the central Red Sea that should be useful in assessing trajectories of reef growth capacity under current and future ocean scenarios.

Continue reading ‘Coral reef carbonate budgets and ecological drivers in the central Red Sea – a naturally high temperature and high total alkalinity environment’

Response of pelagic calcifiers (Foraminifera, Thecosomata) to ocean acidification during oligotrophic and simulated up-welling conditions in the subtropical North Atlantic off Gran Canaria

Planktonic Foraminifera and thecosome pteropods are major producers of calcite and aragonite in the ocean and play an important role for pelagic carbonate flux. The responses of planktonic foraminifers to ocean acidification (OA) are variable among the species tested and so far do not allow for reliable conclusion. Thecosome pteropods respond with reduced calcification and shell dissolution to OA and are considered at high risk especially at high latitudes. The present investigation was part of a large-scale in situ mesocosm experiment in the oligotrophic waters of the eastern subtropical North Atlantic. Over 62 days, we measured the abundance and vertical flux of pelagic foraminifers and thecosome pteropods as part of a natural plankton community over a range of OA scenarios. A bloom phase was initiated by the introduction of deep-water collected from approx. 650 m depth simulating a natural up-welling event. Foraminifers occurred throughout the entire experiment in both the water column and the sediment traps. Pteropods were present only in small numbers and disappeared after the first two weeks of the experiment. No significant CO2 related effects were observed for foraminifers, but cumulative sedimentary flux was reduced at the highest CO2 concentrations. This flux reduction was most likely accompanying an observed flux reduction of particulate organic matter (POM) so that less foraminifers were intercepted and transported downward.

Continue reading ‘Response of pelagic calcifiers (Foraminifera, Thecosomata) to ocean acidification during oligotrophic and simulated up-welling conditions in the subtropical North Atlantic off Gran Canaria’

In situ responses of the sponge microbiome to ocean acidification

Climate change is causing rapid changes in reef structure, biodiversity, and function, though most sponges are predicted to tolerate conditions projected for 2100. Sponges maintain intimate relationships with microbial symbionts, with previous studies suggesting that microbial flexibility may be pivotal to success under ocean acidification. We performed a reciprocal transplantation of the coral reef sponges Coelocarteria singaporensis and Stylissa cf. flabelliformis between a control reef site and an adjacent CO2 vent site in Papua New Guinea to explore how the sponge microbiome responds to ocean acidification. Microbial communities of C. singaporensis, which differed initially between sites, did not shift towards characteristic control or vent microbiomes, even though relative abundances of Chloroflexi and Cyanobacteria increased and that of Thaumarchaeota decreased seven months after transplantation to the control site. Microbial communities of S. cf. flabelliformis, which were initially stable between sites, did not respond specifically to transplantation but collectively exhibited a significant change over time, with a relative increase in Thaumarchaeota and decrease in Proteobacteria in all treatment groups. The lack of a community shift upon transplantation to the vent site suggests that microbial flexibility, at least in the adult life-history stage, does not necessarily underpin host survival under ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘In situ responses of the sponge microbiome to ocean acidification’

Primary production and calcification rates of algae‐dominated reef flat and seagrass communities

Monitoring variability in coral reef primary production and calcification is needed to understand changes over time and between reef systems, which helps separate differences due to natural and/or anthropogenic factors happening now and in the future. This study measured net productivity and calcification for two reef systems at Shark Bay, Heron Reef in the southern Great Barrier Reef and Saipan Lagoon, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. Net primary productivity and calcification were strongly correlated for reef flats with an adjusted R2 = 0.66. Night time dissolution occurred at Shark Bay reef flat with an average of −12.66  mmol  CaCO3 · m−2 · hr−1, while calcification increased at night for the Saipan reef flat. For both reef flat sites, net productivity from oxygen flux was much lower than rates calculated from change in dissolved inorganic carbon. This study provided the first baseline estimates of net productivity and calcification for a reef flat and seagrass community in Saipan Lagoon. The seagrass community had the lowest productivity of all sites. However, the high presence of calcareous algae at the site highlights the need for more research on the carbonate chemistry of these habitats. All sites had high net productivity that was most likely associated with the dominant presence of algae. Continue reading ‘Primary production and calcification rates of algae‐dominated reef flat and seagrass communities’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book