Posts Tagged 'BRcommunity'

Influence of physico-chemical parameters and pCO2 concentration on mangroves-associated polychaetes at Pichavaram, southeast coast of India

Studies related to partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) concentration linking with polychaete diversity in mangrove ecosystems are limited in time and space. Therefore, the present study was conducted during July 2017–June 2018 on a monthly interval and reported the concentration of pCO2 coupled with physico-chemical parameters in relation to polychaetes diversity in Pichavaram mangroves ecosystem, southeast coast of India. Totally, 41 species were identified and the most dominant species were Prionospio cirrifera, P. cirrobranchiata, P. sexoculata, Prionospio sp. and Capitella capitata. Among the stations, higher polychaete diversity was found in marine zone compared to other zones. The correlation reflected a significant positive linear relationship between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC) and CO2 versus pCO2. The carbon species DIC, DOC, POC and pCO2 concentration ranged from 1100.1 to 2053.3(µmol/kg), 165.7–1954.0(µmol/kg), 4.5–89.2(µmol/kg) and 184.7–3763.1(µatm), respectively. Further, the statistical analyses revealed that there was a strong correlation among carbon species with distribution of polychaete species in various zones of mangroves and thus indicating pivotal role in occurrence of polychaetes in mangroves.

Continue reading ‘Influence of physico-chemical parameters and pCO2 concentration on mangroves-associated polychaetes at Pichavaram, southeast coast of India’

Epibenthic community variation along an acidified tropical estuarine system

The benthic communities associated with hard substrata in tropical estuaries (rocky surfaces and mangrove roots) are underexplored compared to sediment-associated communities. Being unaffected by within-sediment chemistry, rocky surface communities are exposed to water-column chemistry. Natural and anthropogenic acidic inflows into estuaries are common, yet understanding of how low pH estuarine water impacts communities is limited. This study investigated variation in a rocky substratum benthic community along a steep pH and carbonate saturation gradient in a tropical estuary. Samples (n=72) samples were collected from four stations in the Brunei estuarine system, South East Asia (pH 5.78 – 8.1, salinity 0.1 – 29.5 psu). Species richness, diversity and abundance were greatest at the seaward end of the estuary (where pH and salinity were high), reduced in the middle estuary, and relatively high again in the upper estuary. A total of 34 species were recorded, with station abundances varying between 95 and 336 individuals/100 cm2. At a coarse taxonomic level (class/order), multivariate analyses revealed three distinct communities, a tanaid–polychaete dominated community, a mussel–dipteran community, and a mussel–amphipod–dipteran community. The observed shift from amphipod-dominance to polychaete-dominance along a decreasing pH gradient is consistent with the community changes seen in open ocean systems influenced by elevated pCO2. This study is the first description of community structure variation for hard-substratum invertebrates in an old-world tropical estuary. It shows that acidified estuaries offer insights into community-level responses to marine acidification in general.

Continue reading ‘Epibenthic community variation along an acidified tropical estuarine system’

Stress across life stages: impacts, responses and consequences for marine organisms

Highlights

• The published data were analysed to assess carry-over effects on marine organisms.

• The capacity of larvae to recover from early starvation and hypoxia was tested.

• Food limitation is the main driver of negative carry-over effects on juvenile growth.

• Larvae can recover from the early stress without negative imprints as juveniles.

• Carry-over effects depend on the duration of stress relative to larval period.

Abstract

Population dynamics of marine organisms are strongly driven by their survival in early life stages. As life stages are tightly linked, environmental stress experienced by organisms in the early life stage can worsen their performance in the subsequent life stage (i.e. carry-over effect). However, stressful events can be ephemeral and hence organisms may be able to counter the harmful effects of transient stress. Here, we analysed the published data to examine the relative strength of carry-over effects on the juvenile growth of marine organisms, caused by different stressors (hypoxia, salinity, starvation, ocean acidification and stress-induced delayed metamorphosis) experienced in their larval stage. Based on 31 relevant published studies, we revealed that food limitation had the greatest negative carry-over effect on juvenile growth. In the laboratory, we tested the effects of short-term early starvation and hypoxia on the larval growth and development of a model organism, polychaete Hydroides elegans, and assessed whether the larvae can accommodate the early stress to maintain their performance as juveniles (settlement and juvenile growth). Results showed that early starvation for 3 days (∼50% of normal larval period) retarded larval growth and development, leading to subsequent reduced settlement rate and juvenile growth. When the starvation period decreased to 1 day, however, the larvae could recover from early starvation through compensatory growth and performed normal as juveniles (c.f. control). Early exposure to hypoxia did not affect larval growth (body length) and juvenile growth (tube length), but caused malformation of larvae and reduced settlement rate. We conclude that the adverse effects of transient stress can be carried across life stages, but depend on the duration of stressful events relative to larval period. As carry-over effects are primarily driven by energy acquisition, how food availability varies over time and space is fundamental to the population dynamics of marine organisms.

Continue reading ‘Stress across life stages: impacts, responses and consequences for marine organisms’

Climate change, human impacts, and coastal ecosystems in the Anthropocene

Coastal zones, the world’s most densely populated regions, are increasingly threatened by climate change stressors — rising and warming seas, intensifying storms and droughts, and acidifying oceans. Although coastal zones have been affected by local human activities for centuries, how local human impacts and climate change stressors may interact to jeopardize coastal ecosystems remains poorly understood. Here we provide a review on interactions between climate change and local human impacts (e.g., interactions between sea level rise and anthropogenic land subsidence, which are forcing Indonesia to relocate its capital city) in the coastal realm. We highlight how these interactions can impair and, at times, decimate a variety of coastal ecosystems, and examine how understanding and incorporating these interactions can reshape theory on climate change impacts and ecological resilience. We further discuss implications of interactions between climate change and local human impacts for coastal conservation and elucidate the context when and where local conservation is more likely to buffer the impacts of climate change, attempting to help reconcile the growing debate about whether to shift much of the investment in local conservation to global CO2 emission reductions. Our review underscores that an enhanced understanding of interactions between climate change and local human impacts is of profound importance to improving predictions of climate change impacts, devising climate-smart conservation actions, and helping enhance adaption of coastal societies to climate change in the Anthropocene.

Continue reading ‘Climate change, human impacts, and coastal ecosystems in the Anthropocene’

Influence of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii on coral reef mesocosms exposed to ocean acidification and experimentally elevated temperatures

Highlights

• The combined effect of OA and rising temperatures stimulated the growth of macroalgae.

• OA resulted in higher coral calcification rates when corals were co-incubated with seagrass.

• Macroalgal growth was lower in seagrass-containing mesocosms.

• Coral and macroalgal, but not seagrass, growth suffered at 31°C under OA conditions.

• Seagrass helped to stabilize the system’s metabolism in response to projected climate change stressors.

Abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) and warming currently threaten coastal ecosystems across the globe. However, it is possible that the former process could actually benefit marine plants, such as seagrasses. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the effects of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii can increase the resilience of OA-challenged coral reef mesocosms whose temperatures were gradually elevated. It was found that shoot density, photosynthetic efficiency, and leaf growth rate of the seagrass actually increased with rising temperatures under OA. Macroalgal growth rates were higher in the seagrass-free mesocosms, but the calcification rate of the model reef coral Pocillopora damicornis was higher in coral reef mesocosms featuring seagrasses under OA condition at 25 and 28°C. Both the macroalgal growth rate and the coral calcification rate decreased in all mesocosms when the temperature was raised to 31°C under OA conditions. However, the variation in gross primary production, ecosystem respiration, and net ecosystem production in the seagrass mesocosms was lower than in seagrass-free controls, suggesting that the presence of seagrass in the mesocosms helped to stabilize the metabolism of the system in response to simulated climate change.

Continue reading ‘Influence of the seagrass Thalassia hemprichii on coral reef mesocosms exposed to ocean acidification and experimentally elevated temperatures’

Life in the freezer : the role of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the physiological and biochemical adaptations of Antarctic microalgae

Marine microalgae are the fuel of the Antarctic ecosystem and changes in primary production can impact the entire food web, as well as the nutritional value at the base of the food web which is dependant not only on biomass but also the macromolecular content of the individual species. Primary production by Antarctic microalgae is also of key importance in the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and sulfur. Antarctica has a unique and dynamic environment where microalgae are evolutionarily adapted to live in freezing temperatures under extreme and oscillating environmental gradients exposing them to solar, osmotic, oxidative and nutrient stress. This thesis investigated the physiological and biochemical adaptations of Antarctic microalgae, focusing on the role dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) plays in surviving in the harsh Antarctic environment. This thesis provides new knowledge into who are the DMSP producers in Antarctica, the spatial dynamics and role of DMSP in natural Antarctic microbial communities. In a screening study, 16 species of Antarctic microalgae were characterised by their growth rates, physiological health, carbon content, DMSP production and DMSP lyase activity. We found that DMSP production and rates of lyase activity were species-specific, varying within taxa, and that diatom species can produce significant levels of DMSP, in the same magnitude as known DMSP producing haptophytes, 𝘗𝘩𝘢𝘦𝘰𝘤𝘺𝘴𝘵𝘪𝘴 𝘴𝘱𝘱.. In a descriptive study, we take a geographical look at the DMSP content and lyase activity, macromolecular profiles and productivity of three different Antarctic microalgal communities from three unique Antarctic environments; the open ocean to the sea ice and a hypersaline lake. We reveal that species diversity is reduced with more challenging environmental conditions and the species with the greatest phenotypic plasticity dominate in harsher settings. This thesis found that macromolecular content of microalgae changes based on environment, whereby sea-ice microalgae were higher in caloric value due to heavy investment in lipids compared to pelagic species. Using manipulative laboratory studies, we delivered new insight into the response of DMSP to environmental stress and future climate change scenarios as well as macromolecular responses at the species and community levels. Exposure to hypersaline conditions did not induce increased DMSP production, potentially due to the salinity shift being too rapid. In addition, there was no significant change in DMSP or macromolecular concentrations in response to ocean acidification at the species level, however there was a difference at the community level due to a shift in community composition.

Continue reading ‘Life in the freezer : the role of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) in the physiological and biochemical adaptations of Antarctic microalgae’

Marine microbial community dynamics and responses to ocean acidification

Marine microbes, including both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, are the basal components of marine food webs and play a fundamental role in global biogeochemical cycling. Marine phytoplankton are responsible for approximately 50% of Earth’s primary production, while heterotrophic bacteria and archaea modulate carbon and nutrient cycling in the marine environment. The structure and function of marine microbial communities are closely coupled. Consequently, understanding the factors which govern the distribution of marine microbes through space and time has key implications for food webs and biogeochemical cycling. The development of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revolutionised marine microbial ecology by facilitating the profiling of microbial communities in high taxonomic resolution. In this thesis high-throughput sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes was used to achieve two major aims. The first aim was to investigate the ecological processes which underpin microbial community assembly in the marine environment. The second aim was to investigate the responses of marine microbial communities to near- future ocean acidification.

Two studies were performed towards the first aim of this thesis. In the first study, the microbial biogeography of the South Pacific Gyre was characterised across three depths at 22 stations along a 2,000 km longitudinal transect of the region. Microbial community composition was homogenous across horizontal spatial scales in the surface waters of the South Pacific Gyre, but varied significantly between surface waters and the deep chlorophyll maximum. A null model approach was used to unveil the ecological processes driving microbial community assembly in the region. Microbial communities in the surface waters were assembled primarily through the deterministic process of homogeneous selection, indicating that selection pressures were sufficient to overwhelm the influence of dispersal effects and ecological drift across vast horizontal spatial distances in the region. Dispersal limitation was comparatively more influential in the assembly of microbial communities between the surface waters and the deep chlorophyll maximum, indicating that stochastic processes play a significant role in microbial community assembly between these contiguous water masses.

In the second study, the bacterioplankton and protist biogeography of the Southland Front system was characterised in surface waters at 24 stations spanning four water masses. Both bacterioplankton and protist communities displayed significant structuring according to water mass, although this effect was most pronounced in bacterioplankton communities. A null model approach revealed that bacterioplankton communities were primarily assembled through homogeneous selection, while protist communities were primarily assembled through dispersal limitation and ecological drift across the Southland Front system. These findings highlight that distinct ecological processes can underpin the assembly of co- occurring bacterioplankton and protist communities, and that hydrographic features such as oceanic fronts play an important role in structuring both bacterioplankton and protist communities.

Two studies were conducted towards the second aim of this thesis. In the first study, the effect of ocean acidification and warming on bacterioplankton communities was investigated at the fringe and ultra-oligotrophic centre of the South Pacific Gyre using trace-metal clean deckboard incubation experiments. Bacterioplankton community composition and function were resistant to ocean acidification alone, and combined with warming, at the fringe of the South Pacific Gyre. Subtle but significant responses of bacterioplankton community composition to ocean acidification were observed at the ultra- oligotrophic centre of the South Pacific Gyre. These results suggest that bacterioplankton community responses to ocean acidification may be modulated by nutrient regimes. Nonetheless, the findings of this study did not diverge substantially from the narrative that bacterioplankton communities are resistant to near-future acidification.

In the second study, the effect of ocean acidification on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic biofilm communities was investigated at the Shikine-Jima CO2 seep system in Japan. The composition of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities was profoundly affected by ocean acidification through early successional stages, though these responses were not associated with shifts in community diversity or evenness. Notably, the relative abundance of the nuisance algae Prymnesium sp. and Biddulphia biddulphiana were enhanced under high CO2 conditions. These findings suggest that benthic biofilm communities may be vulnerable to near-future ocean acidification, and that changes in biofilm community composition may contribute to the reorganisation of coastal ecosystem observed at CO2 seeps globally.

In its entirety, this thesis significantly contributes to our understanding of the spatial dynamics of marine microbial communities by revealing the highly deterministic nature of bacterioplankton community assembly in the coastal waters and central gyre of the South Pacific Ocean. Furthermore, the findings of this thesis highlight the dominance of stochastic processes in structuring marine protist communities across short spatial scales, which may contribute to challenges in correlating abiotic environmental variables with marine protist community composition through space. The resistance of bacterioplankton communities to ocean acidification at the fringe of the South Pacific Gyre, and subtle responses to ocean acidification at the ultra-oligotrophic centre of the South Pacific Gyre broadly support the notion that bacterioplankton communities are resilient to near-future ocean acidification. In contrast, the composition of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic biofilm communities was profoundly affected by ocean acidification, leading to the proliferation of harmful algae with potentially severe consequences for coastal marine environments.

Continue reading ‘Marine microbial community dynamics and responses to ocean acidification’


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