Posts Tagged 'phytoplankton'

Interactive effects of seawater carbonate chemistry, light intensity and nutrient availability on physiology and calcification of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

Rising atmospheric carbonate dioxide (CO2) levels lead to increasing CO2 concentration and declining pH in seawater, as well as ocean warming. This enhances stratification and shoals the upper mixed layer (UML), hindering the transport of nutrients from deeper waters and exposing phytoplankton to increased light intensities. In the present study, we investigated combined impacts of CO2 levels (410 μatm (LC) and 925 μatm (HC)), light intensities (80–480 μmol photons m−2 s−1) and nutrient concentrations [101 μmol L−1 dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and 10.5 μmol L−1 dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) (HNHP); 8.8 μmol L−1 DIN and 10.5 μmol L−1 DIP (LN); 101 μmol L−1 DIN and 0.4 μmol L−1 DIP (LP)] on growth, photosynthesis and calcification of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi. HC and LN synergistically decreased growth rates of E. huxleyi at all light intensities. High light intensities compensated for inhibition of LP on growth rates at LC, but exacerbated inhibition of LP at HC. These results indicate that the ability of E. huxleyi to compete for nitrate and phosphate may be reduced in future oceans with high CO2 and high light intensities. Low nutrient concentrations increased particulate inorganic carbon quotas and the sensitivity of maximum electron transport rates to light intensity. Light-use efficiencies for carbon fixation and calcification rates were significantly larger than that of growth. Our results suggest that interactive effects of multiple environmental factors on coccolithophores need to be considered when predicting their contributions to the biological carbon pump and feedbacks to climate change.

Continue reading ‘Interactive effects of seawater carbonate chemistry, light intensity and nutrient availability on physiology and calcification of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi’

Simultaneous shifts in elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids of Emiliania huxleyi in response to environmental changes

Climate-driven changes in environmental conditions have significant and complex effects on marine ecosystems. Variability in phytoplankton elements and biochemicals can be important for global ocean biogeochemistry and ecological functions, while there is currently limited understanding on how elements and biochemicals respond to the changing environments in key coccolithophore species such as Emiliania huxleyi. We investigated responses of elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids (FAs) in a strain of E. huxleyi under three temperatures (12, 18 and 24 °C), three N : P supply ratios (molar ratios 10:1, 24:1 and 63:1) and two pCO2 levels (560 and 2400 µatm). Overall, C : N : P stoichiometry showed the most pronounced response to N : P supply ratios, with high ratios of particulate organic carbon vs. particulate organic nitrogen (POC : PON) and low ratios of PON vs. particulate organic phosphorus (PON : POP) in low-N media, and high POC : POP and PON : POP in low-P media. The ratio of particulate inorganic carbon vs. POC (PIC : POC) and polyunsaturated fatty acid proportions strongly responded to temperature and pCO2, both being lower under high pCO2 and higher with warming. We observed synergistic interactions between warming and nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2) on elemental cellular contents and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) proportion in most cases, indicating the enhanced effect of warming under nutrient deficiency (and high pCO2). Our results suggest differential sensitivity of elements and FAs to the changes in temperature, nutrient availability and pCO2 in E. huxleyi, which is to some extent unique compared to non-calcifying algal classes. Thus, simultaneous changes of elements and FAs should be considered when predicting future roles of E. huxleyi in the biotic-mediated connection between biogeochemical cycles, ecological functions and climate change.

Continue reading ‘Simultaneous shifts in elemental stoichiometry and fatty acids of Emiliania huxleyi in response to environmental changes’

Dimethylsulfide (DMS) production in polar oceans may be resilient to ocean acidification

Emissions of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the polar oceans play a key role in atmospheric processes and climate. Therefore, it is important we increase our understanding of how DMS production in these regions may respond to environmental change. The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). However, our understanding of the polar DMS response is limited to two studies conducted in Arctic waters, where in both cases DMS concentrations decreased with increasing acidity. Here, we report on our findings from seven summertime shipboard microcosm experiments undertaken in a variety of locations in the Arctic Ocean and Southern Ocean. These experiments reveal no significant effects of short term OA on the net production of DMS by planktonic communities. This is in contrast to identical experiments from temperate NW European shelf waters where surface ocean communities responded to OA with significant increases in dissolved DMS concentrations. A meta-analysis of the findings from both temperate and polar waters (n = 18 experiments) reveals clear regional differences in the DMS response to OA. We suggest that these regional differences in DMS response reflect the natural variability in carbonate chemistry to which the respective communities may already be adapted. Future temperate oceans could be more sensitive to OA resulting in a change in DMS emissions to the atmosphere, whilst perhaps surprisingly DMS emissions from the polar oceans may remain relatively unchanged. By demonstrating that DMS emissions from geographically distinct regions may vary in response to OA, our results may facilitate a better understanding of Earth’s future climate. Our study suggests that the way in which processes that generate DMS respond to OA may be regionally distinct and this should be taken into account in predicting future DMS emissions and their influence on Earth’s climate.

Continue reading ‘Dimethylsulfide (DMS) production in polar oceans may be resilient to ocean acidification’

Resilience by diversity: large intraspecific differences in climate change responses of an Arctic diatom

The potential for adaptation of phytoplankton to future climate is often extrapolated based on single strain responses of a representative species, ignoring variability within and between species. The aim of this study was to approximate the range of strain-specific reaction patterns within an Arctic diatom population, which selection can act upon. In a laboratory experiment, we first incubated natural communities from an Arctic fjord under present and future conditions. In a second step, single strains of the diatom Thalassiosira hyalina were isolated from these selection environments and exposed to a matrix of temperature (3°C and 6°C) and pCO2 levels (180 μatm, 370 μatm, 1000 μatm, 1400 μatm) to establish reaction norms for growth, production rates, and elemental quotas. The results revealed interactive effects of temperature and pCO2 as well as wide tolerance ranges. Between strains, however, sensitivities and optima differed greatly. These strain-specific responses corresponded well with their respective selection environments of the previous community incubation. We therefore hypothesize that intraspecific variability and the selection between coexisting strains may pose an underestimated source of species’ plasticity. Thus, adaptation of phytoplankton assemblages may also occur by selection within rather than only between species, and species-wide inferences from single strain experiments should be treated with caution.

Continue reading ‘Resilience by diversity: large intraspecific differences in climate change responses of an Arctic diatom’

Do increasing CO2 concentration impacted on changing phytoplankton assemblages?

The effect of seawater pCO2 concentration of 280, 380, 550, 650, 750 and 1000 ppm on the changing of phytoplankton assemblage was determined through a mesocosm experiment at the Barrang Lompo Island. The experiment was run for 48 and 96 hours without nutrient enrichment. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of the increasing CO2 concentration on the changing phytoplankton assemblages. The result showed that Bacillariophyceae has been the most important algal group accounting for 74.5% for 48 hours of incubation period. Moreover, Diatomaceae was the most dominant algal group for 96 hours of the incubation period, accounting for 50.9%. There was no clear trend of Shannon diversity (H’) and the evenness values between CO2 concentration and incubation period. There was a clear grouping of species assemblages between the incubation periods. ANOSIM result showed that there is no significant difference in species assemblage among CO2 treatments. On the other hand, a significant difference in species assemblage between incubation periods between CO2 concentration treatments was observed. The three taxa that are most responsible for the dissimilarity were Rhizosolenia fragilissima (10.1%), Gyrosigma acuminatum (9.3%), and Biddulphia sinensis (9.2%).
Continue reading ‘Do increasing CO2 concentration impacted on changing phytoplankton assemblages?’

Rapid evolution of highly variable competitive abilities in a key phytoplankton species

Climate change challenges plankton communities, but evolutionary adaptation could mitigate the potential impacts. Here, we tested with the phytoplankton species Emiliania huxleyi whether adaptation to a stressor under laboratory conditions leads to equivalent fitness gains in a more natural environment. We found that fitness advantages that had evolved under laboratory conditions were masked by pleiotropic effects in natural plankton communities. Moreover, new genotypes with highly variable competitive abilities evolved on timescales significantly shorter than climate change.

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Marine iron biogeochemistry under a changing climate: impact on the phytoplankton and the diazotroph communities

Diatoms constitute a major group of phytoplankton, accounting for ~20% of the world’s primary production. Biological dinitrogen (N2) fixation by diazotrophic cyanobacteria has great biogeochemical implications in nitrogen (N) cycling, being the major source of new N input to the oceans and thereby contributing significantly to carbon (C) export production. It has been shown that iron (Fe) can be the limiting nutrient for phytoplankton growth, in particular, in the HNLC (High Nutrient Low Chlorophyll) regions. Iron plays thus an essential role in governing the marine primary productivity and the efficiency of biological carbon pump. Oceanic systems are undergoing continuous modifications at varying rates and magnitudes as a result of changing climate. The objective of our research is to evaluate the effects of global climate change processes (changing dust deposition, ocean acidification and sea-surface warming) on phytoplankton growth, biological N2 fixation, biogeochemical cycles, and the controlling role of Fe within these impacts. Laboratory culture experiments using a marine diatom Chaetoceros socialis were conducted at two temperatures (13 ℃ and 18 ℃) and two carbon dioxide partial pressures (pCO2, 400 µatm and 800 µatm). The present study clearly highlights the effect of ocean acidification on enhancing the release of Fe upon dust deposition. Our results also confirm that being a potential source of Fe, mineral dust provides in addition a readily utilizable source of macronutrients such as phosphorus (P) and silicon (Si). However, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations and ocean acidification may also have an adverse impact on diatom growth, causing a decrease in cell size and possible further changes in phytoplankton composition. Meanwhile, increasing temperature and ocean warming may lead to the reduction of diatom production as well as cell size, inducing poleward shifts in the biogeographic distribution of diatoms. Numerous factors can affect the extent of N2 fixation. A better understanding of the major environmental and nutrient controls governing this process is highly required. Iron and/or phosphorus are thought to be limiting factors in most oceanic regions. Special attention has been given to studying the effects of mineral dust deposition which is believed to promote N2 fixation as it increases the availability of both Fe and P. Three laboratory bioassays (+Fe, +P, +Dust) via incubation experiments were performed on Trichodesmium IMS101, an important contributor to marine N2 fixation. Each addition of Fe, P or desert dust was found to stimulate the growth and the N2 fixation activity of Trichodesmium IMS101. Several adaptive nutrient utilization strategies were observed, such as a Fe luxury uptake mechanism, a P-sparing effect and colony formation. In addition, during a field study in the temperate Northeast Atlantic Ocean using natural phytoplankton assemblages, N2 fixation was remarkably stimulated through the addition of dissolved Fe under low temperature and depleted P conditions, highlighting the critical role of Fe. At the time of this study, no Trichodesmium filaments were found in the region of investigation. The diazotrophic community was dominated by the unicellular cyanobacteria symbiont (prymnesiophyte-UCYN-A1) and heterotrophic diazotrophs, therefore suggesting that Fe could be the ultimate factor limiting N2 fixation of these smaller diazotrophs as well. Recently, the effects of ongoing climate change (ocean warming and acidification) on N2 fixation drew much attention, but various studies led to controversial conclusions. Semi-continuous dilution growth experiments were conducted on Trichodesmium IMS101 under future high pCO2 and warming seawater conditions (800 µatm and 28 °C) and compared to the present-day situations (400 µatm and 24 °C). The results indicate that higher pCO2 and therefore ocean acidification may be beneficial for Trichodesmium growth and N2 fixation. However, the present study suggests that Fe or P limitation in oligotrophic seawaters may offset the stimulation induced on Trichodesmium IMS101 due to ocean acidification. In contrast, ocean warming may not play an important role in Trichodesmium growth and N2 fixation with a 4 °C increase from 24 °C to 28 °C. Nevertheless, ocean warming was previously predicted to cause a shift in the geographical distribution of Trichodesmium toward higher latitudes, extending its niche to subtropical regions and potentially reducing its range in tropical ocean basins.Overall, the biological responses of the marine diatom Chaetoceros socialis and the N2-fixing cyanobacteria Trichodesmium IMS101 to several key climate change processes were presented and discussed in this study. These processes included dust deposition, and ocean acidification and warming, which were shown to have a significant impact on oceanic phytoplankton growth, cell size and primary productivity, biological N2 fixation, phytoplankton distribution and community composition. They would thus affect the C, N, P, Si and Fe biogeochemical cycles in various ways. Iron, as one of the most crucial micronutrients for marine phytoplankton, has in particular strong links to climate change and biogeochemical feedback mechanisms.

Continue reading ‘Marine iron biogeochemistry under a changing climate: impact on the phytoplankton and the diazotroph communities’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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