Posts Tagged 'North Pacific'

Exploring the interactions and implications between ocean acidification and eutrophication in Budd inlet

Ocean Acidification is one of the greatest symptoms that climate change has inflicted on marine environments. Oceans naturally absorb carbon dioxide, however anthropogenic CO2 has manifested greater adverse influences on marine life, which is stressing our ability to use these resources. Ocean pH has dropped 30% to 8.1 since the industrial age, however the pH reduction along coastlines and within estuaries has deteriorated even more, having a greater need to be monitored. Acidification is worse, especially around the Puget Sound because of high nutrient loads flowing into the Puget Sound from coastal communities, and other human industrial scale activities like agriculture. Nutrients, primarily in the form of nitrogen, increase algae and microbe primary productivity, eventually outputting new CO2 through biological processes, resulting in amplification of the effect greenhouse gases are already exerting on marine ecosystems. This thesis project explored this relationship by looking at water samples collected from five locations in Budd inlet, and were tested for pH, nitrate, alkalinity. These variables were collected with the goal of determining if there was a noticeable difference between sample locations, and if there was a correlation between these variables all in context to the city of Olympia and Capitol Lake having some influence on findings. Results found no clear statistically significant differences between each variables and sample sites, however pH and nitrate concentrations had the greatest correlation. This suggests nutrients are indeed contributing significantly towards furthering acidification, more so than can be determined by CO2 emissions levels alone. More research is warranted on establishing causal relationships between nutrient loads and acidification levels in all Puget Sound inlets.

Continue reading ‘Exploring the interactions and implications between ocean acidification and eutrophication in Budd inlet’

Biogeochemical anomalies at two southern California Current System moorings during the 2014‐16 Warm Anomaly‐El Niño sequence

We analyzed impacts of the 2014‐15 Pacific Warm Anomaly and 2015‐16 El Niño on physical and biogeochemical variables at two southern California Current System moorings (CCE2, nearshore upwelling off Point Conception; CCE1, offshore California Current). Nitrate and Chl‐a fluorescence were < 1 μM and < 1 Standardized Fluorescence Unit, respectively, at CCE2 for the entire durations of the Warm Anomaly and El Niño, the two longest periods of such low values in our timeseries. Negative nitrate and Chl‐a anomalies at CCE2 were interrupted briefly by upwelling conditions in spring 2015. Near‐surface temperature anomalies appeared simultaneously at both moorings in spring 2014, indicating region‐wide onset of Warm Anomaly temperatures, although sustained negative nitrate and Chl‐a anomalies only occurred offshore at CCE1 during El Niño (summer 2015‐spring 2016). Warm Anomaly temperature changes were expressed more strongly in near‐surface (< 40 m) than subsurface (75 m) waters at both moorings, while El Niño produced comparable temperature anomalies at near‐surface and subsurface depths. Nearshore Ωaragonite at 76 m showed notably fewer undersaturation events during both warm periods, suggesting an environment more conducive to calcifying organisms. Planktonic calcifying molluscs (pteropods and heteropods) increased markedly in springs 2014 and 2016 and remained modestly elevated in spring 2015. Moorings provide high‐frequency measurements essential for resolving the onset timing of anomalous conditions and frequency and duration of short‐term (days‐to‐weeks) perturbations (reduced nitrate, aragonite undersaturation events) that can affect marine organisms.

Continue reading ‘Biogeochemical anomalies at two southern California Current System moorings during the 2014‐16 Warm Anomaly‐El Niño sequence’

Carbonate characteristics of the Gulf of Anadyr waters

The first field data describing the dynamics of the carbonate system, the aragonite saturation state, and CO2 fluxes between the ocean and the atmosphere in the Gulf of Anadyr in the late autumn season are presented. It was established that during this period the gulf waters absorbed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere at a rate of –22.5 mmol m–2 day–1, which determined the “classical” mechanism of seawater acidification due to uptake of excess atmospheric CO2. In general, surface waters of the gulf were supersaturated with respect to aragonite. The exception was the highly dynamic region of Anadyr Strait, where the vertical distribution of the investigated parameters was homogeneous, the surface waters were close to equilibrium with respect to aragonite, and the CO2 flux was directed to the atmosphere. The bottom waters of the gulf, in contrast, were characterized by significant seasonal corrosivity due to remineralization of organic matter. It was shown that, during the late fall, relatively salty and acidic, quasi-equilibrium with respect to aragonite, and oxygen-depleted waters with high concentrations of nutrients and CO2 enter into the Chirikov Basin and further to the Arctic Ocean with Navarin Current.

Continue reading ‘Carbonate characteristics of the Gulf of Anadyr waters’

CO2 and HCl-induced seawater acidification impair the ingestion and digestion of blue mussel Mytilus edulis


1. The effect of two acidifying treatments, CO2 enrichment and HCl addition, on Mytilus edulis manifests different degrees of damage.

2. The effect of seawater acidification on mussels is not from a single factor (H+) but other action factors related to CO2.

3. Seawater acidification might inhibit the energy intake of mussels through interfering with the processes of ingestion and digestion.


Anthropogenic CO2 emissions lead to seawater acidification that reportedly exerts deleterious impacts on marine organisms, especially on calcifying organisms such as mussels. A 21-day experiment focusing on the impacts of seawater acidification on the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, was performed in this study, within which two acidifying treatments, CO2 enrichment and HCl addition, were applied. Two acidifying pH values (7.7 and 7.1) and the alteration of the key physiological processes of ingestion and digestion were estimated. To thoroughly investigate the impact of acidification on mussels, a histopathological study approach was adopted. The results showed that: (1) Seawater acidification induced either by CO2 enrichment or HCl addition impaired the gill structure. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results suggested that the most obvious impacts were inflammatory lesions and edema, while more distinct alterations, including endoplasmic reticulum edema, nuclear condensation and chromatin plate-like condensation, were placed in the CO2-treated groups compared to HCl-treated specimens. The ciliary activity of the CO2 group was significantly inhibited simultaneously, leading to an obstacle in food intake. (2) Seawater acidification prominently damaged the structure of digestive glands, and the enzymatic activities of amylase, protease and lipase significantly decreased, which might indicate that the digestion was suppressed. The negative impacts induced by the CO2 group were more severe than that by the HCl group. The present results suggest that acidification interferes with the processes of ingestion and digestion, which potentially inhibits the energy intake of mussels.

Continue reading ‘CO2 and HCl-induced seawater acidification impair the ingestion and digestion of blue mussel Mytilus edulis’

Prediction of pH value by multi-classification in the Weizhou Island area

Ocean acidification is changing the chemical environment on which marine life depends. It causes a decrease in seawater pH and changes the water quality parameters of seawater. Changes in water quality parameters may affect pH, a key indicator for assessing ocean acidification. Therefore, it is particularly important to study the correlation between pH and various water quality parameters. In this paper, several water quality parameters with potential correlation with pH are investigated, and multiple linear regression, softmax regression, and support vector machine are used to perform multi-classification. Most importantly, experimental data were collected from Weizhou Island, China. The classification results show that the pH has a strong correlation with salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The prediction accuracy of the classification is good, and the correlation with dissolved oxygen is the most significant. The prediction accuracies of the three methods for multi-classifiers based on the above three factors reach 87.01%, 87.77%, and 89.04%, respectively.

Continue reading ‘Prediction of pH value by multi-classification in the Weizhou Island area’

Heterotrophy of oceanic particulate organic matter elevates net ecosystem calcification

Coral reef calcification is expected to decline due to climate change stressors such as ocean acidification and warming. Projections of future coral reef health are based on our understanding of the environmental drivers that affect calcification and dissolution. One such driver that may impact coral reef health is heterotrophy of oceanic‐sourced particulate organic matter, but its link to calcification has not been directly investigated in the field. In this study, we estimated net ecosystem calcification (NEC) and oceanic particulate organic carbon (POCoc) uptake across the Kāneʻohe Bay barrier reef in Hawai‘i. We show that higher rates of POCoc uptake correspond to greater NEC rates, even under low aragonite saturation states (Ωar). Hence, reductions in offshore productivity may negatively impact coral reefs by decreasing the food supply required to sustain calcification. Alternatively, coral reefs that receive ample inputs of POCoc may maintain higher calcification rates, despite a global decline in Ωar.

Continue reading ‘Heterotrophy of oceanic particulate organic matter elevates net ecosystem calcification’

Hypoxia aggravates the effects of ocean acidification on the physiological energetics of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis


• Combined effects of ocean acidification and hypoxia are investigated in mussels.

• Physiological activities of mussels are inhibited by low pH and hypoxia.

• OA and hypoxia exert additive effects on the physiological metabolism of mussels.


Apart from ocean acidification, hypoxia is another stressor to marine organisms, especially those in coastal waters. Their interactive effects of elevated CO2 and hypoxia on the physiological energetics in mussel Mytilus edulis were evaluated. Mussels were exposed to three pH levels (8.1, 7.7, 7.3) at two dissolved oxygen levels (6 and 2 mg L−1) and clearance rate, absorption efficiency, respiration rate, excretion rate, scope for growth and O: N ratio were measured during a14-day exposure. After exposure, all parameters (except excretion rate) were significantly reduced under low pH and hypoxic conditions, whereas excretion rate was significantly increased. Additive effects of low pH and hypoxia were evident for all parameters and low pH appeared to elicit a stronger effect than hypoxia (2.0 mg L−1). Overall, hypoxia can aggravate the effects of acidification on the physiological energetics of mussels, and their populations may be diminished by these stressors.

Continue reading ‘Hypoxia aggravates the effects of ocean acidification on the physiological energetics of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book