Posts Tagged 'North Pacific'

Recoverable impacts of ocean acidification on the tubeworm, Hydroides elegans: implication for biofouling in future coastal oceans

Ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 causes ocean acidification (OA), which not only decreases the calcification rate, but also impairs the formation of calcareous shells or tubes in marine invertebrates such as the dominant biofouling tubeworm species, Hydroides elegans. This study examined the ability of tubeworms to resume normal tube calcification when returned to ambient pH 8.1 from a projected near-future OA level of pH 7.8. Tubeworms produced structurally impaired and mechanically weaker calcareous tubes at pH 7.8 compared to at pH 8.1, but were able to recover when the pH was restored to ambient levels. This suggests that tubeworms can physiologically recover from the impacts of OA on tube calcification, composition, density, hardness and stiffness when returned to optimal conditions. These results help understanding of the progression of biofouling communities dominated by tubeworms in future oceans with low pH induced by OA.

Continue reading ‘Recoverable impacts of ocean acidification on the tubeworm, Hydroides elegans: implication for biofouling in future coastal oceans’

Seasonal variation in aragonite saturation states and the controlling factors in the southeastern Yellow Sea

Highlights

• Aragonite saturation state was determined in the southeastern Yellow Sea (Korea territory) for the first time.

• Aragonite undersaturation occurred in the bottom waters of the southeastern Yellow Sea during the fall.

• Aragonite undersaturation may be associated with ocean dumping of organic materials.

Abstract

The aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) was determined to assess its seasonal variations and the major controlling factors in the southeastern Yellow Sea (YS) over four seasons. Ωarag showed large seasonal variation in the surface waters, with dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as a major factor controlling the seasonal variation. In the bottom waters, Ωarag exhibited only small seasonal variation compared with the surface waters; DIC and total alkalinity were the main factors contributing to the variation. The bottom water of the southeastern YS was undersaturated with aragonite during the fall, even though the southeastern YS was not typically associated with upwelling, freshwater discharge, or eutrophication processes. Aragonite undersaturation was most likely due to ocean dumping of organic materials. Therefore, ocean pumping should be prohibited in shallow marginal seas to prevent aragonite undersaturation.

Continue reading ‘Seasonal variation in aragonite saturation states and the controlling factors in the southeastern Yellow Sea’

Early life stages of Calanus pacificus are neither exposed nor sensitive to low pH waters

We characterized the vertical distribution of Calanus pacificus eggs and larvae and the carbonate chemistry that they are exposed to in Puget Sound, WA. We found that, under stratified conditions, more than 90% of eggs and nauplii stages 1–4 were distributed above the pycnocline, in seawater with pH higher than 7.7. In addition, eggs and larvae from 101 females were reared for 5 days under a range of pH conditions (7.2–8.0) to investigate how pH sensitivity varies among individuals. We observed a slight increase in naupliar survival at pH 7.3 in Individual Brood experiments, while in Mixed Brood experiments, exposure to pH 7.3 led to a small decline in hatching success. In a Split Brood experiment, inter-individual variability among different females’ broods masked pH effects. These results indicate that C. pacificus early life stages are generally tolerant to short-term direct effects of ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘Early life stages of Calanus pacificus are neither exposed nor sensitive to low pH waters’

Antioxidant responses of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii exposed to harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and high pH

Highlights

• The comprehensive effects of toxic cyanobacteria and high pH on mussels were assessed.

• Interaction between cyanobacteria and high pH on physiological indicator were found.

• Compare to high pH, toxic M. aeruginosa induce more severe oxidative stress response.

• Toxic algae or high pH exposure history showed latent effects on Hyriopsis cumingii.

Abstract

In lakes and reservoirs, harmful algal blooms and high pH have been deemed to be two important stressors related to eutrophication, especially in the case of CO2 depletion caused by dense blooms. However, the effects of these stressors on the economically important shellfish that inhabit these waters are still not well-understood. This study evaluated the combined effects of the harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa (0%, 50%, and 100% of total dietary dry weight) and high pH (8.0, 8.5 and 9.0) on the antioxidant responses of the triangle sail mussel H. cumingii. The mussels were exposed to algae and high pH for 14 d, followed by a 7-day depuration period. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the mussel hemolymph, antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes, such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the digestive glands were analyzed during the experimental period. GST, SOD and GPx activity levels and the content of GSH increased following exposure to toxic M. aeruginosa, whereas CAT activity was inhibited. pH showed no significant effects on the immune defense mechanisms and detoxification processes. However, a high pH could cause increased ROS and MDA levels, resulting in oxidative injury. After a 7-day depuration period, exposure to toxic M. aeruginosa or high pH resulted in latent effects for most of the examined parameters. The treatment group exposed to the highest pH (9.0) displayed an increased oxidation state compared with the other pH treatments (8.0 and 8.5) for the same concentrations of toxic M. aeruginosa. The trends observed for ROS, MDA, GPx, GST, SOD and GSH levels indicated that a high density of toxic algae could result in severe and continuous effects on mussel health.

Continue reading ‘Antioxidant responses of triangle sail mussel Hyriopsis cumingii exposed to harmful algae Microcystis aeruginosa and high pH’

Investigating the response of sea urchin early developmental stages to multiple stressors related to climate change

Within climate change biology, the red sea urchin Mesocentrotus franciscanus has
remained relatively overlooked despite its sizeable ecological and economic importance, particularly within the context of multi-stressor effects. I assembled and described a developmental transcriptome for M. franciscanus, providing a useful molecular resource with which to study this organism. I then examined both the physiological and molecular mechanisms that underlie the response of early developmental stage (EDS) M. franciscanus to different combinations of pH levels and temperatures that represented ecologically
relevant present and future ocean conditions. Elevated pCO2 levels decreased embryo body size, but at the prism embryo stage, warmer temperatures helped to offset this via an increase in body size. Warmer temperatures also slightly increased the thermal tolerance of prism stage embryos. Neither pCO2 nor temperature stressors affected prism metabolic rate as measured by rate of oxygen consumption. Gene expression patterns differed by developmental stage and by temperature exposure. Elevated temperatures led to an upregulation of cellular stress response genes. Under colder temperatures, the embryos
exhibited an up-regulation of epigenetic genes related to histone modifications.
There was a comparatively minimal transcriptomic response to different pCO2 levels. Examining the physiological and molecular responses of EDS M. franciscanus to multiple stressors provided much needed information regarding a species of significant ecological and economic value by examining its capacity to respond to stressors related to climate change and ocean acidification under an ecologically relevant context.

I also investigated the role of transgenerational plasticity (TGP), in which the
environmental conditions experienced by parents affect progeny phenotypes. TGP may provide a valuable mechanism by which organisms can keep pace with relatively rapid environmental change. Adult S. purpuratus were conditioned to two divergent, but ecologically relevant pH levels and temperatures throughout gametogenesis. The adults were spawned and crossed, and their progeny were raised under different pH levels to determine if maternal conditioning impacted the response of the progeny to low pH stress. I investigated maternal provisioning, a mechanism of TGP, by measuring the size, total protein content, and total lipid content of the eggs that they produced. Acclimatization of the
adult urchins to simulated upwelling conditions (combined low pH, low temperature) appeared to increase maternal provisioning of lipids to the eggs but did not affect egg size or protein content. I also investigated the physiology and gene expression of progeny responding to low pH stress, which were affected more by maternal conditioning than by offspring pH treatment. Maternal conditioning to simulated upwelling resulted in larger offspring body sizes. Additionally, I found the progeny expressed differential regulatory
patterns of genes related to epigenetic modifications, ion transport, metabolic processes and ATP production. This work showed that adult exposure to upwelling conditions can improve the resilience of EDS progeny to low pH levels.

Continue reading ‘Investigating the response of sea urchin early developmental stages to multiple stressors related to climate change’

Export flux, biogeochemical effects, and the fate of a terrestrial carbonate system: from Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary to the East China Sea

Seasonal variations in the transports of total alkalinity (TAlk) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) from the Lower Changjiang (Yangtze) River/Estuary to the East China Sea (ECS) were investigated based on a series of field surveys in 2015–2017, including monthly samplings at Datong Station and seasonal mapping cruises in the Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent northwestern ECS. In comparison with historical data sets, the Changjiang TAlk flux varied around a nearly stable average over the past 55 years. This is much different from some American rivers, where TAlk export fluxes increased for a century long. To assess effects of riverine carbonate inputs on coastal carbonate chemistry, we compared several cases showing freshwater‐dilution‐induced decline in coastal aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), including rainwater dilution and riverine water dilution. Without riverine carbonate inputs, the effect of a unit of salinity decrease (due to rainwater dilution) on Ωarag was expected to be counteracted by a DIC removal of 10 μmol kg–1 relative to the baseline value along relevant conservative mixing line, when coastal Ωarag was close to a critical value of 1.5. Considering terrestrial carbonate inputs from Changjiang, however, the freshwater‐dilution‐induced coastal Ωarag suppression decreased by 12%. Our data also showed that, more than 10% of wet‐season DIC flux discharged from the Changjiang Estuary was sequestered by biological activities in nearshore areas, while the TAlk flux was rarely affected. This biological alteration effectively transformed the terrestrial carbonate system from a feature of DIC:TAlk >1.0 to the usual seawater feature of DIC:TAlk <0.9.

Continue reading ‘Export flux, biogeochemical effects, and the fate of a terrestrial carbonate system: from Changjiang (Yangtze River) Estuary to the East China Sea’

Spatiotemporal changes of ocean carbon species in the western North Pacific using parameterization technique

We constructed parameterizations for the estimation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH in the western North Pacific, including Japanese coastal regions. Parameterizations, determined as a function of potential temperature (θ) and dissolved oxygen (DO), provided strong correlations with direct measurements for DIC [the coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.99; the root mean square error (RMSE) = 8.49 µmol kg−1] and pH (R2 = 0.98, RMSE = 0.030). Predicted DIC and pH values were consistent with previous independent hydrographic observations, generally within 3 µmol kg−1 for DIC and 0.010 for pH. By applying these parameterizations to climatological seasonal θ and DO data and time-series θ and DO data from autonomous profiling floats (Argo) in the western North Pacific, large spatiotemporal variations in DIC and pH were demonstrated. Results indicated that the rate of increase in anthropogenic DIC above a depth of 400 m along 30° N in the western North Pacific was + 0.86 ± 0.11 µmol kg−1 year−1 between 1994 and 2004. This decreased by + 0.58 ± 0.05 µmol kg−1 year−1 after 2004 partly due to increasing anthropogenic nitrogen input, suggesting that the decrease has induced the slowdown of ocean acidification in the western North Pacific. The declining trend in anthropogenically induced ocean pH was found to be 0.0021 ± 0.0016 during 1994–2013.

Continue reading ‘Spatiotemporal changes of ocean carbon species in the western North Pacific using parameterization technique’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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