Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a powerful greenhouse gas that degrades ozone. Hypoxia and ocean acidification are becoming more intense as a result of climate change. The former stimulates N2O emissions, whereas the effects of the latter on N2O production vary by the ocean. Hypoxia and ocean acidification may play a critical role in the evolution of future oceanic N2O production. However, the interactive effects of hypoxia and ocean acidification on N2O production remain unclear. We conducted a research cruise in the Bohai Sea of China to assess the occurrence of ocean acidification in the seasonal oxygen minimum zone of the sea and further conducted laboratory incubation experiments to determine the effects of ocean acidification and hypoxia on N2O production. When pH decreased by 0.25, N2O production decreased by 50.77 and 72.38%, respectively. In contrast, hypoxia had a positive impact; when dissolved oxygen (DO) decreased to 3.7 and 2.4 mg L−1, N2O production increased by 49.72 and 278.68%, respectively. The incubation experiments demonstrated that the coupling of ocean acidification and hypoxia significantly increased N2O production, but, individually, there was an antagonistic relationship between the two. Structural equation modeling showed that the total effects of hypoxia treatment on N2O production changes weakened the effects of ocean acidification, with overall positive effects. Generally speaking, our results suggest that N2O production from the coastal waters of the Bohai Sea may increase under future climate change scenarios due to increasingly serious ocean acidification and hypoxia working in combination.
- The carbonate system and its controlling factors in a mariculture area were studied.
- Massive bay scallop farming was a potential factor for coastal acidification.
- Scallop calcification reduced 75.66 μmol kg−1 of total alkalinity in surface water.
- Biochemical and physical processes jointly controlled the other CO2 parameters.
Seven cruises were carried out in a bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) farming area and its surrounding waters, North Yellow Sea, from March to November 2017 to study the dynamics of the carbonate system and its controlling factors. Results indicated that the studied parameters were highly variability over a range of spatiotemporal scales, comprehensively forced by various physical and biochemical processes. Mixing effect and scallop calcification played the most important role in the seasonal variation of total alkalinity (TAlk). For dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in addition to mixing, air-sea exchange and microbial activity, e.g. photosynthesis and microbial respiration processes, had more important effects on its dynamics. Different from the former, the changes of water pHT, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and aragonite saturation state (ΩA) were mainly controlled by the combining of the temperature, air-sea exchange, microbial activity and scallop metabolic activities. In addition, our results suggested that massive scallop farming can significantly increase the DIC/TAlk ratio by reducing the TAlk concentration in seawater, thereby reducing the buffering capacity of seawater to the carbonate system especially for ΩA. Preliminary calculated, ~75.7 μmol kg−1 and ~45.5 μmol kg−1 of TAlk was removed from the surface and bottom water in one scallop cultivating cycle. If these carbonates cannot be replenished in time, it is likely to accelerate the acidification process of coastal waters. This study highlighted the control mechanism of the carbonate system under the influence of bay scallop farming, and provided useful information for revealing the potential link between human activities (shelled-mollusc mariculture) and coastal acidification.
Calcified coralline algae are ecologically important in rocky habitats in the marine photic zone worldwide and there is growing concern that ocean acidification will severely impact them. Laboratory studies of these algae in simulated ocean acidification conditions have revealed wide variability in growth, photosynthesis and calcification responses, making it difficult to assess their future biodiversity, abundance and contribution to ecosystem function. Here, we apply molecular systematic tools to assess the impact of natural gradients in seawater carbonate chemistry on the biodiversity of coralline algae in the Mediterranean and the NW Pacific, link this to their evolutionary history and evaluate their potential future biodiversity and abundance. We found a decrease in the taxonomic diversity of coralline algae with increasing acidification with more than half of the species lost in high pCO2 conditions. Sporolithales is the oldest order (Lower Cretaceous) and diversified when ocean chemistry favoured low Mg calcite deposition; it is less diverse today and was the most sensitive to ocean acidification. Corallinales were also reduced in cover and diversity but several species survived at high pCO2; it is the most recent order of coralline algae and originated when ocean chemistry favoured aragonite and high Mg calcite deposition. The sharp decline in cover and thickness of coralline algal carbonate deposits at high pCO2 highlighted their lower fitness in response to ocean acidification. Reductions in CO2 emissions are needed to limit the risk of losing coralline algal diversity.
Pseudo-nitzschia australis (Frenguelli), a toxigenic pennate diatom capable of producing the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), was examined in unialgal laboratory cultures to quantify its physiological response to ocean acidification (OA) – the decline in pH resulting from increasing partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) in the oceans. Toxic blooms of P. australis are common in the coastal waters of eastern boundary upwelling systems (EBUS), including those of the California Current System (CCS) off the west coast of the United States where increased pCO2 and decreased seawater pH are well-known. This study determined the production of dissolved (dDA) and particulate DA (pDA), the rates of growth and nutrient (nitrate, silicate and phosphate) utilization, cellular elemental ratios of carbon and nitrogen, and the photosynthetic response to declining pH during the exponential and stationary growth phases of a strain of P. australis isolated during a massive toxic bloom that persisted for months along much of the U.S. west coast during 2015. Our controlled lab studies showed that DA production significantly increased as pCO2 increased, and total DA (pDA + dDA) normalized to cell density was 2.7 fold greater at pH 7.8 compared to pH 8.1 (control) during nutrient-limited stationary growth. However, exponential growth rates did not increase with declining pH, but remained constant until pH of 7.8 was reached, and then specific growth rates declined by ca. 30%. The toxin results demonstrate that despite minimal effects of OA observed during the nutrient-replete exponential growth phase, the enhancement of DA production, notably the 3-fold increase in particulate DA per cell, with declining pH from 8.1 to 7.8 during the nutrient-depleted stationary phase, supports the hypothesis that increasing pCO2 will result in greater toxic risk to coastal ecosystems from elevated ambient concentrations of particulate DA. The ecological consequences of decreasing silicate uptake rates and increasing cellular carbon quotas with declining pH may potentially ameliorate some negative impacts of OA on Pseudo-nitzschia growth in natural systems.
In this study, the variations of the seawater carbonate system parameters and air-sea CO2 flux (FCO2) of Shen’ao Bay, a typical subtropical aquaculture bay located in China, were investigated in spring 2016 (March to May). Parameters related to the seawater carbonate system and FCO2 were measured monthly in 3 different aquaculture areas (fish, oyster and seaweed) and in a non-culture area near the bay mouth. The results showed that the seawater carbonate system was markedly influenced by the biological processes of the culture species. Total alkalinity was significantly lower in the oyster area compared with the fish and seaweed areas, mainly because of the calcification process of oysters. Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and CO2 partial pressure ( pCO2) were highest in the fish area, followed by the oyster and non-culture areas, and lowest in the seaweed area. Oysters and fish can have indirect influences on DIC and pCO2by releasing nutrients, which facilitate the growth of seaweed and phytoplankton and therefore promote photosynthetic CO2 fixation. For these reasons, Shen’ao Bay acts as a potential CO2 sink in spring, with an average FCO2 ranging from -1.2 to -4.8 mmol m-2 d-1. CO2 fixation in the seaweed area was the largest contributor to CO2 flux, accounting for ca. 58% of the total CO2 sink capacity of the entire bay. These results suggest that the carbonate system and FCO2 of Shen’ao Bay were significantly affected by large-scale mariculture activities. A higher CO2 sink capacity could be acquired by extending the culture area of seaweed.
In light of the chronic stress and mass mortality reef-building corals face under climate change, it is critical to understand the processes essential to reef persistence and replenishment, including coral reproduction and development. Here we quantify gene expression and size sensitivity to ocean acidification across a set of developmental stages in the rice coral, Montipora capitata. Gametes and then embryos and swimming larvae were exposed to three pH treatments ranging from 7.8 (Ambient), 7.6 (Low) and 7.3 (Xlow) from fertilization to 9 days post-fertilization. Embryo development and size, planula volume, and stage-specific gene expression were compared between treatments at each stage to determine the effects of acidified seawater on early development. While there was no measurable size differentiation between fertilized eggs and embryos at the prawn chip stage exposed to ambient, low, and extreme low pH, early gastrula and planula raised in reduced pH treatments were significantly smaller than those raised in ambient seawater, suggesting an energetic cost to developing under low pH. However, no differentially expressed genes emerged between treatments at any time point, except swimming larvae. Larvae from pH 7.6 showed upregulation of genes involved in cell division, regulation of transcription, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress in comparison to the other two treatments, and smallest sizes in this treatment. While low pH appears to increase energetic demands and trigger oxidative stress, the developmental process is robust to this at a molecular level, with swimming larval stage reached in all pH treatments.
- High CO2 conditions profoundly affected biofilm community composition
- Species turnover explained differences in community composition
- Biofilm communities were more homogeneous under high CO2 conditions
- Toxin producing and turf-forming algae were enriched under high CO2 conditions
Biofilms harbour a wealth of microbial diversity and fulfil key functions in coastal marine ecosystems. Elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) conditions affect the structure and function of biofilm communities, yet the ecological patterns that underpin these effects remain unknown. We used high-throughput sequencing of the 16S and 18S rRNA genes to investigate the effect of elevated CO2 on the early successional stages of prokaryotic and eukaryotic biofilms at a CO2 seep system off Shikine Island, Japan. Elevated CO2 profoundly affected biofilm community composition throughout the early stages of succession, leading to greater compositional homogeneity between replicates and the proliferation of the potentially harmful algae Prymnesium sp. and Biddulphia biddulphiana. Species turnover was the main driver of differences between communities in reference and high CO2 conditions, rather than differences in richness or evenness. Our study indicates that species turnover is the primary ecological pattern that underpins the effect of elevated CO2 on both prokaryotic and eukaryotic components of biofilm communities, indicating that elevated CO2 conditions represent a distinct niche selecting for a distinct cohort of organisms without the loss of species richness.
Ocean warming is altering the biogeographical distribution of marine organisms. In the tropics, rising sea surface temperatures are restructuring coral reef communities with sensitive species being lost. At the biogeographical divide between temperate and tropical communities, warming is causing macroalgal forest loss and the spread of tropical corals, fishes and other species, termed “tropicalization”. A lack of field research into the combined effects of warming and ocean acidification means there is a gap in our ability to understand and plan for changes in coastal ecosystems. Here, we focus on the tropicalization trajectory of temperate marine ecosystems becoming coral-dominated systems. We conducted field surveys and in situ transplants at natural analogues for present and future conditions under (i) ocean warming and (ii) both ocean warming and acidification at a transition zone between kelp and coral-dominated ecosystems. We show that increased herbivory by warm-water fishes exacerbates kelp forest loss and that ocean acidification negates any benefits of warming for range extending tropical corals growth and physiology at temperate latitudes. Our data show that, as the combined effects of ocean acidification and warming ratchet up, marine coastal ecosystems lose kelp forests but do not gain scleractinian corals. Ocean acidification plus warming leads to overall habitat loss and a shift to simple turf-dominated ecosystems, rather than the complex coral-dominated tropicalized systems often seen with warming alone. Simplification of marine habitats by increased CO2 levels cascades through the ecosystem and could have severe consequences for the provision of goods and services.
This dataset contains carbonate system data collected by scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center to investigate the effects of carbon cycling, coastal and ocean acidification on the Tampa Bay estuary located in west central Florida and eastern Gulf of Mexico. Discrete seawater samples were collected periodically (every few weeks to months) at repeat monitoring locations. Water samples were analyzed by the USGS Carbon Analytical Laboratory in St. Petersburg Florida. This dataset contains time series measurements of carbonate system parameters including: water temperature (Celsius, C), salinity, dissolved oxygen (milligrams/L), total alkalinity (TA, micromoles/kg), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC, micromoles/kg), pHT (pH on the total scale), nitrate + nitrite (NO3+NO2, micromoles/L), nitrite (NO2, micromoles/L), silicate (SIL, micromoles/L), ammonium (NH4, micromoles/L) and phosphate (PO4, micromoles/L).
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a power generation technology that extracts energy from the temperature difference between deep seawater and surface water in the ocean. Currently, a 100 kW class OTEC demonstration project is underway on Kume Island, Okinawa, and a plan to increase water intake and introduce a 1 MW class OTEC plant is under consideration. Year-round generation of electricity by an OTEC plant requires that it be installed in tropical and subtropical regions, where the surface water has a high temperature and low nutrient content. However, the water discharged from an OTEC plant will have the opposite characteristics of low water temperature and high nutrients, as well as a low pH. One of the most concerning environmental impacts of this discharged water is its influence on corals, which are important species in tropical and subtropical marine ecosystems. In this study, we developed an ecosystem model for a subtropical shallow-water region; the model combines a pelagic submodel, a chemical equilibrium submodel, and a benthic submodel, and successfully reproduces the observed variation in pH. The model was used to predict the environmental impact of water discharged from OTEC plant. The simulation results suggest that a 1 MW class OTEC plant would cause few environmental changes that would affect corals.
Prior exposure to variable environmental conditions is predicted to influence the resilience of marine organisms to global change. We conducted complementary 4-month field and laboratory experiments to understand how a dynamic, and sometimes extreme, environment influences growth rates of a tropical reef-building crustose coralline alga and its responses to ocean acidification (OA). Using a reciprocal transplant design, we quantified calcification rates of the Caribbean coralline Lithophyllum sp. at sites with a history of either extreme or moderate oxygen, temperature, and pH regimes. Calcification rates of in situ corallines at the extreme site were 90% lower than those at the moderate site, regardless of origin. Negative effects of corallines originating from the extreme site persisted even after transplanting to more optimal conditions for 20 weeks. In the laboratory, we tested the separate and combined effects of stress and variability by exposing corallines from the same sites to either ambient (Amb: pH 8.04) or acidified (OA: pH 7.70) stable conditions or variable (Var: pH 7.80-8.10) or acidified variable (OA-Var: pH 7.45-7.75) conditions. There was a negative effect of all pH treatments on Lithophyllum sp. calcification rates relative to the control, with lower calcification rates in corallines from the extreme site than from the moderate site in each treatment, indicative of a legacy effect of site origin on subsequent response to laboratory treatment. Our study provides ecologically relevant context to understanding the nuanced effects of OA on crustose coralline algae, and illustrates how local environmental regimes may influence the effects of global change.
Symbiosis establishment is a milestone in the life cycles of most broadcast-spawning corals; however, it remains largely unknown how initial symbiont infection is affected by ocean warming and acidification, particularly for massive corals. This study investigated the combined effects of elevated temperature (29 vs. 31 °C) and pCO2 (~ 450 vs. ~ 1000 μatm) on the recruits of a widespread massive coral, Platygyra daedalea. Results showed that geometric diameter and symbiosis establishment were unaffected by high pCO2, while elevated temperature significantly reduced successful symbiont infection by 50% and retarded the geometric diameter by 6%. Although neither increased temperature, pCO2, nor their interaction affected survival or algal pigmentation of recruits, there was an inverse relationship between symbiont infection rates and survivorship, especially at high temperatures, possibly as a result of oxidative stress caused by algal symbionts under increased temperature. Intriguingly, the proportion of Durusdinium did not increase in recruits at 31 °C, while recruits reared under high pCO2 hosted less Breviolum and more Durusdinium, indicating a high degree of plasticity of early symbiosis and contrasting to the previous finding that heat stress usually leads to the prevalence of thermally tolerant Durusdinium in coral recruits. These results suggest that ocean warming is likely to be more deleterious for the early success of P. daedalea than ocean acidification and provide insights into our understanding of coral-algal symbiotic partnerships under future climatic conditions.
The sponge-associated microbial community contributes to the overall health and adaptive capacity of the sponge holobiont. This community is regulated by the environment and the immune system of the host. However, little is known about the effect of environmental stress on the regulation of host immune functions and how this may, in turn, affect sponge–microbe interactions. In this study, we compared the bacterial diversity and immune repertoire of the demosponge, Neopetrosia compacta, and the calcareous sponge, Leucetta chagosensis, under varying levels of acidification and warming stress based on climate scenarios predicted for 2100. Neopetrosia compacta harbors a diverse microbial community and possesses a rich repertoire of scavenger receptors while L. chagosensis has a less diverse microbiome and an expanded range of pattern recognition receptors and immune response-related genes. Upon exposure to RCP 8.5 conditions, the microbiome composition and host transcriptome of N. compacta remained stable, which correlated with high survival (75%). In contrast, tissue necrosis and low survival (25%) of L. chagosensis was accompanied by microbial community shifts and downregulation of host immune-related pathways. Meta-analysis of microbiome diversity and immunological repertoire across poriferan classes further highlights the importance of host–microbe interactions in predicting the fate of sponges under future ocean conditions.
Ocean Alkalinity Enhancement (OAE) simultaneously mitigates atmospheric concentrations of CO2 and ocean acidification; however, no previous studies have investigated the response of the non-linear marine carbonate system sensitivity to alkalinity enhancement on regional scales. We hypothesise that regional implementations of OAE can sequester more atmospheric CO2 than a global implementation. To address this, we investigate physical regimes and alkalinity sensitivity as drivers of the carbon-uptake potential response to global and different regional simulations of OAE. In this idealised ocean-only set-up, total alkalinity is enhanced at a rate of 0.25 Pmol a-1 in 75-year simulations using the Max Planck Institute Ocean Model coupled to the HAMburg Ocean Carbon Cycle model with pre-industrial atmospheric forcing. Alkalinity is enhanced globally and in eight regions: the Subpolar and Subtropical Atlantic and Pacific gyres, the Indian Ocean and the Southern Ocean. This study reveals that regional alkalinity enhancement has the capacity to exceed carbon uptake by global OAE. We find that 82–175 Pg more carbon is sequestered into the ocean when alkalinity is enhanced regionally and 156 PgC when enhanced globally, compared with the background-state. The Southern Ocean application is most efficient, sequestering 12% more carbon than the Global experiment despite OAE being applied across a surface area 40 times smaller. For the first time, we find that different carbon-uptake potentials are driven by the surface pattern of total alkalinity redistributed by physical regimes across areas of different carbon-uptake efficiencies. We also show that, while the marine carbonate system becomes less sensitive to alkalinity enhancement in all experiments globally, regional responses to enhanced alkalinity vary depending upon the background concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon and total alkalinity. Furthermore, the Subpolar North Atlantic displays a previously unexpected alkalinity sensitivity increase in response to high total alkalinity concentrations.
For open ocean environments, it is rare to find continuous, simultaneous air and sea observation records due to the challenges of instrument installation and maintenance. The Ieodo Ocean Research Station (Ieodo ORS), a remote ocean site located in the northern East China Sea with its harsh oceanic and atmospheric environment, provides a platform for the concurrent monitoring of air and sea environments. Since 2014, the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Agency has run the “Ieodo ORS field trip program,” via which researchers are able to stay at the station for a week or more. This work reports technical lessons learned over 5 years from five Ieodo ORS research projects launched in 2016. Over the course of these projects, Ieodo ORS has monitored sea surface temperature, temperature and salinity in the water column, seawater pH, air pollutants, and solar radiation. The purpose of this paper is to facilitate the success of future research activities in similar environments by sharing our experiences and “best practices.”
- 1. The NSCS shelf carbonate system shows strong seasonality with two distinct regimes between the inner-shelf and the mid-outer shelf.
- 2. The seasonal dynamics of sea surface pCO2 and Ωarag on the mid-outer shelf highlight the influence of temperature effect and the seasonal cycle of mixed layer depth (MLD), while the Pearl River Plume has a profound effect in summer on the mid-shelf.
- 3. The spatial dynamics of sea surface pCO2 and Ωarag on the inner-shelf feature the influence of China Coastal Current (CCC) in winter and coastal upwelling in summer.
Based on large-scale surveys conducted during all four seasons from 2009-2011, we investigated the carbonate systems on the northern South China Sea (NSCS) shelf featuring much higher variations in both seasonality and spatiality on its inner-shelf (< 40 m) as compared to the areas on the mid-outer shelf (> 40 m). The most notable forcing on the mid-outer shelf include the intrusion of Kuroshio water leading to high surface salinity and high total alkalinity (TA) in winter, the impact of which is however limited to the northeastern part of the NSCS. The Pearl River Plume (PRP), a prominent feature in summer also has profound impact on the carbonate system on the mid-outer shelf. On the inner-shelf, the carbonate system was much more dynamic, featuring complex modulations by coastal upwelling associated with relatively high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and TA in summer, and the China Coastal Current (CCC) of high DIC in winter, spring and fall. In addition, the influences of coastal plume water from local rivers were identifiable on the inner-shelf in both winter and spring.
Such distinction between inner-shelf and mid-outer shelf in the dynamics of DIC, the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) and saturation state index of aragonite (Ωarag) is also obvious. On the mid-outer shelf, the salinity normalized DIC (nDIC) fluctuated seasonally between 1974±9 and 2001±9 µmol kg-1. The decline of nDIC from winter to spring and spring to summer mainly results from CO2 outgassing, while the increase in nDIC from summer to fall and from fall to winter is due to entrainment of the carbon-enriched subsurface water. The pCO2 increases from a minimum of 344±9 μatm in winter to a maximum of 387±14 μatm in spring, which is in phase with temperature changes and the fluctuations of nDIC. The Ωarag ranged 3.28-3.68 with the highest value in summer but lowest value in winter, which is consistent with the seasonal cycles of the nDIC. Nearshore on the inner-shelf influenced by the CCC water in winter and the mid-outer shelf influenced by the PRP in summer, the spatial dynamics of sea surface pCO2 and Ωarag are modulated by both temperature and the water mass mixing between CCC, PRP, and shelf waters. Here, the high biological uptake sustained by nutrients in the CCC and PRP drawdown the pCO2 and augmented the Ωarag, while the CO2 sequestration enhanced the sea surface pCO2 but drawdown the Ωarag.
Our understanding of eutrophication-induced acidification in estuaries and coastal oceans is complicated by the seasonally and spatially changing interactions between physical and biochemical drivers. By combining the conservative mixing method and a physical-biogeochemical model, we present the seasonal and spatial dynamical analysis of eutrophication-induced acidification in the Pearl River Estuary in the northern South China Sea. In summer, the widespread eutrophication-induced acidification is regulated by two distinct physical drivers, which are the strengthened stratification in the hypoxia zone and the high turbidity in the Lingdingyang Bay. In the hypoxia zone, eutrophication-induced acidification is controlled by the combined effect of benthic remineralization and stratification, while it is dominantly regulated by local biochemical processes (nitrification and respiration) of the whole water column in other regions of the estuary. In winter with the enhanced vertical mixing, the eutrophication-induced acidification is still active in the Lingdingyang Bay, and its strength has largely decreased compared with summer condition. While for the hypoxia zone, the eutrophication-induced acidification peaks in summer and disappears in winter.
Plain Language Summary
Eutrophication in estuaries has accelerated the ocean acidification, which induced a negative impact on marine ecosystem. In the estuary, physical and biochemical processes lead to difficulties in understanding and evaluating the impact of eutrophication-induced acidification. High-resolution and coupled oceanographic models can reproduce the biogeochemical cycles in the marine system and present an integrated framework to understand ocean acidification. We revealed two distinct types of eutrophication-induced acidification in the estuary by using an oceanographic model. The model results show that these two types of eutrophication-induced acidification are regulated by different physical processes that are water stratification and turbidity, which result in their unique seasonal evolution patterns.
The sponge-associated microbial community contributes to the overall health and adaptive capacity of the sponge holobiont. This community is regulated by the environment, as well as the immune system of the host. However, little is known about the effect of environmental stress on the regulation of host immune functions and how this may, in turn, affect sponge-microbe interactions. In this study, we compared the microbiomes and immune repertoire of two sponge species, the demosponge, Neopetrosia compacta and the calcareous sponge, Leucetta chagosensis, under varying levels of acidification and warming stress. Neopetrosia compacta harbors a diverse bacterial assemblage and possesses a rich repertoire of scavenger receptors while L. chagosensis has a less diverse microbiome and an expanded range of pattern recognition receptors and proteins with immunological domains. Upon exposure to warming and acidification, the microbiome and host transcriptome of N. compacta remained stable, which correlated with high survival. In contrast, the bacterial community of L. chagosensis exhibited drastic restructuring and widespread downregulation of host immune-related pathways, which accompanied tissue necrosis and mortality. Differences in microbiome diversity and immunological repertoire of diverse sponge groups highlight the central role of host-microbe interactions in predicting the fate of sponges under future ocean conditions.
Internally consistent, quality-controlled (QC) data products play an important role in promoting regional-to-global research efforts to understand societal vulnerabilities to ocean acidification (OA). However, there are currently no such data products for the coastal ocean, where most of the OA-susceptible commercial and recreational fisheries and aquaculture industries are located. In this collaborative effort, we compiled, quality-controlled, and synthesized 2 decades of discrete measurements of inorganic carbon system parameters, oxygen, and nutrient chemistry data from the North American continental shelves to generate a data product called the Coastal Ocean Data Analysis Product in North America (CODAP-NA). There are few deep-water (> 1500 m) sampling locations in the current data product. As a result, crossover analyses, which rely on comparisons between measurements on different cruises in the stable deep ocean, could not form the basis for cruise-to-cruise adjustments. For this reason, care was taken in the selection of data sets to include in this initial release of CODAP-NA, and only data sets from laboratories with known quality assurance practices were included. New consistency checks and outlier detections were used to QC the data. Future releases of this CODAP-NA product will use this core data product as the basis for cruise-to-cruise comparisons. We worked closely with the investigators who collected and measured these data during the QC process. This version (v2021) of the CODAP-NA is comprised of 3391 oceanographic profiles from 61 research cruises covering all continental shelves of North America, from Alaska to Mexico in the west and from Canada to the Caribbean in the east. Data for 14 variables (temperature; salinity; dissolved oxygen content; dissolved inorganic carbon content; total alkalinity; pH on total scale; carbonate ion content; fugacity of carbon dioxide; and substance contents of silicate, phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, nitrate plus nitrite, and ammonium) have been subjected to extensive QC. CODAP-NA is available as a merged data product (Excel, CSV, MATLAB, and NetCDF; https://doi.org/10.25921/531n-c230, https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/data/oceans/ncei/ocads/metadata/0219960.html, last access: 15 May 2021) (Jiang et al., 2021a). The original cruise data have also been updated with data providers’ consent and summarized in a table with links to NOAA’s National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI) archives (https://www.ncei.noaa.gov/access/ocean-acidification-data-stewardship-oads/synthesis/NAcruises.html).
The multi-decadal variation in ocean acidification indices in the Northwest Pacific was examined using a biogeochemical model with an operational ocean model product for the period 1993–2018. We found that ocean acidification varied regionally in the Northwest Pacific. The surface ocean (above 100 m depth) underwent acidification that progressed more quickly in the subtropical region and the Kuroshio extension than in the subarctic region due to vertical mixing of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supply exceeding DIC release by air–sea exchange. Below 100 m depth, acidification and alkalinization occurred in the subtropical and subarctic regions, respectively. We attribute these regional differences in acidification and alkalinization to spatially variable biological processes in the upper layer and physical redistribution of DIC, both horizontally and vertically.