Posts Tagged 'metals'

Effects of elevated CO2 levels on subcellular distribution of trace metals (Cd and Cu) in marine bivalves

Highlights

  • Effects of CO2 on Cu and Cd accumulation were studied in bivalves.
  • Cd strongly accumulated in organelles and enzymes of clams and oysters.
  • Cu accumulated in mitochondria of oysters but not in those of clams.
  • Elevated CO2 increased Cd accumulation in organelles and potentially Cd toxicity.
  • Elevated CO2 enhanced Cd detoxification in clams and suppressed it in in oysters.

Abstract

Hypercapnia (elevated CO2 levels) and pollution with trace metals such as Cu and Cd are common stressors in estuarine habitats that can negatively affect physiology and health of marine organisms. Hypercapnia can modulate toxicity of trace metals including Cu and Cd; however, the physiological and cellular mechanisms of the metal-CO2 interactions are not well understood. We investigated the effects of elevated PCO2 (∼800 and 2000 μatm) and metal exposure (50 μg l−1 of Cu or Cd) on subcellular distribution of metals in two common species of marine bivalves, Eastern oysters Crassostrea virginica and hard shell clams Mercenaria mercenaria. Oysters accumulated higher burdens of Cu and Cd in the gill tissues compared to clams. In both studied species, Cu was predominantly associated with the metabolically active cell compartments (mitochondria, lysosomes, microsomes and cytosolic enzymes), with a modest fraction sequestered by metallothioneins (∼30%) and the insoluble metal-containing granules (MCG) (∼15–20%). Unlike Cu, Cd was largely sequestered by metallothioneins (∼60–70%), with a relatively small fraction associated with the organelles and the cytosolic enzymes. Mitochondria were the main intracellular target for trace metals accumulating higher concentrations of Cd (and in the case of oysters – of Cu) than other organelles or cytosolic enzymes. Cu accumulation in the metabolically active cellular compartments was independent of the CO2 levels, while Cd content of the organelles and cytosolic enzymes increased at elevated PCO2 in both studied species indicating that hypercapnia may enhance cellular toxicity of Cd in bivalves. Hypercapnia suppressed the sequestration capacity of metallothioneins for Cu and Cd in oysters but increased Cu and Cd load in clam metallothioneins. Thus, metal-induced metabolic injury in oysters may be exaggerated by hypercapnia which enhances metal accumulation in the potentially sensitive intracellular fractions and suppresses the metal detoxification capacity. In contrast, clams appear to be more resistant to the combined effects of hypercapnia and metal exposure reflecting more efficient and robust detoxification mechanisms of this species.

Continue reading ‘Effects of elevated CO2 levels on subcellular distribution of trace metals (Cd and Cu) in marine bivalves’

Iron sources alter the response of Southern Ocean phytoplankton to ocean acidification

The rise in anthropogenic CO2 and the associated ocean acidification (OA) will change trace metal solubility and speciation, potentially altering Southern Ocean (SO) phytoplankton productivity and species composition. As iron (Fe) sources are important determinants of Fe bioavailability, we assessed the effect of Fe-laden dust versus inorganic Fe (FeCl3) enrichment under ambient and high pCO2 levels (390 and 900 μatm) in a naturally Fe-limited SO phytoplankton community. Despite similar Fe chemical speciation and net particulate organic carbon (POC) production rates, CO2-dependent species shifts were controlled by Fe sources. Final phytoplankton communities of both control and dust treatments were dominated by the same species, with an OA-dependent shift from the diatom Pseudo nitzschia prolongatoides towards the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis antarctica. Addition of FeCl3 resulted in high abundances of Nitzschia lecointei and Chaetoceros neogracilis under ambient and high pCO2, respectively. These findings reveal that both the characterization of the phytoplankton community at the species level and the use of natural Fe sources are essential for a realistic projection of the biological carbon pump in the Fe-limited pelagic SO under OA. As dust deposition represents a more realistic scenario for the Fe-limited pelagic SO under OA, unaffected net POC production and dominance of P. antarctica can potentially weaken the export of carbon and silica in the future.

Continue reading ‘Iron sources alter the response of Southern Ocean phytoplankton to ocean acidification’

Assessment of the environmental impacts of ocean acidification (OA) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) leaks using the amphipod Hyale youngi

This study aims to ascertain the effects of CO2 induced water acidification and leaks from Carbon Capture and Storage activities on the South American amphipod Hyale youngi. A 10-day acute toxicity test was performed using sediments from two sites located inside the Santos Estuarine System. They were subjected to five pH treatments (8.1, 7.6, 7.0, 6.5, and 6.0). Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn) and the metalloid As were analyzed to determine the influence of their acidification-related mobility on the amphipods mortality. The results showed that mortality becomes significant when compared to control in pH 6.5 in the Canal de Piaçaguerasediment (contaminated) and at pH 6.0 in Ilha das Palmas sediment (reference).

Continue reading ‘Assessment of the environmental impacts of ocean acidification (OA) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) leaks using the amphipod Hyale youngi’

CO2 induced growth response in a diatom dominated phytoplankton community from SW Bay of Bengal coastal water

The ongoing increase in surface seawater CO2 level could potentially impact phytoplankton primary production in coastal waters; however, CO2 sensitivity studies on tropical coastal phytoplankton assemblages are rare. The present study investigated the interactive impacts of variable CO2 level, light and zinc addition on the diatom dominated phytoplankton assemblages from the western coastal Bay of Bengal. Increased CO2supply enhanced particulate organic matter (POC) production; a concomitant depletion in δ13CPOM values at elevated CO2 suggested increased CO2 diffusive influx inside the cell. Trace amount of Zn added under low CO2 level accelerated growth probably by accelerating Zn-Carbonic Anhydrase activity which helps in converting bicarbonate ion to CO2. Almost identical values of δ13CPOM in the low CO2 treated cells grown with and without Zn indicated a low discrimination between 13C and 12C probably due to bicarbonate uptake. These evidences collectively indicated the existence of the carbon concentration mechanisms (CCMs) at low CO2. A minimum growth rate was observed at low CO2 and light limited condition indicating light dependence of CCMs activity. Upon the increase of light and CO2 level, growth response was maximum. The cells grown in the low CO2 levels showed higher light stress (higher values of both diatoxanthin index and the ratio of photo-protective to light-harvesting pigments) that was alleviated by both increasing CO2 supply and Zn addition (probably by efficient light energy utilization in presence of adequate CO2). This is likely that the diatom dominated phytoplankton communities benefited from the increasing CO2 supply and thus may enhance primary production in response to any further increase in coastal water CO2 levels and can have large biogeochemical consequences in the study area.

Continue reading ‘CO2 induced growth response in a diatom dominated phytoplankton community from SW Bay of Bengal coastal water’

Combined effects of sea water acidification and copper exposure on the symbiont-bearing foraminifer Amphistegina gibbosa

Coral reefs are threatened by global and local stressors such as ocean acidification and trace metal contamination. Reliable early warning monitoring tools are needed to assess and monitor coral reef health. Symbiont-bearing foraminifers (Amphistegina gibbosa) were kept under ambient conditions (no sea water acidification and no copper addition) or exposed to combinations of different levels of sea water pH (8.1, 7.8, 7.5 and 7.2) and environmentally relevant concentrations of dissolved copper (measured: 1.0, 1.6, 2.3 and 3.2 µg L−1) in a mesocosm system. After 10- and 25-d exposure, foraminifers were analyzed for holobiont Ca2+-ATPase activity, bleaching, growth and mortality. Enzyme activity was inhibited in foraminifers exposed to pH 7.2 and 3.2 µg L−1 Cu for 25 d. Bleaching frequency was also higher at pH 7.2 combined with copper addition. There was no significant effect of sea water acidification and copper addition on mortality. However, test size was smaller in foraminifers exposed to copper, with a positive interactive effect of sea water acidification. These findings can be explained by the higher availability of free copper ions at lower water pH. This condition would increase Cu competition with Ca2+ for the binding sites on the organism, thus inhibiting Ca2+-ATPase activity and affecting the organism’s overall fitness. Findings reported here suggest that key processes in A. gibbosa, such as calcification and photosynthesis, are affected by the combined effect of global (sea water acidification) and local (copper contamination) stressors. Considering the experimental conditions employed (mesocosm system, possible ocean acidification scenarios, low copper concentrations, biomarkers of ecological relevance and chronic exposure), our findings support the use of foraminifera and biomarkers analyzed in the present study as reliable tools to detect and monitor the ecological impacts of multiple stressors in coral reef environments.

Continue reading ‘Combined effects of sea water acidification and copper exposure on the symbiont-bearing foraminifer Amphistegina gibbosa’

Global proteome profiling of a marine copepod and the mitigating effect of ocean acidification on mercury toxicity after multigenerational exposure

Previously, we found that ocean acidification (OA) mitigates mercury (Hg) toxicity to marine copepod Tigriopus japonicus under multigenerational exposure (four generations, F0-F3). To determine the response mechanisms of T. japonicus against long-term exposure to OA and Hg pollution, we investigated the proteome of F3 copepods after multigenerational exposure to four conditions: pCO2 400 μatm + control; pCO2 1000 μatm + control; pCO2 400 μatm + 1.0 µg/L Hg; and pCO2 1000 μatm + 1.0 µg/L Hg. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that OA enhanced the copepod’s energy production mainly by increasing protein assimilation and proteolysis as a compensatory strategy, which explained its physiological resilience to reduced pH. Conversely, Hg treatment decreased many critical processes, including ferric iron binding, antioxidant activity, cellular homeostasis, and glutathione metabolism, and these toxic events could translate into higher-level responses, i.e., restrained reproduction in copepods. Importantly, the mediation of Hg toxicity in T. japonicus by OA could be explained by the enhanced lysosome-autophagy pathway proteomes that are responsible for repairing/removing damaged proteins/enzymes under stress. Overall, this study provided molecular insights into the response of T. japonicus to long-term exposure of OA and Hg, with a particular emphasis on the mitigating impact of CO2-driven acidification on Hg toxicity.

Continue reading ‘Global proteome profiling of a marine copepod and the mitigating effect of ocean acidification on mercury toxicity after multigenerational exposure’

Physiological and biochemical impacts induced by mercury pollution and seawater acidification in Hediste diversicolor

The present study evaluated the impacts of predicted seawater acidification and Hg pollution, when stressors were acting alone and in combination, on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor. Polychaetes were exposed during 28 days to low pH (7.5), Hg (5 μg/L) and pH 7.5 + Hg, and physiological alterations (respiration rate), biochemical markers related to metabolic potential (glycogen and protein content, electron transport system activity) and oxidative status (activity of antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were evaluated. The results obtained clearly showed that polychaetes were sensitive to low pH and Hg contamination, both acting alone or in combination. Organisms used their energy reserves under stressful conditions, which decreased by up to half of the control content, probably to fuel defence mechanisms. Our findings further demonstrated that polychaetes exposed to these stressors presented increased antioxidant defence mechanisms (3 fold compared to control). However, organisms were not able to prevent cellular damage, especially noticed at Hg exposure and pH 7.5. Overall, although all the tested conditions induced oxidative stress in Hediste diversicolor, the combined effect of seawater acidification and Hg contamination did not induce higher impacts in polychaetes than single stressor exposures. These findings may indicate that predicted climate change scenarios may not increase Hediste diversicolor sensitivity towards Hg and may not significantly change the toxicity of this contaminant to this polychaete species.

Continue reading ‘Physiological and biochemical impacts induced by mercury pollution and seawater acidification in Hediste diversicolor’


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OA-ICC HIGHLIGHTS

Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book