Posts Tagged 'metals'



Impacts of Zn and Cu enrichment under ocean acidification scenario on a phytoplankton community from tropical upwelling system

Highlights

• Phytoplankton showed higher resilience to increasing CO2.

• Few centric diatoms showed positive response to increasing CO2 supply.

• Addition of Zn under increasing CO2 inhibited cell division, but not biomass.

• The combined effects of increasing CO2 and Cu addition was insignificant on growth.

• Cu addition at high CO2 level promoted toxigenic pennate diatom growth.

Abstract

Increasing dissolution of CO2 in the surface ocean is rapidly decreasing its pH and changing carbon chemistry which is further affecting marine biota in several ways. Phytoplankton response studies under the combination of elevated CO2 and trace metals are rare. We have conducted two consecutive onboard incubation experiments (R. V. Sindhu Sadhana; August 2017) in the eastern Arabian Sea (SW coast of India) during an upwelling event. A nutrient enriched diatom bloom was initiated onboard and grown under ambient (≈400 μatm, A-CO2) and high CO2 levels (≈1000 μatm; H–CO2) with different zinc (Zn; 1 nM) and copper (Cu) concentrations (1 nM, 2 nM and 8 nM). Phytoplankton community composition and the dominant genera were different during these two experiments. CO2 enrichment alone did not show any significant growth stimulating impact on the experimental community except enhanced cell density in the first experiment. Addition of Zn at A-CO2 level revealed no noticeable responses; whereas, the same treatment under H–CO2 level significantly reduced cell number. Considerably high protein content under H–CO2+Zn treatment was possibly counteracting Zn toxicity which also caused slower growth rate. Cu addition did not show any noticeable impact on growth and biomass production except increased protein content as well as decreased carbohydrate: protein ratio. This can be attributed to relatively higher protein synthesis than carbohydrate to alleviate oxidative stress generated by Cu. The centric diatom Chaetoceros and toxin producing pennate diatom Pseudo-nitzschias howed no significant response to either CO2 or Zn enrichment. Large centric diatom Leptocylindrus and Skeletonema responded positively to Zn addition in both CO2 levels. The former species showed the most sensitive response at the highest Cu and H–CO2 treatment; whereas, the pennate diatoms Nitzschia and Pseudo-nitzschia (toxigenic diatom) showed higher resilience under elevated CO2 and Cu levels. This observation indicated that in future ocean, increasing CO2 concentrations and trace metal pollution may potentially alter phytoplankton community structure and may facilitate toxigenic diatom bloom in the coastal waters.

Continue reading ‘Impacts of Zn and Cu enrichment under ocean acidification scenario on a phytoplankton community from tropical upwelling system’

Mitigation effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on Cd toxicity to the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum

Highlights

• OA significantly alleviated the toxicity of Cd to S. costatum.

• OA rescued S. costatum from inhibition of Cd on photosynthesis and pyruvate metabolism.

• OA detoxified Cd through upregulating genes in production of non-protein thiol compounds.

Abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) is a global problem to marine ecosystems. Cadmium (Cd) is a typical metal pollutant, which is non-essential but extremely toxic to marine organisms. The combined effects of marine pollution and climate-driven ocean changes should be considered for the effective marine ecosystem management of coastal areas. Previous reports have separately investigated the influences of OA and Cd pollution on marine organisms. However, little is known of the potential combined effects of OA and Cd pollution on marine diatoms. We investigated the sole and combined influences of OA (1,500 ppm CO2) and Cd exposure (0.4 and 1.2 mg/L) on the coastal diatom Skeletonema costatum. Our results clearly showed that OA significantly alleviated the toxicity of Cd to S. costatum growth and mitigated the oxidant stress, although the intercellular Cd accumulation still increased. OA partially rescued S. costatum from the inhibition of photosynthesis and pyruvate metabolism caused by Cd exposure. It also upregulated genes involved in gluconeogenesis, glycolysis, the citrate cycle (TCA), Ribonucleic acid (RNA) metabolism, and especially the biosynthesis of non-protein thiol compounds. These changes might contribute to algal growth and Cd resistance. Overall, this study demonstrates that OA can alleviate Cd toxicity to S. costatum and explores the potential underlying mechanisms at both the cellular and molecular levels. These results will ultimately help us understand the impacts of combined stresses of climate change and metal pollution on marine organisms and expand the knowledge of the ecological risks of OA.

Continue reading ‘Mitigation effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification on Cd toxicity to the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum’

Zinc toxicity alters the photosynthetic response of red alga Pyropia yezoensis to ocean acidification

The globally changing environmental climate, ocean acidification, and heavy metal pollution are of increasing concern. However, studies investigating the combined effects of ocean acidification and zinc (Zn) exposure on macroalgae are very scarce. In this study, the photosynthetic performance of the red alga Pyropia yezoensis was examined under three different concentrations of Zn (control, 25 (medium), and 100 (high) μg L−1) and pCO2 (400 (ambient) and 1000 (high) μatm). The results showed that higher Zn concentrations resulted in increased toxicity for P. yezoensis, while ocean acidification alleviated this negative effect. Ocean acidification increased the relative growth rate of thalli under both medium and high Zn concentrations. The net photosynthetic rate and respiratory rate of thalli also significantly increased in response under ocean acidification, when thalli were cultured under both medium and high Zn concentrations. Malondialdehyde levels decreased under ocean acidification, compared to ambient CO2 conditions and either medium or high Zn concentrations. The activity of superoxide dismutase increased in response to high Zn concentrations, which was particularly apparent at high Zn concentration and ocean acidification. Immunoblotting tests showed that ocean acidification increased D1 removal, with increasing expression levels of the PSII reaction center proteins D2, CP47, and RbcL. These results suggested that ocean acidification could alleviate the damage caused by Zn exposure, thus providing a theoretical basis for a better prediction of the impact of global climate change and heavy metal contamination on marine primary productivity in the form of seaweeds.

Continue reading ‘Zinc toxicity alters the photosynthetic response of red alga Pyropia yezoensis to ocean acidification’

The effects of co-exposure of graphene oxide and copper under different pH conditions in Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum

Carbon nanomaterials (CNM), such as graphene oxide (GO), have been the focus of study in several areas of science mostly due to their physical-chemical properties. However, data concerning the potential toxic effects of these CNM in bivalves are still scarce. When present in the aquatic systems, the combination with other contaminants, as well as pH environmental variations, can influence the behavior of these nanomaterials and, consequently, their toxicity. Thus, the main goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of exposure of clam Ruditapes philippinarum to GO when acting alone and in the combination with copper (Cu), under two pH levels (control 7.8 and 7.3). A 28-day exposure was performed and metabolism and oxidative stress-related parameters were evaluated. The effects caused by GO and Cu exposures, either isolated or co-exposed, showed a direct and dependent relationship with the pH in which the organisms were exposed. In clams maintained at control pH (7.8), Cu and GO + Cu treatments showed lower lipid peroxidation (LPO) and lower electron transport system (ETS) activity, respectively. In clams maintained at low pH, glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) activities were increased in Cu and Cu + GO treatments, whereas reduced glutathione (GSH) levels were increased in Cu treatment and ETS activity was higher in GO + Cu. Thus, it can be observed that clams responses to Cu and GO were strongly modulated by pH in terms of their defense system and energy production, although this does not result into higher LPO levels.

Continue reading ‘The effects of co-exposure of graphene oxide and copper under different pH conditions in Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum’

Combined effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and Cd stress in the marine environment: enhanced tolerance of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to Cd exposure

Highlights

• Combined effects of OA and Cd exposure on Phaeodactylum tricornutum were analyzed.

• Either OA (1500 ppm) or Cd stress (1.2 mg/L) alone inhibited the growth of P. tricornutum.

• A significantly enhanced tolerance of P. tricornutum to Cd of 1.2 mg/L occurred under OA.

Abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) and heavy metals are common stress factors for marine ecosystems subject to anthropogenic impacts. OA coupled with the heavy metal is likely to affect marine species. This study investigated the single and combined effects of OA (1500 ppm) and cadmium (Cd; 0.4, 1.2 mg/L) on the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum under 7 d exposure. The results clearly indicated that either OA or Cd stress (1.2 mg/L) alone inhibited the growth of P. tricornutum. However, under the combined OA-Cd stress, the growth inhibition disappeared, and the intracellular oxidative damage was mitigated. These results indicated a significantly enhanced tolerance of P. tricornutum to Cd while under OA conditions, which could be beneficial to the survival of this diatom. This study will ultimately help us understand the responses of marine organisms to multiple stressors and have broad implications for the potential ecological risks of Cd under future OA conditions.

Continue reading ‘Combined effects of CO2-driven ocean acidification and Cd stress in the marine environment: enhanced tolerance of Phaeodactylum tricornutum to Cd exposure’

Ecotoxicological responses of a reef calcifier exposed to copper, acidification and warming: a multiple biomarker approach

Highlights

• Copper increased bleaching, respiration and inhibited calcification-related enzymes.

• Thermal stress was the main driver of mortality.

• Relative tolerance to climate change scenario (ocean warming + acidification).

• Integrated biomarker response related more to co-exposures than isolated biomarkers.

• Integrated analysis showed higher stress under climate change + copper condition.

Abstract

Multiple global and local stressors threat coral reefs worldwide, and symbiont-bearing foraminifera are bioindicators of reef health. The aim of this study was to investigate single and combined effects of copper (Cu) and climate change related stressors (ocean acidification and warming) on a symbiont-bearing foraminifer by means of an integrated biomarker analysis. Using a mesocosm approach, Amphistegina gibbosa were exposed for 25 days to acidification, warming and/or Cu contamination on a full orthogonal design (two levels each factor). Cu was the main factor increasing bleaching and respiration rates. Warming was the main cause of mortality and reduced growth. Calcification related enzymes were inhibited in response to Cu exposure and, in general, the inhibition was stronger under climate change. Multiple biological endpoints responded to realistic exposure scenarios in different ways, but evidenced general stress posed by climate change combined with Cu. These biological responses drove the high values found for the ‘stress index’ IBR (Integrated Biomarker Response) – indicating general organismal health impairment under the multiple stressor scenario. Our results provide insights for coral reef management by detecting potential monitoring tools. The ecotoxicological responses indicated that Cu reduces the tolerance of foraminifera to climate change (acidification + warming). Once the endpoints analysed have a high ecological relevance, and that responses were evaluated on a classical reef bioindicator species, these results highlight the high risk of climate change and metal pollution co-exposure to coral reefs. Integrated responses allowed a better effects comprehension and are pointed as a promising tool to monitor pollution effects on a changing ocean.

Continue reading ‘Ecotoxicological responses of a reef calcifier exposed to copper, acidification and warming: a multiple biomarker approach’

Ocean acidification: synergistic inhibitory effects of protons and heavy metals on 45Ca uptake by lobster branchiostegite membrane vesicles

Previous work with isolated outer membrane vesicles of lobster branchiostegite epithelial cells has shown that 45Ca2+ uptake by these structures is significantly (p < 0.02) reduced by an incremental decrease in saline pH (increased proton concentration) and that this decrease is due to competitive inhibition between carrier-mediated transport of 45Ca2+ and hydrogen ions. The present paper extends these previous findings and describes the combined effects of pH and cationic heavy metals on branchiostegite uptake of 45Ca2+. Partially purified membrane vesicles of branchiostegite cells were produced by a homogenization/centrifugation method and were loaded with mannitol at pH 7.0. The time course of 1 mM 45Ca2+ uptake in a mannitol medium at pH 8.5 containing 100 µM verapamil (Ca2+ channel blocker) was hyperbolic and approached equilibrium at 30 min. This uptake was either significantly reduced (p < 0.05) by the addition of 5 µM Zn2+ or essentially abolished with the addition of 5 µM Cu2+. Increasing zinc concentrations (5–500 µM) reduced 1 mM 45Ca2+ uptake at pH 8.5 or 7.5 in a hyperbolic fashion with the remaining non-inhibited uptake due to apparent non-specific binding. Uptake of 1 mM 45Ca2+ at pH 8.5, 7.5, 7.5 + Zn2+, and 7.5 + Zn2+ + Cu2+ + Cd2+ in the presence of 100 µM verapamil displayed a stepwise reduction of 45Ca2+ uptake with the addition of each treatment until only non-specific isotope binding occurred with all cation inhibitors. 45Ca2+ influxes (15 s uptakes; 0.25–5.0 mM calcium + 100 µM verapamil) in the presence and absence of 10 µM Zn2+ were both hyperbolic functions of calcium concentration. The curve with Zn2+ displayed a transport Km twice that of the control (p < 0.05), while inhibitor and control curve Jmax values were not significantly different (p > 0.05), suggesting competitive inhibition between 45Ca2+ and Zn2+ influxes. Analysis of the relative inhibitory effects of increased proton or heavy metal interaction with 45Ca2+ uptake suggests that divalent metals may reduce the calcium transport about twice as much as a drop in pH, but together, they appear to abolish carrier-mediated transport.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification: synergistic inhibitory effects of protons and heavy metals on 45Ca uptake by lobster branchiostegite membrane vesicles’

Ocean acidification buffers the physiological responses of the king ragworm Alitta virens to the common pollutant copper

Highlights

• Whilst ocean acidification (OA) often increases the toxicity of copper to marine invertebrates, here we find the opposite in the ragworm Alitta virens.

• There was no increase in copper-induced DNA damage or lipid peroxidation under OA conditions.

• Instead OA appeared to buffer the effects of copper on lipid peroxidation and acid-base disturbance, reducing these effects relative to ambient seawater conditions.

Abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) has the potential to alter the bioavailability of pH sensitive metals contaminating coastal sediments, particularly copper, by changing their speciation in seawater. Hence OA may drive increased toxicity of these metals to coastal biota. Here, we demonstrate complex interactions between OA and copper on the physiology and toxicity responses of the sediment dwelling polychaete Alitta virens. Worm coelomic fluid pCO2 was not increased by exposure to OA conditions (pHNBS 7.77, pCO2 530 μatm) for 14 days, suggesting either physiological or behavioural responses to control coelomic fluid pCO2. Exposure to 0.25 µM nominal copper caused a decrease in coelomic fluid pCO2 by 43.3% and bicarbonate ions by 44.6% but paradoxically this copper-induced effect was reduced under near-future OA conditions. Hence OA appeared to ‘buffer’ the copper-induced acid-base disturbance. DNA damage was significantly increased in worms exposed to copper under ambient pCO2 conditions, rising by 11.1% compared to the worms in the no copper control, but there was no effect of OA conditions on the level of DNA damage induced by copper when exposed in combination. These interactions differ from the increased copper toxicity under OA conditions reported for several other invertebrate species. Hence this new evidence adds to the developing paradigm that species’ physiology is key in determining the interactions of these two stressors rather than it purely being driven by the changes in metal chemistry under lower seawater pH.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification buffers the physiological responses of the king ragworm Alitta virens to the common pollutant copper’

Interaction of short-term copper pollution and ocean acidification in seagrass ecosystems: toxicity, bioconcentration and dietary transfer

Highlights

• Toxicity and bioconcentration of copper in seagrasses were not affected by pH.
• Complex copper-pH interactions were observed in the seagrass photosynthesis.
• Seagrasses can act as a copper source in the food web via direct consumption.

Abstract

We aimed to show how the predicted pH decrease in the ocean would alter the toxicity, bioconcentration and dietary transfer of trace metal copper on seagrass ecosystems, on a short-term basis. Seagrass Zostera noltei was exposed to two pH levels (8.36 and 8.03) and three copper levels (nominal concentrations, <3, 30 and 300 μg Cu L−1) in a factorial design during 21 days, while Gammarus locusta amphipods were continuously fed with the treated seagrass leaves. We found that the toxicity and bioconcentration of copper in seagrasses were not affected by pH, yet complex copper-pH interactions were observed in the seagrass photosynthesis. We demostrated that seagrasses can act as a copper source in the food web via direct consumption by herbivores. Future research need to investigate the interactive effects on a long-term basis, and to include biochemical and molecular endpoints to provide additional insights to the complex phisiological interactions observed.

Continue reading ‘Interaction of short-term copper pollution and ocean acidification in seagrass ecosystems: toxicity, bioconcentration and dietary transfer’

Impact of climate change and contamination in the oxidative stress response of marine organisms

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) levels are increasing at an unprecedented rate, changing the carbonate chemistry (in a process known as ocean acidification) and temperature of the worlds ocean. Moreover, the simultaneous occurrence of highly toxic and persistent contaminants, such as mercury, will play a key role in further shaping the ecophysiology of marine organisms. Thus, the main goal of the present dissertation was to undertake the first comprehensive and comparative analysis of the biochemical strategies, namely antioxidant defense (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants) and protein repair and removal mechanisms, of several marine organisms – from invertebrate (Veretillum cynomorium and Gammarus locusta) to vertebrate species (Argyrosomus regius, Chiloscyllium plagiosum and Scyliorhinus canicula) – encompassing different life-stages and life-strategies to the predicted climate-mediated changes. The findings provided in the present dissertation proved that organisms’ responses were mostly underpinned by temperature (increasing lipid, protein and nucleic acid damage), that also culminated into increased mercury bioaccumulation and toxicity, while ocean acidification as a sole stressor usually played a minor role in defining species vulnerability (i.e. responsible for increased oxidative damage in the marine calcifying organisms G. locusta). Nonetheless when co-occurring with warming and contamination scenarios, acidification was usually responsible for the reduction of heavy metal accumulation and toxicity, as well as decreased warming and contamination-elicited oxidative stress. Additionally, organisms’ responses were species-specific, and organisms that usually occupy more variable environments (e.g. daily changes in abiotic conditions) usually displayed greater responses towards environmental change than organisms inhabiting more stable environments. Furthermore, and assuming the relevance of transgenerational effects, it seems that the negative effects of OA are potentially being inherited by the offspring’s, compromising the efficiency of future generations to endure the upcoming conditions.

Continue reading ‘Impact of climate change and contamination in the oxidative stress response of marine organisms’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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