Posts Tagged 'South Atlantic'

Aragonite saturation state in a tropical coastal embayment dominated by phytoplankton blooms (Guanabara Bay – Brazil)

Highlights

  • The spatio-temporal variations of Ωarag were studied in a highly polluted coastal embayment.
  • High values of Ωarag were prevalent in surface waters dominated by phytoplankton blooms.
  • Lowest values of Ωarag were restricted to poorly buffered waters that receive direct effluent discharges.
  • Variations of Ωarag related to biological processes override those related to the atmospheric CO2.

Abstract

The dynamics of the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) were investigated in the eutrophic coastal waters of Guanabara Bay (RJ-Brazil). Large phytoplankton blooms stimulated by a high nutrient enrichment promoted the production of organic matter with strong uptake of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface waters, lowering the concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2aq), and increasing the pH, Ωarag and carbonate ion (CO32 ), especially during summer. The increase of Ωarag related to biological activity was also evident comparing the negative relationship between the Ωarag and the apparent utilization of oxygen (AOU), with a very close behavior between the slopes of the linear regression and the Redfield ratio. The lowest values of Ωarag were found at low-buffered waters in regions that receive direct discharges from domestic effluents and polluted rivers, with episodic evidences of corrosive waters (Ωarag < 1). This study showed that the eutrophication controlled the variations of Ωarag in Guanabara Bay.

Continue reading ‘Aragonite saturation state in a tropical coastal embayment dominated by phytoplankton blooms (Guanabara Bay – Brazil)’

How fast is the Patagonian shelf-break acidifying?

Highlights

• Carbonate system has been driven by dilution/evaporation and sea–air CO2 exchanges.
• The Patagonian shelf is a key area of anthropogenic carbon uptake.
• SACW is acidifying faster in the Patagonian shelf-break than in the South Atlantic.
• AAIW is under risk for aragonite undersaturation near the Patagonian shelf-break.

Abstract

Anthropogenic carbon (Cant) concentration is determined according to the TrOCA method, from carbonate system data and hydrographic parameters collected during two consecutive spring cruises (2007 and 2008) in the Argentinean Patagonian shelf-break zone between 36°S and 50°S. Cant has intruded the water column until intermediate depths, with no Cant below 1000 m, in the deeper waters (i.e., North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water) of the Northern sector of the study area (i.e., North of 38°S). The higher Cant concentration is observed in Subantarctic Shelf Water in the Southern region, whereas in the Northern sector both Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water are equally affected by Cant intrusion. The Antarctic Intermediate Water represents the depth-limit achieved by Cant penetration, reinforcing the role that this water mass plays as an important vehicle to transport Cant to the oceans interior. The estimated Cant average (± method precision) is 46.6 ± 5.3 μmol kg− 1, considering the full depth of the water column. The ocean acidification state (ΔpH) shows an average (± standard deviation) of − 0.11 ± 0.05, thus, indicating an annual pH reduction of − 0.0010 yr− 1 since the Industrial Revolution (c.a. 1750). The degree of aragonite saturation is lowered towards undersaturation levels of calcite. The Patagonian shelf and shelf-break zones—a strong CO2 sink region in the global ocean—are likely a key area for Cant intrusion in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean.

Continue reading ‘How fast is the Patagonian shelf-break acidifying?’

The influence of environmental variability on the biogeography of coccolithophores and diatoms in the Great Calcite Belt (update)

The Great Calcite Belt (GCB) of the Southern Ocean is a region of elevated summertime upper ocean calcite concentration derived from coccolithophores, despite the region being known for its diatom predominance. The overlap of two major phytoplankton groups, coccolithophores and diatoms, in the dynamic frontal systems characteristic of this region provides an ideal setting to study environmental influences on the distribution of different species within these taxonomic groups. Samples for phytoplankton enumeration were collected from the upper mixed layer (30 m) during two cruises, the first to the South Atlantic sector (January–February 2011; 60° W–15° E and 36–60° S) and the second in the South Indian sector (February–March 2012; 40–120° E and 36–60° S). The species composition of coccolithophores and diatoms was examined using scanning electron microscopy at 27 stations across the Subtropical, Polar, and Subantarctic fronts. The influence of environmental parameters, such as sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, carbonate chemistry (pH, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon), macronutrients (nitrate + nitrite, phosphate, silicic acid, ammonia), and mixed layer average irradiance, on species composition across the GCB was assessed statistically. Nanophytoplankton (cells 2–20 µm) were the numerically abundant size group of biomineralizing phytoplankton across the GCB, with the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi and diatoms Fragilariopsis nana, F. pseudonana, and Pseudo-nitzschia spp. as the most numerically dominant and widely distributed. A combination of SST, macronutrient concentrations, and pCO2 provided the best statistical descriptors of the biogeographic variability in biomineralizing species composition between stations. Emiliania huxleyi occurred in silicic acid-depleted waters between the Subantarctic Front and the Polar Front, a favorable environment for this species after spring diatom blooms remove silicic acid. Multivariate statistics identified a combination of carbonate chemistry and macronutrients, covarying with temperature, as the dominant drivers of biomineralizing nanoplankton in the GCB sector of the Southern Ocean.

Continue reading ‘The influence of environmental variability on the biogeography of coccolithophores and diatoms in the Great Calcite Belt (update)’

Seasonal pH and carbondioxide level as indicator of vulnerability of fresh and marine aquatic systems to climate change in Nigeria

Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations over the past two centuries have led to greater CO2 uptake by the oceans; raising concern over the current and future effects it may have on world climates. Certain changes are already evident but the impact of these changes on marine and coastal living resources is only poorly understood at this stage, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed seasonal dissolved carbon dioxide and pH of fresh and marine aquatic systems in Nigeria. Dissolved CO2 was non-significantly (p=0.07) higher in freshwater during the wet season (20±7ppm) compared to dry season (15 ± 1ppm), while in the marine system, dissolved CO2 level was significantly (p=0.02) higher (42±6ppm) during the dry season compared to the rainy season (31±5ppm). Mean pH values was significantly higher (p=0.003 and 0.05) in freshwater (6.8±0.8 and 6.9±0.2ppm) relative to marine (6.2±0.2 and 6.5±0.3ppm) during wet and dry seasons, respectively. The pH values were generally at the borderline of the acidic limit of the recommended pH values for aquaculture (6.5-9) during the two seasons. Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations over the past two centuries have led to a greater CO2 uptake by the oceans, acidification and consequently, saturation, thereby affecting the ocean’s continued ability to store CO2. This study therefore provides preliminary information on seasonal changes in CO2 and pH of fresh and marine systems in Nigeria; and their potential impacts on global climate and aquatic ecosystems.

Continue reading ‘Seasonal pH and carbondioxide level as indicator of vulnerability of fresh and marine aquatic systems to climate change in Nigeria’

Assessment of the environmental impacts of ocean acidification (OA) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) leaks using the amphipod Hyale youngi

This study aims to ascertain the effects of CO2 induced water acidification and leaks from Carbon Capture and Storage activities on the South American amphipod Hyale youngi. A 10-day acute toxicity test was performed using sediments from two sites located inside the Santos Estuarine System. They were subjected to five pH treatments (8.1, 7.6, 7.0, 6.5, and 6.0). Metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn) and the metalloid As were analyzed to determine the influence of their acidification-related mobility on the amphipods mortality. The results showed that mortality becomes significant when compared to control in pH 6.5 in the Canal de Piaçaguerasediment (contaminated) and at pH 6.0 in Ilha das Palmas sediment (reference).

Continue reading ‘Assessment of the environmental impacts of ocean acidification (OA) and carbon capture and storage (CCS) leaks using the amphipod Hyale youngi’

Time series pCO2 at a coastal mooring: internal consistency, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability

Marine carbonate system monitoring programs often consist of multiple observational methods that include underway cruise data, moored autonomous time series, and discrete water bottle samples. Monitored parameters include all, or some of the following: partial pressure of CO2 of the water (pCO2w) and air, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), and pH. Any combination of at least two of the aforementioned parameters can be used to calculate the others. In this study at the Gray’s Reef (GR) mooring in the South Atlantic Bight (SAB) we: examine the internal consistency of pCO2wfrom underway cruise, moored autonomous time series, and calculated from bottle samples (DIC-TA pairing); describe the seasonal to interannual pCO2w time series variability and air-sea flux (FCO2), as well as describe the potential sources of pCO2wvariability; and determine the source/sink for atmospheric pCO2. Over the ~8.5 years of GR mooring time series, mooring-underway and mooring-bottle calculated-pCO2wstrongly correlate with r-values > 0.90. pCO2w and FCO2 time series follow seasonal thermal patterns; however, seasonal non-thermal processes, such as terrestrial export, net biological production, and air-sea exchange also influence variability. The linear slope of time series pCO2w increases by 5.2±1.4 µatm y−1 with FCO2 increasing 51 to 70 mmol m−2 y−1. The net FCO2 sign can switch interannually with the magnitude varying greatly. Non-thermal pCO2w is also increasing over the time series, likely indicating that terrestrial export and net biological processes drive the long term pCO2w increase.

Continue reading ‘Time series pCO2 at a coastal mooring: internal consistency, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability’

Solar UVR sensitivity of phyto- and bacterioplankton communities from Patagonian coastal waters under increased nutrients and acidification

The effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) under future expected conditions of acidification and increase in nutrient inputs were studied on a post-bloom phytoplankton and bacterioplankton community of Patagonian coastal waters. We performed an experiment using microcosms where two environmental conditions were mimicked using a cluster approach: present (ambient nutrients and pH) and future (increased nutrients and acidification), and acclimating the samples for five days to two radiation treatments (full solar radiation [+UVR] and exclusion of UVR [–UVR]). We evaluated the short-term (hours) sensitivity of the community to solar UVR through chlorophyll afluorescence parameters (e.g. the effective photochemical quantum yield of PSII [ΦPSII]) at the beginning, at the mid-point and at the end of the acclimation period. Primary production and heterotrophic bacterial production (HBP) were determined, and biological weighting functions were calculated, at the beginning and at the end of the acclimation period. Mid-term effects (days) were evaluated as changes in taxonomic composition, growth rates and size structure of the community. Although the UVR-induced inhibition on ΦPSII decreased in both clusters, samples remained sensitive to UVR after the 5 days of acclimation. Also, under the future conditions, there was, in general, an increase in the phytoplankton carbon incorporation rates along the experiment as compared to the present conditions. Bacterioplankton sensitivity to UVR changed along the experiment from inhibition to enhancement of HBP, and future environmental conditions stimulated bacterial growth, probably due to indirect effects caused by phytoplankton. Those changes in the microbial loop functioning and structure under future global change conditions might have important consequences for the carbon pump and thus for the carbon sequestration and trophodynamics of Patagonian coastal waters.

Continue reading ‘Solar UVR sensitivity of phyto- and bacterioplankton communities from Patagonian coastal waters under increased nutrients and acidification’


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OA-ICC HIGHLIGHTS

Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book