Posts Tagged 'Indian'

Scales and drivers of seasonal pCO2 dynamics and net ecosystem exchange along the coastal waters of southeastern Arabian Sea

The impact of seasonal coastal upwelling on the dynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and sea-air fluxes of CO2 along the coastal waters of Kochi was investigated during 2015, as a part of Ecosystem Modelling Project. The surface water pCO2 varied from 396 to 630 μatm during the study period. Significant inter-seasonal variations were found in the distribution of physico-chemical variables and surface pCO2. An increase of 102.1 μatm of pCO2 was noticed over a two-decade period with a rate of 5.3 μatm y− 1. There was an agreement between the fluxes of CO2 and net ecosystem production (NEP) with respect to the trophic status while NEP was higher than CO2 fluxes by a factor of 3.9. The annual net ecosystem exchange (NEE) was estimated to be 15.02 mmol C m− 2 d− 1 indicating that the coastal waters of Kochi are highly heterotrophic in nature.

Continue reading ‘Scales and drivers of seasonal pCO2 dynamics and net ecosystem exchange along the coastal waters of southeastern Arabian Sea’

Coral calcification in a changing World and the interactive dynamics of pH and DIC upregulation

Coral calcification is dependent on the mutualistic partnership between endosymbiotic zooxanthellae and the coral host. Here, using newly developed geochemical proxies (δ11B and B/Ca), we show that Poritescorals from natural reef environments exhibit a close (r2 ∼0.9) antithetic relationship between dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH of the corals’ calcifying fluid (cf). The highest DICcf (∼ × 3.2 seawater) is found during summer, consistent with thermal/light enhancement of metabolically (zooxanthellae) derived carbon, while the highest pHcf(∼8.5) occurs in winter during periods of low DICcf (∼ × 2 seawater). These opposing changes in DICcf and pHcf are shown to maintain oversaturated but stable levels of carbonate saturation (Ωcf ∼ × 5 seawater), the key parameter controlling coral calcification. These findings are in marked contrast to artificial experiments and show that pHcf upregulation occurs largely independent of changes in seawater carbonate chemistry, and hence ocean acidification, but is highly vulnerable to thermally induced stress from global warming.

Continue reading ‘Coral calcification in a changing World and the interactive dynamics of pH and DIC upregulation’

Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters

Owing to a lack of resources, tools, and knowledge, the natural variability and distribution of Total Alkalinity (TA) has been poorly characterised in coastal waters globally, yet variability is known to be high in coastal regions due to the complex interactions of oceanographic, biotic, and terrestrially-influenced processes. This is a particularly challenging task for the vast Australian coastline, however, it is also this vastness that demands attention in the face of ocean acidification (OA). Australian coastal waters have high biodiversity and endemism, and are home to large areas of coral reef, including the Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef system in the world. Ocean acidification threatens calcifying marine organisms by hindering calcification rates, threatening the structural integrity of coral reefs and other ecosystems. Tracking the progression of OA in different coastal regions requires accurate knowledge of the variability in TA. Thus, estimation methods that can capture this variability at synoptic scales are needed. Multiple linear regression is a promising approach in this regard. Here, we compare a range of both simple and multiple linear regression models to the estimation of coastal TA from a range of variables, including salinity, temperature, chlorophyll-a concentration and nitrate concentration. We find that regionally parameterised models capture local variability better than more general coastal or open ocean parameterised models. The strongest contribution to model improvement came through incorporating temperature as an input variable as well as salinity. Further improvements were achieved through the incorporation of either nitrate or chlorophyll-a, with the combination of temperature, salinity, and nitrate constituting the minimum model in most cases. These results provide an approach that can be applied to satellite Earth observation and autonomous in situ platforms to improve synoptic scale estimation of TA in coastal waters.

Continue reading ‘Estimating total alkalinity for coastal ocean acidification monitoring at regional to continental scales in Australian coastal waters’

Species composition of microzooplankton Tintinnid from the coastal waters of Digha, Bay of Bengal

Tintinnid species distribution and hydrography were studied in the coastal waters of Digha during winter (November 2015) and summer (March 2016) seasons. Surface water samples were collected from 11 different stations from 0 to 10 km offshore with the help of a mechanized trawler. Parameters like tintinnid species enumeration, zooplankton biomass, phytoplankton concentration (total chlorophyll) and abundance, sea surface temperature (SST), pH, transparency, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), total phosphate, silicate and nitrate were analysed. A total of 20 different tintinnid species (16 agglomerated +4 non-agglomerated) belonging to 6 genera were recorded from the study area with seasonal variation in tintinnid diversity, i.e. higher in summer (total 2745 individual/l) compared to winter (total 1191 individual/l). Tintinnopsis was the most dominant genus during both the seasons, i.e. 2100 individual/l in summer and 727 individual/l in winter, contributing about 76 and 61% population for the respective seasons. The correlation between species and water quality parameters showed that Tintinnopsis sp. abundance was significantly regulated by nitrate concentration, salinity, dissolved oxygen, water transparency and pH. However, the mentioned hydrological parameters were not the only factors regulating the tintinnid abundance. Tintinnid abundance was also found to be positively related with transparency (r = 0.732) and salinity (r = 0.524) and moderately related with dissolved oxygen (r = 0.488) whereas strong negative relation (at p ≤ 0.05) was established between tintinnid abundance with nitrate (r = −0.681) and pH (r = −0.561). Bray-Curtis cluster analysis of tintinnid species showed more than 60% similarity. Shannon’s diversity index (H′), Simpson’s evenness index (D) and Margalef’s species richness index were found to be higher in summer, i.e. 1.61, 0.729 and 1.612, compared to the winter season, i.e. 1.139, 0.597 and 1.268. k-dominance curve showed maximum abundance of Tintinnopsis baltica in winter and Tintinnopsis gracilis in summer. Principal component analysis (PCA) was analysed to find out the environmental variables affecting different tintinnid species diversity. A significant spatiotemporal variation in Tintinnid population distribution was observed from two-way ANOVA. The results reflect significant seasonal (F = 840.0), spatial (F = 47.3) and interactive variation (F = 71.2) among the ciliate microzooplankton at n = 66, p ≤ 0.001. High chlorophyll content and phytoplankton population in summer indicated that tintinnid diversity in the season was positively influenced by producer community in coastal waters of Digha.

Continue reading ‘Species composition of microzooplankton Tintinnid from the coastal waters of Digha, Bay of Bengal’

The influence of environmental variability on the biogeography of coccolithophores and diatoms in the Great Calcite Belt

The Great Calcite Belt (GCB) of the Southern Ocean is a region of elevated summertime upper ocean calcite concentration derived from coccolithophores, despite the region being known for its diatom predominance. The overlap of two major phytoplankton groups, coccolithophores and diatoms, in the dynamic frontal systems characteristic of this region, provides an ideal setting to study environmental influences on the distribution of different species within these taxonomic groups. Water samples for phytoplankton enumeration were collected from the upper 30 m during two cruises, the first to the South Atlantic sector (Jan–Feb 2011; 60 °W–15 °E and 36–60 °S) and the second in the South Indian sector (Feb–Mar 2012; 40–120 °E and 36–60 °S). The species composition of coccolithophores and diatoms was examined using scanning electron microscopy at 27 stations across the Sub-Tropical, Polar, and Sub-Antarctic Fronts. The influence of environmental parameters, such as sea-surface temperature (SST), salinity, carbonate chemistry (i.e., pH, partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon), macro-nutrients (i.e., nitrate + nitrite, phosphate, silicic acid, ammonia), and mixed layer average irradiance, on species composition across the GCB, was assessed statistically. Nanophytoplankton (cells 2–20 μm) were the numerically abundant size group of biomineralizing phytoplankton across the GCB, the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi and the diatoms Fragilariopsis nana, F. pseudonana and Pseudonitzschia sp. were the most dominant and widely distributed species. A combination of SST, macro-nutrient concentrations and pCO2 were the best statistical descriptors of biogeographic variability of biomineralizing species composition between stations. Emiliania huxleyi occurred in the silicic acid-depleted waters between the Sub-Antarctic Front and the Polar Front, indicating a favorable environment for this coccolithophore in the GCB after spring diatom blooms remove silicic acid to limiting levels. After full consideration of variability in carbonate chemistry and temperature on the distribution of nanoplankton in the GCB, we find that temperature remains the dominant driver of biogeography in a large proportion of the modern Southern Ocean.

Continue reading ‘The influence of environmental variability on the biogeography of coccolithophores and diatoms in the Great Calcite Belt’

Assessing phytoplankton community structure in relation to hydrographic parameters and seasonal variation (Pre and Post Monsoon)

The present study is conducted to assess hydrographical parameters, phytoplankton composition and the relationship between physicochemical parameters and phytoplankton assemblages along Chabahar coastal waters, South coast of Iran. Based on the collected samples from four stations, all the hydrographical parameters such as sea surface temperature, salinity, pH, DO and nitrate, inorganic phosphate, silicate, and phytoplankton assemblages were studied for five months (from April 2014 to August 2014). A total of 165 phytoplankton groups/taxa were observed in which the Dinophyceae formed the dominant group in all seasons. During the pre-monsoon season, Dinophyceae (56.5%) was the most abundant phytoplankton group followed by Bacillariophyceae (40.8%), Cyanophyceae (1.7 %) and Dictyochophyceae (0.8%). Meanwhile, in the post-monsoon season, Dinophyceae was dominant (49.5%), followed by Bacillariophyceae (46.7%), Cyanophyceae (1.8%), and Dictyochophyceae (1.8%). The highest phytoplankton density was in mid-May (19584953± 345182 cell per litter) and the lowest was in late July (163928± 1790 cells per liter). Salinity, nitrate, phosphate, silicate showed significant variation (p<0.05) among seasons while pH, seawater temperature, dissolve oxygen did not show significant differences in all stations over the study periods (p<0.05). Phytoplankton density correlated positively with water temperature and salinity. Results showed an increased concentration in phytoplankton density during Pre-monsoon season followed by Post-monsoon and monsoon season.

Continue reading ‘Assessing phytoplankton community structure in relation to hydrographic parameters and seasonal variation (Pre and Post Monsoon)’

Intertidal oysters reach their physiological limit in a future high-CO2 world

Sessile marine molluscs living in the intertidal zone experience periods of internal acidosis when exposed to air (emersion) during low tide. Relative to other marine organisms, molluscs have been identified as vulnerable to future ocean acidification; however, paradoxically it has also been shown that molluscs exposed to high CO2 environments are more resilient compared with those molluscs naive to CO2 exposure. Two competing hypotheses were tested using a novel experimental design incorporating tidal simulations to predict the future intertidal limit of oysters in a high-CO2 world; either high-shore oysters will be more tolerant of elevated PCO2 because of their regular acidosis, or elevated PCO2 will cause high-shore oysters to reach their limit. Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata, were collected from the high-intertidal and subtidal areas of the shore and exposed in an orthogonal design to either an intertidal or a subtidal treatment at ambient or elevated PCO2, and physiological variables were measured. The combined treatment of tidal emersion and elevated PCO2 interacted synergistically to reduce the haemolymph pH (pHe) of oysters, and increase the PCO2 in the haemolymph (Pe,CO2) and standard metabolic rate. Oysters in the intertidal treatment also had lower condition and growth. Oysters showed a high degree of plasticity, and little evidence was found that intertidal oysters were more resilient than subtidal oysters. It is concluded that in a high-CO2 world the upper vertical limit of oyster distribution on the shore may be reduced. These results suggest that previous studies on intertidal organisms that lacked tidal simulations may have underestimated the effects of elevated PCO2.

Continue reading ‘Intertidal oysters reach their physiological limit in a future high-CO2 world’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book