Posts Tagged 'socio-economy'

Evolution of the human impact on oceans: tipping points of socio-ecological coviability

Since an important degree of the carbon dioxide (CO2) that mankind emits in the atmosphere ends up in the ocean as a result of gas exchange through the air-sea interface, the ocean acidifies itself (because of the reaction CO2 produces when it contacts water). Ocean acidification is one of the perturbing anthropogenic effects (because of human activity), not only for maritime ecosystems but also for Man himself as he will have to adapt. He will have to deal with variations in fisheries and other costal touristic activities (reduction of corals, and so on). However, the anthropogenic CO2 penetration in the ocean is not uniform, and the cold Polar Regions will be affected by the change faster than the warm tropical regions. The study that we are conducting addresses several points of the quantification, in time and space, of anthropogenic CO2 penetration in the ocean. One of them has permitted the identification of breaking points. We demonstrate that four tipping points can be located in order to quantify risks of ocean acidification, which may have as a result the dissolution of calcium carbonates that are indispensable to marine ecosystems (shells, corals, and so on).

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Socio-economic tools to mitigate the impacts of ocean acidification on economies and communities reliant on coral reefs–a framework for prioritization

Coral reef preservation is a challenge for the whole of humanity, not just for the estimated three billion people that directly depend upon coral reefs for their livelihoods and food security. Ocean acidification combined with rising sea surface temperatures, and an array of other anthropogenic influences such as pollution, sedimentation, over fishing, and coral mining represent the key threats currently facing coral reef survival. Here we summarise a list of agreements, policies, and socio-economic tools and instruments that can be used by global, national and local decision-makers to address ocean acidification and associated threats, as identified during an expert workshop in October 2017. We then discuss these tools and instruments at a global level and identify the key tasks for raising decision makers’ awareness. Finally, we suggest ways of prioritizing between different actions or tools for mitigation and adaptation.

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Ocean acidification impacts in select Pacific Basin coral reef ecosystems

In the vast tropical Pacific Basin islands, corals reef ecosystems are one of the defining marine habitats, critical for maintaining biodiversity and supporting highly productive fisheries. These reefs are also vital for tourism and armoring exposed shorelines against erosion and other storm-related effects. Since the 1980’s, there has been growing evidence that these Pacific Basin coral reef ecosystems are highly vulnerable to the combined effects of both climatic and non-climatic stressors. Observations of widespread bleaching in the region has been linked to acute temperature stress, and the heightened recurrence intervals and intensity of storms has been correlated to recent climate-change induced impacts. Ocean acidification is another ubiquitous stressor with dramatic consequences to biological systems. In this paper we describe what sets this region apart from other coral reef regions around the world, and highlight some examples of the diverse response to ocean acidification threats and associated socio-economic impacts.

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Ocean acidification impacts on coral reefs: from sciences to solutions

Coral reefs distinctly illustrate the close relationship between biodiversity and ecosystem services. They are rich marine ecosystems, hosting extensive biological diversity, and yet that diversity and the ecosystem services provided are among the most endangered because of global changes. By reducing and altering coral reef biodiversity, global changes are endangering the lives of hundreds of millions of people. It was therefore appropriate that the ongoing workshop series ”Bridging the gap between Ocean Acidification and Economic Valuation” dedicated, during the International Year of Coral Reefs, its 4edition in search of solutions inspired by the most recent data of the Natural, Economic and Social Sciences. This article summarizes the ecological and human importance of coral reefs, the reasons for their sensitivity to global changes, and presents the major conclusions of the workshop as well as policy options.

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Dealing with the effects of ocean acidification on coral reefs in the Indian Ocean and Asia

Shallow coral reefs provide food, income, well-being and coastal protection to countries around the Indian Ocean and Asia. These reefs are under threat due to many anthropogenic stressors including pollution, sedimentation, overfishing, sea surface warming and habitat destruction. Ocean acidification interacts with these factors to exacerbate stress on coral reefs. Effective solutions in tackling the impact of ocean acidification require a thorough understanding of the current adaptive capacity of each nation to deal with the consequences. Here, we aim to help the decision-making process for policy makers in dealing with these future challenges at the regional and national levels. We recommend that a series of evaluations be made to understand the current status of each nation in this region in dealing with ocean acidification impacts by assessing the climate policy, education, policy coherence, related research activities, adaptive capacity of reef-dependent economic sectors and local management. Indonesia and Thailand, are selected as case studies. We also highlight general recommendations on mitigation and adaptation to ocean acidification impacts on coral reefs and propose well-designed research program would be necessary for developing a more targeted policy agenda in this region.

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Ecological-economic sustainability of the Baltic cod fisheries under ocean warming and acidification

• Ocean warming and acidification (OAW) will drastically decrease cod fishing opportunities in the Baltic.

• Ecological-economic modeling shows high losses in catch, and profits due to OAW.

• There is a high risk of cod stock collapse under mid-term climate change.

• Improved management could temporarily counteract OAW stressors.

• Adaptation includes a reduction in fishing mortality, and increased mesh size.

Human-induced climate change such as ocean warming and acidification, threatens marine ecosystems and associated fisheries. In the Western Baltic cod stock socio-ecological links are particularly important, with many relying on cod for their livelihoods. A series of recent experiments revealed that cod populations are negatively affected by climate change, but an ecological-economic assessment of the combined effects, and advice on optimal adaptive management are still missing. For Western Baltic cod, the increase in larval mortality due to ocean acidification has experimentally been quantified. Time-series analysis allows calculating the temperature effect on recruitment. Here, we include both processes in a stock-recruitment relationship, which is part of an ecological-economic optimization model. The goal was to quantify the effects of climate change on the triple bottom line (ecological, economic, social) of the Western Baltic cod fishery. Ocean warming has an overall negative effect on cod recruitment in the Baltic. Optimal management would react by lowering fishing mortality with increasing temperature, to create a buffer against climate change impacts. The negative effects cannot be fully compensated, but even at 3 °C warming above the 2014 level, a reduced but viable fishery would be possible. However, when accounting for combined effects of ocean warming and acidification, even optimal fisheries management cannot adapt to changes beyond a warming of +1.5° above the current level. Our results highlight the need for multi-factorial climate change research, in order to provide the best available, most realistic, and precautionary advice for conservation of exploited species as well as their connected socio-economic systems.

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Coral reefs of the Red Sea — challenges and potential solutions

The Red Sea is a unique body of water, hosting some of the most productive and diverse coral reefs. Human populations along coasts of the Red Sea were initially sparse due to the hot and arid climate surrounding it, but this is changing with improved desalination techniques, accessible energy, and increased economic interest in coastal areas. In addition to increasing pressure on reefs from coastal development, global drivers, primarily ocean acidification and seawater warming, are threatening coral reefs of the region. While reefs in southern sections of the Red Sea live near or above their maximum temperature tolerance and have experienced bleaching events in the recent past, coral reefs in northern sections are considered a coral reef refugia from global warming and acidification, at least for the coming decades. Such differential sensitivities along the latitudinal gradient of the Red Sea require differential solutions and management. In an effort to identify the appropriate solutions to conserve and maintain resilience of these reefs along a latitudinal gradient, we used a SWOT analysis (strengths/weaknesses/opportunities/threats) to frame the present situation and to propose policy solutions as useful planning procedures. We highlight the need for immediate action to secure the northern sections of the Red Sea as a coral reef climate change refuge by management and removal of local stressors. There is a need to strengthen the scientific knowledge base for proper management and to encourage regional collaboration on environmental issues. Based on scientific data, solutions such as marine protected areas, fishing regulation, and reef restoration approaches were ranked for five distinct latitudinal sections in the Red Sea and levels of interventions are recommended.

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book