Posts Tagged 'socio-economy'

Linking the biological impacts of ocean acidification on oysters to changes in ecosystem services: A review

Continued anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions are acidifying our oceans, and hydrogen ion concentrations in surface oceans are predicted to increase 150% by 2100. Ocean acidification (OA) is changing ocean carbonate chemistry, including causing rapid reductions in calcium carbonate availability with implications for many marine organisms, including biogenic reefs formed by oysters. The impacts of OA are marked. Adult oysters display both decreased growth and calcification rates, while larval oysters show stunted growth, developmental abnormalities, and increased mortality. These physiological impacts are affecting ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services by oyster reefs. Oysters are ecologically and economically important, providing a wide range of ecosystem services, such as improved water quality, coastlines protection, and food provision. OA has the potential to alter the delivery and the quality of the ecosystem services associated with oyster reefs, with significant ecological and economic losses. This review provides a summary of current knowledge of OA on oyster biology, but then links these impacts to potential changes to the provision of ecosystem services associated with healthy oyster reefs.

Continue reading ‘Linking the biological impacts of ocean acidification on oysters to changes in ecosystem services: A review’

Ocean acidification and warming: the economic toll and implications for the social cost of carbon

Mounting evidence indicates that ocean acidification and warming (OAW) pose significant risks of systemic collapse of many critical ocean and coastal ecosystem services. Attention has been focused on the drastic reductions, if not extinction, of coral reefs, inundation of coastlines, massive ocean dead zones, collapse of both capture and subsistence fisheries in highly dependent regions and significant disruption of the ocean’s carbon sequestration capacity. The economic costs of OAW have yet to be adequately researched or included in estimates of the social cost of carbon (SCC). This article summarizes current knowledge about the economic costs of OAW and suggests alternative approaches for incorporating these costs into the federal government’s SCC. Preliminary results suggest that accounting for OAW would raise SCC 1.5–4.7 times higher than the current federal rate, to $60–$200 mt− 1 CO2-e.

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Valuing climate damages: Updating estimation of the social cost of carbon dioxide

The social cost of carbon (SC-CO2) is an economic metric intended to provide a comprehensive estimate of the net damages – that is, the monetized value of the net impacts, both negative and positive – from the global climate change that results from a small (1-metric ton) increase in carbon-dioxide (CO2) emissions. Under Executive Orders regarding regulatory impact analysis and as required by a court ruling, the U.S. government has since 2008 used estimates of the SC-CO2 in federal rulemakings to value the costs and benefits associated with changes in CO2 emissions. In 2010, the Interagency Working Group on the Social Cost of Greenhouse Gases (IWG) developed a methodology for estimating the SC-CO2 across a range of assumptions about future socioeconomic and physical earth systems.

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Economic effects of ocean acidification: Publication patterns and directions for future research

Human societies derive economic benefit from marine systems, yet these benefits may be modified as humans drive environmental change. Here, we conducted the first systematic review of literature on the potential economic effects of ocean acidification. We identified that while there is a growing literature discussing this topic, assessments of the direction and magnitude of anticipated economic change remain limited. The few assessments which have been conducted indicate largely negative economic effects of ocean acidification. Insights are, however, limited as the scope of the studies remains restricted. We propose that understanding of this topic will benefit from using standard approaches (e.g. timescales and emissions scenarios) to consider an increasing range of species/habitats and ecosystem services over a range of spatial scales. The resulting understanding could inform decisions such that we maintain, or enhance, economic services obtained from future marine environments.

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Research on the sensitivity of the marine industry to climate change

Marine economic activities are mostly carried out in coastal zones with the most fragile ecological environment. (…)

(…) this paper develops an evaluation system for sensitivity coefficient by by quantifying specific indicators and finally confirms the sensitivity of different marine industries to climate change. The evaluation reveals that the salt marine industry is the most vulnerable to climate change followed by marine transportation, fishery, mining, shipbuilding, and coastal tourism. (…)

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Climate change impacts on tropical and temperate fisheries, aquaculture, and seafood security and implications – A review

Fish is an important source of animal protein for billions of people and in some tropical countries like Bangladesh, the Pacific islands, and the Maldives, fish provides more than 60% of animal protein supply. Climate change [the rise in temperatures (T°C), ocean acidification (OA), sea-level rise (SLR) and extreme events (EE)] is an additional threat and risk to world fisheries, aquaculture, and seafood security, in addition, to existing threats posed by other stressors. The T°C will have both the negative and positive effects on fisheries and aquaculture, of which, the temperate areas/countries will benefit, while the tropical regions/countries will be losers due to shifting in fish species from the tropical areas to the temperate areas to escape the warmer water. The T°C would cause coral bleaching and mortalities and may enhance seafood contamination (by algal toxins and metals). The OA would adversely affect many organisms that use calcium carbonate for their skeletons and would cause a decrease in abundance of commercially exploited seafood organisms (shellfish and finfish). SLR would cause salinisation of freshwater fisheries and aquaculture facilities and would damage or destroy many coastal ecosystems including mangroves and salt marshes, which are essential habitat for wild fish stocks. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and intensity of EE. Besides, EE would destroy seagrass and seaweed beds and mangroves (which are important nursery areas for fishes). The economic loss and impacts on fisheries, aquaculture and seafood security due to T°C, OA, SLR, EE could be substantial in both tropical and temperate areas/countries. This review reveals that fisheries in the least developed tropical countries/regions such as Bangladesh, the Maldives, the Pacific islands, and parts of Africa would be most vulnerable due to lack or limited resources, capacity and capabilities to adapt to climate change and high dependency on fish, fisheries, fishing and aquaculture as a source of food, animal protein, revenues, and livelihoods To achieve sustainability in fisheries and aquaculture in line with the new global sustainable development goals (2016-2030), it will be essential to identify appropriate adaptation and mitigation measures. Such measures may include promotion of climate-smart fisheries and climate-smart aquaculture, and conservation of seagrass and seaweed beds, salt marshes, and mangroves. Community awareness and education on climate change, an introduction of climate change courses in schools, colleges, and universities and incorporation of climate change risks in all the current and future development projects/plans would be vital to minimise threats and risks of climate change on fisheries, aquaculture, and seafood security.

Continue reading ‘Climate change impacts on tropical and temperate fisheries, aquaculture, and seafood security and implications – A review’

Future harvest of living resources in the Arctic Ocean north of the Nordic and Barents Seas: a review of possibilities and constraints

Global warming drives changes in oceanographic conditions in the Arctic Ocean and the adjacent continental slopes. This may result in favourable conditions for increased biological production in waters at the northern continental shelves. However, production in the central Arctic Ocean will continue to be limited by the amount of light and by vertical stratification reducing nutrient availability. Upwelling conditions due to topography and inflowing warm and nutrient rich Atlantic Water may result in high production in areas along the shelf breaks. This may particularly influence distribution and abundance of sea mammals, as can be seen from analysis of historical records of hunting. The species composition and biomass of plankton, fish and shellfish may be influenced by acidification due to increased carbon dioxide uptake in the water, thereby reducing the survival of some species. Northwards shift in the distribution of commercial species of fish and shellfish is observed in the Barents Sea, especially in the summer period, and is related to increased inflow of Atlantic Water and reduced ice cover. This implies a northward extension of boreal species and potential displacement of lipid-rich Arctic zooplankton, altering the distribution of organisms that depend on such prey. However, euphausiid stocks expanding northward into the Arctic Ocean may be a valuable food resource as they may benefit from increases in Arctic phytoplankton production and rising water temperatures. Even though no scenario modelling or other prediction analyses have been made, both scientific ecosystem surveys in the northern areas, as well as the fisheries show indications of a recent northern expansion of mackerel (Scomber scombrus), cod (Gadus morhua), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) and capelin (Mallotus villosus). These stocks are found as far north as the shelf-break north of Svalbard. Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides), redfish (Sebastes spp.) and shrimp (Pandalus borealis) are also present in the slope waters between the Barents Sea and the Arctic Ocean. It is assumed that cod and haddock have reached their northernmost limit, whereas capelin and redfish have potential to expand their distribution further into the Arctic Ocean. Common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) and harp seals (Pagophilus groenlandicus) may also be able to expand their distribution into the Arctic Ocean. The abundance and distribution of other species may change as well – to what degree is unknown.

Continue reading ‘Future harvest of living resources in the Arctic Ocean north of the Nordic and Barents Seas: a review of possibilities and constraints’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book