Posts Tagged 'temperature'

Using stable isotope analysis to determine the effects of ocean acidification and warming on trophic interactions in a maerl bed community

Ocean acidification and warming are likely to affect the structure and functioning of marine benthic communities. This study experimentally examined the effects of ocean acidification and warming on trophic interactions within a maerl bed community by using stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analysis. Two three‐month experiments were conducted in winter and summer seasons with four different combinations of pCO2 (ambient and elevated pCO2) and temperature (ambient and +3°C). Experimental assemblages were created in tanks held in the laboratory and were composed of calcareous (Lithothamnion corallioides) and fleshy algae (Rhodymenia ardissonei, Solieria chordalis, and Ulva sp.), gastropods (Gibbula magus and Jujubinus exasperatus), and sea urchins (Psammechinus miliaris). Our results showed higher seaweed availability for grazers in summer than winter. Therefore, grazers were able to adapt their diet seasonally. Increased pCO2 and temperature did not modify the trophic structure in winter, while shifts in the contribution of seaweed were found in summer. Combined acidification and warming increased the contribution of biofilm in gastropods diet in summer conditions. Psammechinus miliaris mostly consumed L. corallioides under ambient conditions, while the alga S. chordalis became the dominant food source under high pCO2 in summer. Predicted changes in pCO2 and temperature had complex effects on assemblage trophic structure. Direct effects of acidification and warming on seaweed metabolism may modify their abundance and biomass, affecting their availability for grazers. Climate change may also modify seaweeds’ nutritive value and their palatability for grazers. The grazers we investigated were able to change their diet in response to changes in algal assemblages, an advantage given that warming and acidification alter the composition of algal communities.

Continue reading ‘Using stable isotope analysis to determine the effects of ocean acidification and warming on trophic interactions in a maerl bed community’

Physiological resilience of pink salmon to naturally occurring ocean acidification

Pacific salmon stocks are in decline with climate change named as a contributing factor. The North Pacific coast of British Columbia is characterized by strong temporal and spatial heterogeneity in ocean conditions with upwelling events elevating CO2 levels up to 10-fold those of pre-industrial global averages. Early life stages of pink salmon have been shown to be affected by these CO2 levels, and juveniles naturally migrate through regions of high CO2 during the energetically costly phase of smoltification. To investigate the physiological response of out-migrating wild juvenile pink salmon to these naturally occurring elevated CO2 levels, we captured fish in Georgia Strait, British Columbia and transported them to a marine lab (Hakai Institute, Quadra Island) where fish were exposed to one of three CO2 levels (850, 1500 and 2000 μatm CO2) for 2 weeks. At ½, 1 and 2 weeks of exposure, we measured their weight and length to calculate condition factor (Fulton’s K), as well as haematocrit and plasma [Cl]. At each of these times, two additional stressors were imposed (hypoxia and temperature) to provide further insight into their physiological condition. Juvenile pink salmon were largely robust to elevated CO2 concentrations up to 2000 μatm CO2, with no mortality or change in condition factor over the 2-week exposure duration. After 1 week of exposure, temperature and hypoxia tolerance were significantly reduced in high CO2, an effect that did not persist to 2 weeks of exposure. Haematocrit was increased by 20% after 2 weeks in the CO2 treatments relative to the initial measurements, while plasma [Cl] was not significantly different. Taken together, these data indicate that juvenile pink salmon are quite resilient to naturally occurring high CO2 levels during their ocean outmigration.

Continue reading ‘Physiological resilience of pink salmon to naturally occurring ocean acidification’

Experimental evidence of uncertain future of the keystone ragworm Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) under climate change conditions

Highlights

  • Temperature enhances the impact of acidification on polychaetes survival and burrowing behavior.
  • Regardless the temperature, acidification results in a reduction on polychaetes feeding rate
  • Faster regeneration at the lowest temperature and less regenerated chaetigers at lower pH levels
  • Climate change induced oxidative stress in H. diversicolor
  • Polychaetes metabolic capacity was enhanced in stressed organisms, with no expenditure of energy reserves.

Abstract

It is currently assumed that climate change related factors pose severe challenges to biodiversity maintenance. This paper assesses the multi-stressor effects of elevated temperature (15 °C as control, 25 °C as elevated) and CO2 levels (pH 8.1 as control, 7.5 and 7.0 representing acidifying conditions) on the physiological (survival, and regenerative capacity), behavioral (feeding and burrowing activities), and biochemical changes (metabolic capacity, oxidative status and biotransformation mechanisms) experienced by the keystone polychaete Hediste diversicolor. Temperature rise enlarged the adverse effect of marine acidification on the survival of H. diversicolor, delayed the beginning of the excavation activity, enhancing the negative effects that pH decrease had in the burrowing behavior of this polychaete. Additionally, regardless of the temperature, exposure of H. diversicolor to acidification results in a reduction in the feeding rate. It is the first time that this decreased feeding capacity is found related to seawater acidification in this species. The healing of the wound and the blastemal formation were retarded due to these two climatic factors which hinder the regenerative process of polychaetes. These vital physiological functions of H. diversicolor can be related to the oxidative stress induced by climate change conditions since free radicals overproduced will impair cells functioning affecting species biochemical and physiological performance, including feeding, and tissue regeneration. The present results also demonstrated that although polychaete’s metabolic capacity was enhanced under stress conditions, organisms were still able to increase or maintain their energy reserves. Our findings are of major environmental relevance considering that predicted climate change conditions will affect species vital and ecological and physiological capacities. These can be translated into shrinking not only at the individual and population level but also in microbial and endofaunal diversities, in the detritus processing in estuaries and biogeochemical cycles at the ecosystem level. Thus the conservation of H. diversicolor populations is vital for the normal functioning of estuarine mudflat ecosystems.

Continue reading ‘Experimental evidence of uncertain future of the keystone ragworm Hediste diversicolor (O.F. Müller, 1776) under climate change conditions’

Temperature elevation and acidification damage microstructure of abalone via expression change of crystal induction genes

Highlights

• Thermal and acidification stress destroy the microstructure of abalone shells.

• Expression pattern change of direct crystal induction genes interfered the microstructure of shell under stress.

• Thermal stress changed the shell microstructure via Expression pattern change of direct crystal induction genes.

Abstract

Ocean warming and acidification caused by global climate change interferes with the shell growth of mollusks. In abalone Haliotis discus hannai, the microstructural changes in the shell under stress are unclear, and the effect of thermal stress on biomineralization is unknown. The lack of gene information has also hampered the study of abalone biomineralization mechanisms. In this study, the microstructure of reconstructed shell in H. discus hannai was observed to determine the effects of thermal and acidification stress on shell growth. Three nacre protein genes, Hdh-AP7, Hdh-AP24, and Hdh-perlustrin, were characterized, and their expression pattern during shell repair was measured under thermal and acidification stress and compared with those of two known biomineralization-related genes, Hdh-AP-1 and Hdh-defensin. The stress resulted in aragonite plates with corroded or irregular microstructures. The gene expression of two nacre proteins (Hdh-AP7 and Hdh-AP24), which directly induce crystal formation, were more sensitive to thermal stress than to acidification, but the expression of the regulatory nacre protein (Hdh-perlustrin) and the two known genes (Hdh-AP-1 and Hdh-defensin), which are also related to immunity, showed an interlinked, complex pattern change. We concluded that high temperature and acidification damages the shell microstructure by disturbing the expression pattern of biomineralization-related genes.

Continue reading ‘Temperature elevation and acidification damage microstructure of abalone via expression change of crystal induction genes’

Ocean acidification has impacted coral growth on the Great Barrier Reef

Ocean acidification (OA) reduces the concentration of seawater carbonate ions that stony corals need to produce their calcium carbonate skeletons, and is considered a significant threat to the functional integrity of coral reef ecosystems. However, detection and attribution of OA impact on corals in nature are confounded by concurrent environmental changes, including ocean warming. Here we use a numerical model to isolate the effects of OA and temperature, and show that OA alone has caused 13±3% decline in the skeletal density of massive Porites corals on the Great Barrier Reef since 1950. This OA‐induced thinning of coral skeletons, also evident in Porites from the South China Sea but not in the central equatorial Pacific, reflects enhanced acidification of reef water relative to the surrounding open ocean. Our finding reinforces concerns that even corals that might survive multiple heatwaves are structurally weakened and increasingly vulnerable to the compounding effects of climate change.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification has impacted coral growth on the Great Barrier Reef’

Physiological responses of Skeletonema costatum to the interactions of seawater acidification and combination of photoperiod and temperature

Ocean acidification (OA), which is a major environmental change caused by increasing atmospheric CO2, has considerable influences on marine phytoplankton. But few studies have investigated interactions of OA and seasonal changes in temperature and photoperiod on marine diatoms. In the present study, a marine diatom Skeletonema costatum was cultured under two different CO2 levels (LC, 400 μatm; HC, 1000 μatm) and three different combinations of temperature and photoperiod length (8:16 L:D with 5 ℃, 12:12 L:D with 15 ℃, 16:8 L:D with 25 ℃), simulating different seasons in typical temperate oceans, to investigate the combined effects of these factors. The results showed that specific growth rate of S. costatum increased with increasing temperature and daylength. However, OA showed contrasting effects on growth and photosynthesis under different combinations of temperature and daylength: while positive effects of OA were observed under spring and autumn conditions, it significantly decreased growth (11 %) and photosynthesis (21 %) in winter. In addition, low temperature and short daylength decreased the proteins of PSII (D1, CP47 and RubcL) at ambient pCO2 level, while OA alleviated the negative effect. These data indicated that future ocean acidification may show differential effects on diatoms in different cluster of other factors.

Continue reading ‘Physiological responses of Skeletonema costatum to the interactions of seawater acidification and combination of photoperiod and temperature’

Impact of dust enrichment on Mediterranean plankton communities under present and future conditions of pH and temperature: an experimental overview

In Low Nutrient Low Chlorophyll areas, such as the Mediterranean Sea, atmospheric fluxes represent a considerable external source of nutrients likely supporting primary production especially during stratification periods. These areas are expected to expand in the future due to lower nutrient supply from sub-surface waters caused by enhanced stratification, likely further increasing the role of atmospheric deposition as a source of new nutrients to surface waters. Yet, whether plankton communities will react differently to dust deposition in a warmer and acidified environment remains an open question. The impact of dust deposition both in present and future climate conditions was assessed through three perturbation experiments in the open Mediterranean Sea. Climate reactors (300 L) were filled with surface water collected in the Tyrrhenian Sea, Ionian Sea and in the Algerian basin during a cruise conducted in May/June 2017 in the frame of the PEACETIME project. The experimental protocol comprised two unmodified control tanks, two tanks enriched with a Saharan dust analog and two tanks enriched with the dust analog and maintained under warmer (+3 °C) and acidified (−0.3 pH unit) conditions. Samples for the analysis of an extensive number of biogeochemical parameters and processes were taken over the duration of the experiments (3–4 d). Here, we present the general setup of the experiments and the impacts of dust seeding and/or future climate change scenario on nutrients and biological stocks. Dust addition led to a rapid and maximum input of nitrate whereas phosphate release from the dust analog was much smaller. Our results showed that the impacts of Saharan dust deposition in three different basins of the open Northwestern Mediterranean Sea are at least as strong as those observed previously in coastal waters. However, interestingly, the effects of dust deposition on biological stocks were highly different between the three investigated stations and could not be attributed to differences in their degree of oligotrophy but rather to the initial metabolic state of the community. Finally, ocean acidification and warming did not drastically modify the composition of the autotrophic assemblage with all groups positively impacted by warming and acidification, suggesting an exacerbation of effects from atmospheric dust deposition in the future.

Continue reading ‘Impact of dust enrichment on Mediterranean plankton communities under present and future conditions of pH and temperature: an experimental overview’

Inorganic carbon uptake strategies in coralline algae: plasticity across evolutionary lineages under ocean acidification and warming

Highlights

• Ambient diffusive CO2 use of reef-building crustose coralline algae ranges from 35 to 65%.

• Algae largely maintain or increase bicarbonate use under ocean acidification and warming.

• Maintained or increased bicarbonate use is associated with sustained metabolic performance.

• Lineage predicts inorganic carbon uptake strategy.

• Proposed initial framework for inorganic carbon uptake strategies in crustose coralline algae.

Abstract

Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) assimilation is essential to the reef-building capacity of crustose coralline algae (CCA). Little is known, however, about the DIC uptake strategies and their potential plasticity under ongoing ocean acidification (OA) and warming. The persistence of CCA lineages throughout historical oscillations of pCO2 and temperature suggests that evolutionary history may play a role in selecting for adaptive traits. We evaluated the effects of pCO2 and temperature on the plasticity of DIC uptake strategies and associated energetic consequences in reef-building CCA from different evolutionary lineages. We simulated past, present, moderate (IPCC RCP 6.0) and high pCO2 (RCP 8.5) and present and high (RCP 8.5) temperature conditions and quantified stable carbon isotope fractionation (13ε), organic carbon content, growth and photochemical efficiency. All investigated CCA species possess CO2-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) and assimilate CO2 via diffusion to varying degrees. Under OA and warming, CCA either increased or maintained CCM capacity, which was associated with overall neutral effects on metabolic performance. More basal taxa, Sporolithales and Hapalidiales, had greater capacity for diffusive CO2 use than Corallinales. We suggest that CCMs are an adaptation that supports a robust carbon physiology and are likely responsible for the endurance of CCA in historically changing oceans.

Continue reading ‘Inorganic carbon uptake strategies in coralline algae: plasticity across evolutionary lineages under ocean acidification and warming’

A regional vulnerability assessment for the Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) to changing ocean conditions: insights from model projections and empirical experiments

Among global coastal regions, the Northern California Current System (N-CCS) is already experiencing effects from ocean acidification and hypoxia during the summer, primarily due to the region’s seasonal upwelling, current systems, and high productivity. Oxygen, pH, and temperature conditions are expected to become more stressful with continued fossil fuel emissions under global climate change, posing a serious threat to the region’s fisheries. N-CCS fishing communities rely heavily on the economically and culturally important Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister). The fishery is currently sustainably managed, but potential negative impacts from changing ocean conditions on Dungeness crab life stages and populations could have adverse effects for the fishery and the communities that rely on it. To quantify the vulnerability of Dungeness crab life stages and populations to predicted future conditions, both model projections and empirical experiments need to be employed. A semi-quantitative, life stage-specific framework was adapted here to assess the vulnerability of Dungeness crab to low pH, low dissolved oxygen, and high temperature under present and future projected conditions in the seasonally dynamic N-CCS. This was achieved using a combination of regional ocean models, species distribution maps, larval transport models, a population matrix model, and a literature review. This multi-faceted approach revealed that crab vulnerability to the three climate stressors will increase in the future (year 2100) under the most intense emissions scenario, with vulnerability to low oxygen being the most severe to the N-CCS population overall. Increases in vulnerability were largely driven by the adult life stage, which contributes the most to population growth. Empirical experiments demonstrated that adult crab respiration rates increase exponentially with temperature, potentially making this life stage more susceptible to hypoxia in the future. Together, this work provides novel insights into the effects of changing ocean conditions on Dungeness crab populations, which may help inform fishery management strategies.

Continue reading ‘A regional vulnerability assessment for the Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister) to changing ocean conditions: insights from model projections and empirical experiments’

The success of the fertilization and early larval development of the tropical sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) is affected by the pH decrease and temperature increase

Highlights

• Temperature and pH were tested on embryo-larval development of sea urchins.

• Larval development test proved to be more sensitive compared to gamete fecundity test.

• Low pH as an isolated factor exhibit significant results on fertilization and embryo-larval development.

• Extreme high temperature associated with low pH affect only sea urchin’s embryo-larval.

• Combination of low pH and high temperature causes damages in sea urchin.

Abstract

The decrease in the pH of oceans and the increase in their temperature are the two main problems observed in the marine ecosystems due to the increasing emission of CO2 in the atmosphere. Both conditions can affect the ecological processes of reproduction, recruitment and survival of the marine biota. Thus, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of pH decrease and temperature increase of seawater on the fertilization success and embryo-larval development of a species of tropical sea urchin. For this purpose, fertilization success (gametes) and embryo-larval development rate were determined by exposing gametes and embryos to decreasing pH values (8.0 (control), 7.7, and 7.4) and increasing temperatures (26 (control), 28, 30, 34, and 38 °C). These conditions were tested associated with each other (in synergy). The gamete test was sensitive to all investigated scenarios, the fertilization success was significantly reduced in the conditions of increased temperature (28, 30, 34, and 38 °C) associated with the ideal pH (pH 8.0) and the conditions of reduced pH (pH 7.7, and 7.4), remaining unchanged only in the ideal condition (pH 8.0 + 26 °C). However, the embryo test displayed enhanced sensitivity in the scenarios of temperature increase (28, 30, 34, and 38 °C) associated with pH decrease conditions. A significantly reduction of 29%, 23% and 10% was observed in all tested pH values at 38 °C, when compared to the control group (80%, 79.5% and 63%, respectively). Therefore, the present study suggests that the occurrence of both scenarios may have a significant impact, in the coming years, on the population of Echinometra lucunter.

Continue reading ‘The success of the fertilization and early larval development of the tropical sea urchin Echinometra lucunter (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) is affected by the pH decrease and temperature increase’


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