Posts Tagged 'temperature'

Temperature as a likely driver shaping global patterns in mineralogical composition in bryozoans: implications for marine calcifiers under global change

The Southern Ocean is showing one of the most rapid responses to human-induced global change, thus acting as a sentinel of the effects on marine species and ecosystems. Ocean warming and acidification are already impacting benthic species with carbonate skeletons, but the magnitude of these changes to species and ecosystems remains largely unknown. Here we provide the largest carbonate mineralogical dataset to date for Southern Ocean bryozoans, which are diverse, abundant and important as carbonate producers, thus making them excellent for monitoring the effects of ocean warming and acidification. To improve our understanding of how bryozoans might respond to ocean warming and acidification, we assess latitudinal and seafloor temperature patterns of skeletal mineralogy using bryozoan species occurrences together with temperature data for the first time. Our findings, combining new mineralogical data with published data from warmer regions, show that the proportions of high-Mg calcite and bimineralic species increase significantly towards lower latitudes and with increasing seawater temperature. These patterns are consistent with the hypothesis that seawater temperature is likely a significant driver of variations in bryozoan mineralogy at a global scale.

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Effects of temperature and pH on the growth, calcification, and biomechanics of two species of articulated coralline algae

Ocean warming and acidification are predicted to impact the physiology of marine organisms, especially marine calcifiers that must deposit calcium carbonate and resist dissolution. Of particular concern are articulated coralline algae, which must maintain both calcified segments (intergenicula) and uncalcified joints (genicula) in order to thrive along wave-swept rocky coastlines. We examined the effect of pH and temperature, both individually and in combination, on the growth, calcification, and biomechanical properties of 2 species of articulated coralline algae, Corallina vancouveriensis and Calliarthron tuberculosum, common on wave-exposed shores in the NE Pacific. Increased temperature and reduced pH were found to reduce growth rates in both species (30-89% lower) but had little influence on the amount of intergenicular calcium carbonate or on the genicular biomechanical properties of these species. Results suggest that although growth rates may decline, these 2 coralline species will maintain the integrity of their tissues and continue to persist under future climate stress.

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Effect of temperature and CO2 concentration on the morphogenesis of sagittal otoliths in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae

Otoliths are very useful biomarkers especially for fish growth. Climate change with the associated global changes in warming and acidification could affect the calcification and the shape of otoliths during the crucial larval period in teleost fish. To evaluate this predicted combined effect of temperature and CO2, Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) embryos and larvae were reared from hatching to respectively 47 and 60 days post-hatching (dph), under present day conditions and a scenario predicted for the year 2100 (IPCC RCP8.5). Otolith morphogenesis was tracked by analyzing area and normalized Elliptical Fourier coefficients. We found that otolith area for fish of similar size increased under the predicted 2100 climate change scenario compared to the present day. Climate change does not, however, seem to directly affect the otolith shape. Finally, the onset of otolith morphogenesis is hardwired, but the relationship between otolith and fish size is environment-dependent.

Continue reading ‘Effect of temperature and CO2 concentration on the morphogenesis of sagittal otoliths in Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) larvae’

Transcriptomic stability or lability explains sensitivity to climate stressors in coralline algae

Background

Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are calcifying red macroalgae that play important ecological roles including stabilisation of reef frameworks and provision of settlement cues for a range of marine invertebrates. Previous research into the responses of CCA to ocean warming (OW) and ocean acidification (OA) have found magnitude of effect to be species-specific. Response to OW and OA could be linked to divergent underlying molecular processes across species.

Results

Here we show Sporolithon durum, a species that exhibits low sensitivity to climate stressors, had little change in metabolic performance and did not significantly alter the expression of any genes when exposed to temperature and pH perturbations. In contrast, Porolithon onkodes, a major coral reef builder, reduced photosynthetic rates and had a labile transcriptomic response with over 400 significantly differentially expressed genes, with differential regulation of genes relating to physiological processes such as carbon acquisition and metabolism. The differential gene expression detected in P. onkodes implicates possible key metabolic pathways, including the pentose phosphate pathway, in the stress response of this species.

Conclusions

We suggest S. durum is more resistant to OW and OA than P. onkodes, which demonstrated a high sensitivity to climate stressors and may have limited ability for acclimatisation. Understanding changes in gene expression in relation to physiological processes of CCA could help us understand and predict how different species will respond to, and persist in, future ocean conditions predicted for 2100.

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Ocean warming and acidification affect the transitional element and macromolecular accumulation in harmful raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo

Despite ocean warming and acidification being expected to increase the harmful algal species worldwide, the raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is reported to have decreased. However, it is unknown on the transitional scale how this species physically and metabolically modifies its elements, and macromolecular accumulation leads to such condition. With 1st,10th, and 20th culture generation under present (21℃; pCO2 400ppm [LTLC]) and projected (25℃; pCO2 1000ppm [HTHC]) ocean conditions we examined these elemental and macromolecular changes along with transcriptome sequencing. Results showed that compared to HTHC (1st generation), the (20th generation) cells showed large decreases in carbon (QC:40%), nitrogen (QN:36%), and phosphorus-quotas (QP:43%), reflected in their reduction of overall DNA and RNA quantity. Decreased metabolic pathways in photosynthesis, carbon fixation, and lipid accumulation were coincident with changes in photosynthetic efficiency, carbon, and lipid quantity with long-term (20th generation) exposure to HTHC conditions. We observed that these variations of internal metabolic changes are caused by external changes in temperature by activating the (Ca+) signaling pathway and external changes in pCO2 by altering the (proton exchange) pathways. Our results suggest that H. akashiwo in the future ocean will undergo severe changes in its elemental and macromolecular properties, leading to programmed cell death.

Continue reading ‘Ocean warming and acidification affect the transitional element and macromolecular accumulation in harmful raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo

Impacts of seawater pH buffering on the larval microbiome and carry-over effects on later-life disease susceptibility in Pacific oysters

Ocean acidification upwelling events and the resulting lowered aragonite saturation state of seawater have been linked to high mortality of marine bivalve larvae in hatcheries. Major oyster seed producers along North America’s west coast have mitigated impacts via seawater pH buffering (e.g., addition of soda ash). However, little consideration has been given to whether such practice may impact the larval microbiome, with potential carry-over effects on immune competency and disease susceptibility in later-life stages. To investigate possible impacts, Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) were reared under soda ash pH buffered or ambient pH seawater conditions for the first 24 h of development. Both treatment groups were then reared under ambient pH conditions for the remainder of the developmental period. Larval microbiome, immune status (via gene expression), growth, and survival were assessed throughout the developmental period. Juveniles and adults arising from the larval run were then subjected to laboratory-based disease challenges to investigate carry-over effects. Larvae reared under buffered conditions showed an altered microbiome, which was still evident in juvenile animals. Moreover, reduced survival was observed in both juveniles and adults of the buffered group under a simulated marine heatwave and Vibrio exposure compared with those reared under ambient conditions. Results suggest that soda ash pH buffering during early development may compromise later-life stages under stressor conditions, and illustrate the importance of a long-view approach with regard to hatchery husbandry practices and climate change mitigation.

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Cascading effects augment the direct impact of CO2 on phytoplankton growth in a biogeochemical model

Atmospheric and oceanic CO2 concentrations are rising at an unprecedented rate. Laboratory studies indicate a positive effect of rising CO2 on phytoplankton growth until an optimum is reached, after which the negative impact of accompanying acidification dominates. Here, we implemented carbonate system sensitivities of phytoplankton growth into our global biogeochemical model FESOM-REcoM and accounted explicitly for coccolithophores as the group most sensitive to CO2. In idealized simulations in which solely the atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio was modified, changes in competitive fitness and biomass are not only caused by the direct effects of CO2, but also by indirect effects via nutrient and light limitation as well as grazing. These cascading effects can both amplify or dampen phytoplankton responses to changing ocean pCO2 levels. For example, coccolithophore growth is negatively affected both directly by future pCO2 and indirectly by changes in light limitation, but these effects are compensated by a weakened nutrient limitation resulting from the decrease in small-phytoplankton biomass. In the Southern Ocean, future pCO2 decreases small-phytoplankton biomass and hereby the preferred prey of zooplankton, which reduces the grazing pressure on diatoms and allows them to proliferate more strongly. In simulations that encompass CO2-driven warming and acidification, our model reveals that recent observed changes in North Atlantic coccolithophore biomass are driven primarily by warming and not by CO2. Our results highlight that CO2 can change the effects of other environmental drivers on phytoplankton growth, and that cascading effects may play an important role in projections of future net primary production.

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Life-history traits in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas are robust to ocean acidification under two thermal regimes

Ocean acidification and warming (OAW) are pressing contemporary issues affecting marine life and specifically calcifying organisms. Here, we investigated the direct effects of OAW on life-history traits of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, the most cultivated bivalve species worldwide. We also tested whether parental conditioning history shaped the phenotypic characters of their progenies (intergenerational carryover effects). Adult oysters and their offspring were exposed to two temperatures (18°C, +3°C) under ambient pH conditions or under an end-of-century acidification scenario (−0.33 pH unit). In adults, we monitored standard biometric and reproductive parameters, stress response by quantifying neuroendocrine metabolites and gamete quality. In larvae, we measured hatching rate, size, biochemical quality, and behavior. We found that reducing pH reduced growth rate and activated the serotonin system, but increasing temperature attenuated these effects. There was no effect of pH on reproduction at either temperature, and no intergenerational carryover effects. Larval characteristics were similar between treatments, regardless of parental conditioning history. Thus, the Pacific oyster seems robust to changes in pH, and increasing temperature is not an aggravating factor. We emphasize that the use of neuroendocrine indicators holds promise for revealing sublethal impacts of environmental changes.

Continue reading ‘Life-history traits in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas are robust to ocean acidification under two thermal regimes’

Do global environmental drivers’ ocean acidification and warming exacerbate the effects of oil pollution on the physiological energetics of Scylla serrata?

Global climate change–induced ocean warming and acidification have complex reverberations on the physiological functioning of marine ectotherms. The Sundarbans estuarine system has been under threat for the past few decades due to natural and anthropogenic disturbances. In recent years, petroleum products’ transportation and their usage have increased manifold, which causes accidental oil spills. The mud crab (Scylla serrata) is one of the most commercially exploited species in the Sundarbans. The key objective of this study was to delineate whether rearing under global environmental drivers (ocean acidification and warming) exacerbates the effect of a local driver (oil pollution) on the physiological energetics of mud crab (Scylla serrata) from the Sundarbans estuarine system. Animals were reared separately for 30 days under (a) the current climatic scenario (pH 8.1, 28°C) and (b) the predicted climate change scenario (pH 7.7, 34°C). After rearing for 30 days, 50% of the animals from each treatment were exposed to 5 mg L−1 of marine diesel oil for the next 24 h. Physiological energetics (ingestion rate, absorption rate, respiration rate, excretion rate, and scope for growth), thermal performance, thermal critical maxima (CTmax), acclimation response ratio (ARR), Arrhenius activation energy (AAE), temperature coefficient (Q10), warming tolerance (WT), and thermal safety margin (TSM) were evaluated. Ingestion and absorption rates were significantly reduced, whereas respiration and ammonia excretion rates significantly increased in stressful treatments, resulting in a significantly lower scope for growth. A profound impact on thermal performance was also noticed, leading to a downward shift in CTmax value for stress-acclimated treatment. The present results clearly highlighted the detrimental combined effect of global climatic stressors and pollution on the physiological energetics of crabs that might potentially reduce their population and affect coastal aquaculture in forthcoming years.

Continue reading ‘Do global environmental drivers’ ocean acidification and warming exacerbate the effects of oil pollution on the physiological energetics of Scylla serrata?’

Threats to Australia’s oceans and coasts: a systematic review

Graphical abstract.

Highlights

  • Threats to Australia’s oceans and coasts described in the academic literature from 2010 to 2020 were systematically reviewed.
  • 307 threats were identified across three categories, with most threats in the group “environmental and human-induced threats”.
  • Threats were described as impacting environmental (68%), economic (14%), socio-cultural (12%), and Indigenous (6%) values.
  • Only 45 of the 226 papers (20%) discussed multiple threats.
  • Findings highlight the cumulative and multi-faceted threats facing Australian oceans and coasts that must be addressed.

Abstract

Oceans and coasts provide important ecosystem, livelihood, and cultural values to humans and the planet but face current and future compounding threats from anthropogenic activities associated with expanding populations and their use of and reliance on these environments. To respond to and mitigate these threats, there is a need to first systematically understand and categorise them. This paper reviewed 226 articles from the period 2010–2020 on threats to Australia’s oceans and coasts, resulting in the identification of a total of 307 threats. Threats were grouped into three broad categories — threats from use and extraction; environmental and human-induced threats; and policy and socio-political threats —then ranked by frequency. The most common ‘threats from use and extraction’ were recreational activities, non-point source pollution, and urban development; the most common ‘environmental and human-induced threat’ was increased temperatures; and the most common ‘policy and socio-political threat’ was policy gaps and failures (e.g., a lack of coastal climate adaptation policies). The identification of threats across all three categories increased over time; however, the identification of ‘threats from use and extraction’ increased most rapidly over the last four years (2017–2020). Threats were most often described for their impacts on environmental values (68%), followed by economic (14%), socio-cultural (12%), and Indigenous (6%) values. Only 45 of the 226 papers (20%) discussed multiple threats. The threats facing Australia’s oceans and coasts are rising, cumulative, and multi-faceted, and the inherent tensions between varied uses, along with intensification of uses that derive short-term anthropogenic benefit, will continue to degrade the ecological sustainability of ocean and coastal systems if actions are not taken.

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Gastropods underwent a major taxonomic turnover during the end-Triassic marine mass extinction event

Based on an exhaustive database of gastropod genera and subgenera during the Triassic–Jurassic transition, origination and extinction percentages and resulting diversity changes are calculated, with a particular focus on the end-Triassic mass extinction event. We show that gastropods suffered a loss of 56% of genera and subgenera during this event, which was higher than the average of marine life (46.8%). Among molluscs, gastropods were more strongly affected than bivalves (43.4%) but less than ammonoids, which were nearly annihilated. However, there were also pronounced differences among gastropod subclasses. The most strongly affected subclass was the Neritimorphia, which lost 72.7% of their Rhaetian genera; on the other extreme, the Heterobranchia remained nearly unaffected (11% loss). We analysed this extinction pattern with respect to larval development, palaeobiogeography, shell size, and anatomy and found that putative feeding of the pelagic larval stage, adaptation to tropical-temperate water temperatures, and flexibility of the mantle attachment were among the factors that might explain extinction resilience of heterobranchs during the end-Triassic crisis. Among molluscs, extinction magnitude roughly correlates with locomotion activity and thus metabolic rates. We suggest three potential kill mechanisms that could account for these observations: global warming, ocean acidification, and extinction of marine plankton. The end-Triassic extinction of gastropods therefore fits to proposed extinction scenarios for this event, which invoke the magmatic activity of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province as the ultimate cause of death. With respect to gastropods, the effect of the end-Triassic mass extinction was comparable to that of the end-Permian mass extinction. Notably, Heterobranchia was relatively little affected by both events; the extinction resilience of this subclass during times of global environmental changes was therefore possibly a key aspect of their subsequent evolutionary success.

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Impact of climate change on Arctic macroalgal communities

The Arctic region faces a warming rate that is more than twice the global average. Seaice loss, increase in precipitation and freshwater discharge, changes in underwater light, and amplification of ocean acidification modify benthic habitats and the communities they host. Here we synthesize existing information on the impacts of climate change on the macroalgal communities of Arctic coasts. We review the shortand long-term changes in environmental characteristics of shallow hard-bottomed Arctic coasts, the floristics of Arctic macroalgae (description, distribution, life-cycle, adaptations), the responses of their biological and ecological processes to climate change, the resulting winning and losing species, and the effects on ecosystem functioning. The focus of this review is on fucoid species, kelps, and coralline algae which are key ecosystem engineers in hard-bottom shallow areas of the Arctic, providing food, substrate, shelter, and nursery ground for many species. Changes in seasonality, benthic functional diversity, food-web structure, and carbon cycle are already occurring and are reshaping Arctic benthic ecosystems. Shallow communities are projected to shift from invertebrate-to algal-dominated communities. Fucoid and several kelp species are expected to largely spread and dominate the area with possible extinctions of native species. A considerable amount of functional diversity could be lost impacting the processing of land-derived nutrients and organic matter and significantly altering trophic structure and energy flow up to the apex consumers. However, many factors are not well understood yet, making it difficult to appreciate the current situation and predict the future coastal Arctic ecosystem. Efforts must be made to improve knowledge in key regions with proper seasonal coverage, taking into account interactions between stressors and across species.

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Crustacean ecology in a changing climate

Whilst crustaceans occupy a diversity of ecological niches and have adapted to many environmental challenges, relatively little is known on how the predicted changes associated with climate change will impact individuals, communities, species and ecosystems globally. Direct oceanic change to seawater temperature, pH, alkalinity, oxygen level and salinity and indirect impacts on weather, seasonality, food availability and changes in ecological networks will put pressure upon crustaceans to acclimate. There is now emerging evidence that behaviour, physiology, fitness and ultimately reproduction and survival of coastal crustaceans is altered under experimental climate change conditions, with most studies showing negative impacts. Nevertheless measurable endpoints, multigenerational and ecosystem studies are to date extremely rare and the full impact of climate change stress upon crustaceans is nowhere near fully understood.

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Gadolinium ecotoxicity is enhanced in a warmer and acidified changing ocean as shown by the surf clam Spisula solida through a multibiomarker approach

Highlights

  • Spisula solida accumulated Gd after just one day.
  • Climate change did not impact Gd accumulation and elimination.
  • Gd was not proficiently eliminated in 7 days.
  • Lipid peroxidation was greater in clams exposed to warming and Gd.
  • Gd showed enhanced ecotoxicity in climate change conditions.

Abstract

Humans have exhaustively combusted fossil fuels, and released pollutants into the environment, at continuously faster rates resulting in global average temperature increase and seawater pH decrease. Climate change is forecasted to exacerbate the effects of pollutants such as the emergent rare earth elements. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the combined effects of rising temperature (Δ = + 4 °C) and decreasing pH (Δ = − 0.4 pH units) on the bioaccumulation and elimination of gadolinium (Gd) in the bioindicator bivalve species Spisula solida (Surf clam). We exposed surf clams to 10 µg L−1 of GdCl3 for seven days, under warming, acidification, and their combination, followed by a depuration phase lasting for another 7 days and investigated the Gd bioaccumulation and oxidative stress-related responses after 1, 3 and 7 days of exposure and the elimination phase. Gadolinium accumulated after just one day with values reaching the highest after 7 days. Gadolinium was not eliminated after 7 days, and elimination is further hampered under climate change scenarios. Warming and acidification, and their interaction did not significantly impact Gd concentration. However, there was a significant interaction on clam’s biochemical response. The augmented total antioxidant capacity and lipid peroxidation values show that the significant impacts of Gd on the oxidative stress response are enhanced under warming while the increased superoxide dismutase and catalase values demonstrate the combined impact of Gd, warming & acidification. Ultimately, lipid damage was greater in clams exposed to warming & Gd, which emphasizes the enhanced toxic effects of Gd in a changing ocean.

Continue reading ‘Gadolinium ecotoxicity is enhanced in a warmer and acidified changing ocean as shown by the surf clam Spisula solida through a multibiomarker approach’

Climate change and species facilitation affect the recruitment of macroalgal marine forests

Marine forests are shrinking globally due to several anthropogenic impacts including climate change. Forest-forming macroalgae, such as Cystoseira s.l. species, can be particularly sensitive to environmental conditions (e.g. temperature increase, pollution or sedimentation), especially during early life stages. However, not much is known about their response to the interactive effects of ocean warming (OW) and acidification (OA). These drivers can also affect the performance and survival of crustose coralline algae, which are associated understory species likely playing a role in the recruitment of later successional species such as forest-forming macroalgae. We tested the interactive effects of elevated temperature, low pH and species facilitation on the recruitment of Cystoseira compressa. We demonstrate that the interactive effects of OW and OA negatively affect the recruitment of C. compressa and its associated coralline algae Neogoniolithon brassica-florida. The density of recruits was lower under the combinations OW and OA, while the size was negatively affected by the temperature increase but positively affected by the low pH. The results from this study show that the interactive effects of climate change and the presence of crustose coralline algae can have a negative impact on the recruitment of Cystoseira s.l. species. While new restoration techniques recently opened the door to marine forest restoration, our results show that the interactions of multiple drivers and species interactions have to be considered to achieve long-term population sustainability.

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Cell wall organic matrix composition and biomineralization across reef-building coralline algae under global change

Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are one of the most important benthic substrate consolidators on coral reefs through their ability to deposit calcium carbonate on an organic matrix in their cell walls. Discrete polysaccharides have been recognized for their role in biomineralization, yet little is known about the carbohydrate composition of organic matrices across CCA taxa and whether they have the capacity to modulate their organic matrix constituents amidst environmental change, particularly the threats of ocean acidification (OA) and warming. We simulated elevated pCO2 and temperature (IPCC RCP 8.5) and subjected four mid-shelf Great Barrier Reef species of CCA to two months of experimentation. To assess the variability in surficial monosaccharide composition and biomineralization across species and treatments, we determined the monosaccharide composition of the polysaccharides present in the cell walls of surficial algal tissue and quantified calcification. Our results revealed dissimilarity among species’ monosaccharide constituents, which suggests that organic matrices are composed of different polysaccharides across CCA taxa. We also found that species differentially modulate composition in response to ocean acidification and warming. Our findings suggest that both variability in composition and ability to modulate monosaccharide abundance may play a crucial role in surficial biomineralization dynamics under the stress of OA and global warming.

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Crustacean decapods are models to describe the general trends of biodiversity according to ocean acidification

A remarkable lack of punctual and comparable data on the availability of trophic resources characterizes most studies relating biodiversity and food webs, but decapod crustaceans will help, in this study, finding some peculiar common trends of ecosystems. Structural properties of networks, as statistically investigated, affect their stability and food webs are ultimately considered as complex networks of biotic interactions. Fixed mathematical limits constrain the number of species naturally assembled in a community, even if species composition was progressively modified by climate changes: the biodiversity has space constraints. Consequently, since there is less space at higher latitudes than at lower ones, less species may be predicted to globally co-exist, as the planet warms up and the oceans acidify. Here, according to some key mathematical relationships of networks, we forecast an inverse relationship between connectance (a specific feature of food webs) and species diversity. In this chapter, we will apply these relationships to test a general model of biodiversity trends based on the responses of crustacean decapods to the abundance of feeding sources, in a range of environments variably impacted by O.A. The conclusions reached within this chapter will demonstrate consistent properties characterizing the assemblages of aquatic creatures, and extensible to various structural levels, from single cells to the largest ecosystems.

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Impacts of global environmental change on fish and fisheries of the Northeastern Pacific Ocean

Marine fishes’ intolerance to global change conditions can affect the abundance and distribution of ecologically and economically important species, reshape the structure of trophic webs, and profoundly impact the human communities that rely on fished species for their livelihood and culture. Only by understanding the vulnerability of fished species and fishing communities to global change can we take effective adaptive action and implement climate-ready fisheries management. In this dissertation, I investigate the vulnerability of eight commercially important fished species and one fishing community to global change in the Northeastern Pacific Ocean. In chapter one, I expose Lingcod (Ophiodon elongatus), a benthic egg layer, to temperature, oxygen, and pH conditions we expect to see in the Central California Current System (CCS) by the year 2050 and 2100. I examine both the lethal and sublethal effects of these two multistressor climate change scenarios by measuring differences in metabolic rate, hatching success, and larval quality between treatments. In chapter two, I use a species distribution modeling approach to evaluate how historical (1982-2019) and projected (2030 through end-of-century) warming in the Eastern Bering Sea (EBS), Alaska, affects predator-prey interactions for some of the most commercially valuable fisheries in the U.S. These species include: 1) Pacific Cod (Gadus macrocephalus), 2) Pacific Halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), 3) Arrowtooth Flounder, 4) Walleye Pollock (Gadus chalcogrammus), 5) Tanner Crab (Chionoecetes bairdi), 6) Snow Crab (Chionoecetes opilio), and 7) Alaskan Pink Shrimp (Pandalus eous). In chapter three, I use social network analyses to depict the resilience and adaptability of the California Market Squid fishery (Doryteuthis opalescens), the most valuable in the state, to climate perturbations and project changes in habitat suitability by the year 2100 in the CCS. By using all of these vulnerability assessment tools, we can begin to prepare U.S. west coast fisheries for global environmental change.

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Coral reef fishes in a multi-stressor world

Coral reef fishes and the ecosystems they support represent some of the most biodiverse and productive ecosystems on the planet yet are under threat as they face dramatic increases in multiple, interacting stressors that are largely intensified by anthropogenic influences, such as climate change. Coral reef fishes have been the topic of 875 studies between 1979 and 2020 examining physiological responses to various abiotic and biotic stressors. Here, we highlight the current state of knowledge regarding coral reef fishes’ responses to eight key abiotic stressors (i.e., pollutants, temperature, hypoxia and ocean deoxygenation, pH/CO2, noise, salinity, pressure/depth, and turbidity) and four key biotic stressors (i.e., prey abundance, predator threats, parasites, and disease) and discuss stressors that have been examined in combination. We conclude with a horizon scan to discuss acclimation and adaptation, technological advances, knowledge gaps, and the future of physiological research on coral reef fishes. As we proceed through this new epoch, the Anthropocene, it is critical that the scientific and general communities work to recognize the issues that various habitats and ecosystems, such as coral reefs and the fishes that depend on and support them, are facing so that mitigation strategies can be implemented to protect biodiversity and ecosystem health.

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Lack of detrimental effects of ocean acidification and warming on proximate composition, fitness and energy budget of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)

Graphical abstract.

Highlights

  • Climate change can affect nutritional quality and physiology of marine organisms.
  • Growth, metabolism and excretion were assessed under acidification and warming.
  • Weight gain, metabolic rates and energy intake increased under future climate conditions.
  • The highest energy budget fractions were allocated to growth and faecal excretion.
  • Juvenile Senegalese sole is resilient to climate change-related scenarios.

Abstract

Rising levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are driving ocean warming and acidification, which may negatively affect the nutritional quality and physiological performance of commercially important fish species. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification (OA; ΔpH = −0.3 units equivalent to ΔpCO2 ~ +600 μatm) and warming (OW; ΔT = +4 °C) (and combined, OAW) on the proximate composition, fitness and energy budget of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis). After an exposure period of 75 days, growth (G), metabolism (R) and excretion (faecal, F and nitrogenous losses, U) were assessed to calculate the energy intake (C). Biometric and viscera weight data were also registered to determine animal fitness. Overall, the proximate composition and gross energy were not significantly affected by acidification and warming (alone or in combination). Weight gain, maximum and standard metabolic rates (MMR and SMR, respectively), aerobic scope (AS) and C were significantly higher in fish subjected to OA, OW and OAW than in CTR conditions. Furthermore, the highest relative growth rates (RGR), specific growth rates in terms of wet weight (SGRw) and protein (SGRp), as well as feed efficiencies (FE) occurred in fish submitted to OW and OAW. On the other hand, fish exposed to CTR conditions had significantly higher feed conversion ratio (FCR) and ammonia excretion rate (AER) than those exposed to simulated stressors. Regarding energy distribution, the highest fraction was generally allocated to growth (48–63 %), followed by excretion through faeces (36–51 %), respiration (approximately 1 %) and ammonia excretion (0.1–0.2 %) in all treatments. Therefore, ocean warming and acidification can trigger physiological responses in juvenile Senegalese sole, particularly in their energy budget, which can affect the energy flow and allocation of its population. However, and in general, this species seems highly resilient to these predicted ocean climate change stressors.

Continue reading ‘Lack of detrimental effects of ocean acidification and warming on proximate composition, fitness and energy budget of juvenile Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis)’

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