Posts Tagged 'light'

Ocean acidification has little effect on the biochemical composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi

Owing to the hierarchical organization of biology, from genomes over transcriptomes and proteomes down to metabolomes, there is continuous debate about the extent to which data and interpretations derived from one level, e.g. the transcriptome, are in agreement with other levels, e.g. the metabolome. Here, we tested the effect of ocean acidification (OA; 400 vs. 1000 μatm CO2) and its modulation by light intensity (50 vs. 300 μmol photons m-2 s-1) on the biomass composition (represented by 75 key metabolites) of diploid and haploid life-cycle stages of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi (RCC1216 and RCC1217) and compared these data with interpretations from previous physiological and gene expression screenings. The metabolite patterns showed minor responses to OA in both life-cycle stages. Whereas previous gene expression analyses suggested that the observed increased biomass buildup derived from lipid and carbohydrate storage, this dataset suggests that OA slightly increases overall biomass of cells, but does not significantly alter their metabolite composition. Generally, light was shown to be a more dominant driver of metabolite composition than OA, increasing the relative abundances of amino acids, mannitol and storage lipids, and shifting pigment contents to accommodate increased irradiance levels. The diploid stage was shown to contain vastly more osmolytes and mannitol than the haploid stage, which in turn had a higher relative content of amino acids, especially aromatic ones. Besides the differences between the investigated cell types and the general effects on biomass buildup, our analyses indicate that OA imposes only negligible effects on E. huxleyi´s biomass composition.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification has little effect on the biochemical composition of the coccolithophore Emiliania huxleyi’

Continuous photoperiod of the Arctic summer stimulates the photosynthetic response of some marine macrophytes

Highlights

• Long photoperiods increase the photosynthetic activity of certain subarctic macrophytes.

• Increased CO2 had no effect on tested macrophytes.

• Highest increases of photosynthetic activity of A. nodosum and Z. marina at long day lengths; smaller increase for F. vesiculosus.

• Subarctic macrophytes, expanding as sea ice retreats, will benefit from long summer days.

Abstract

Subarctic macrophytes are predicted to expand in the Arctic as a result of on-going global climate change. This will expose them to 24 h of light during the Arctic summer while pCO2 levels are predicted to rise globally. Here, we tested the photosynthetic activity of two brown macroalgae (Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus) and one seagrass (Zostera marina) from subarctic Greenland, measuring their relative maximum electron transport rate (rETRmax), photosynthetic efficiency (α) and saturating irradiance (Ik) after 3 days of incubation at different photoperiods (12:12 h, 15:09 h, 18:06 h, 21:03 h and 24:00 h, light:dark) with ambient values of pCO2 (200 ppm, characteristic of current subarctic surface waters) and increased pCO2 (400 and 1000 ppm). The photosynthetic parameters rETRmax and Ik increased significantly with longer photoperiods and increased, however insignificantly, with increased pCO2. Responses differed between species. A. nodosum and Z. marina showed the highest increase of rETRmax and Ik from 12 h to 24 h while the increase of F. vesiculosus was smaller. Our results suggest that as subarctic macrophytes expand in the Arctic in response to retracting sea ice, the long summer days will stimulate the productivity of the species tested here, while the effect of high-CO2 environment needs further research.

Continue reading ‘Continuous photoperiod of the Arctic summer stimulates the photosynthetic response of some marine macrophytes’

Seasonal interactive effects of pCO2 and irradiance on the ecophysiology of brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus L.

Stochastic upwelling of seawater in the Baltic Sea from the deep, anoxic bottoms may bring low-pH water rich in CO2 close to the surface. Such events may become more frequent with climate change and ongoing ocean acidification (OA). Photoautotrophs, such as macroalgae, which are important foundation species, have been proposed to benefit from increased carbon availability due to reduced energetic cost in carbon acquisition. However, the exact effects of CO2 fertilization may depend on the ambient light environment, as photosynthesis rates depend on available irradiance. In this experimental study, interacting effects of CO2 addition and irradiance on the habitat-forming macroalga Fucus vesiculosus were investigated during two seasons – winter and summer – in the northern Baltic Sea. Growth rates remained unaffected by CO2 or irradiance during both seasons, suggesting that direct effects of elevated CO2 on mature F. vesiculosus are small. Increases in CO2 affected algal elemental ratios by increasing carbon and decreasing nitrogen content, with resulting changes in the C:N ratio, but only in winter. In summer, chlorophyll a content increased under low irradiance. Increases in CO2 caused a decline in light-harvesting efficiency (decrease in Fv/Fm and α) under high irradiance in summer, and conversely increased α under low irradiance. High irradiance caused increases in the maximum relative electron transport rate (rETRmax) in summer, but not in winter. Differences between winter and summer indicate that F. vesiculosus responses to CO2 and irradiance are season-specific. Increases in carbon content during winter could indicate slightly positive effects of CO2 addition in the long run if the extra carbon gained may be capitalized in growth. The results of this study suggest that increases in CO2, either through upwelling or OA, may have positive effects on F. vesiculosus, but these effects are probably small.

Continue reading ‘Seasonal interactive effects of pCO2 and irradiance on the ecophysiology of brown macroalga Fucus vesiculosus L.’

Physiological responses of a coccolithophore to multiple environmental drivers

Highlights
• Coccolithophores were more stressful in the higher solar UV irradiance exposures.

• The cells increased their functional antennae sizes under the future ocean conditions.

• Coccolithophores photosynthesized more in the high CO2 and warming ocean.

• Synergistical or antagonistic interactions were observed among multiple drivers.

Abstract
Ocean acidification is known to affect primary producers differentially in terms of species and environmental conditions, with controversial results obtained under different experimental setups. In this work we examined the physiological performances of the coccolithophore Gephyrocapsa oceanica that had been acclimated to 1000 μatm CO2 for ~400 generations, and then exposed to multiple drivers, light intensity, light fluctuating frequency, temperature and UV radiation. Here, we show that increasing light intensity resulted in higher non-photochemical quenching and the effective absorption cross-section of PSII. The effective photochemical efficiency (Fv′/Fm′) decreased with increased levels of light, which was counterbalanced by fluctuating light regimes. The greenhouse condition acts synergistically with decreasing fluctuating light frequency to increase the Fv′/Fm′ and photosynthetic carbon fixation rate. Our data suggest that the coccolithophorid would be more stressed with increased exposures to solar UV irradiances, though its photosynthetic carbon fixation could be enhanced under the greenhouse condition.

Continue reading ‘Physiological responses of a coccolithophore to multiple environmental drivers’

Future CO2-induced seawater acidification mediates the physiological performance of a green alga Ulva linza in different photoperiods

Photoperiods have an important impact on macroalgae living in the intertidal zone. Ocean acidification also influences the physiology of macroalgae. However, little is known about the interaction between ocean acidification and photoperiod on macroalgae. In this study, a green alga Ulva linza was cultured under three different photoperiods (L: D = 8:16, 12:12, 16:8) and two different CO2 levels (LC, 400 ppm; HC, 1,000 ppm) to investigate their responses. The results showed that relative growth rate of U. linza increased with extended light periods under LC but decreased at HC when exposed to the longest light period of 16 h compared to 12 h. Higher CO2 levels enhanced the relative growth rate at a L: D of 8:16, had no effect at 12:12 but reduced RGR at 16:8. At LC, the L: D of 16:8 significantly stimulated maximum quantum yield (Yield). Higher CO2 levels enhanced Yield at L: D of 12:12 and 8:16, had negative effect at 16:8. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased with increasing light period. High CO2 levels did not affect respiration rate during shorter light periods but enhanced it at a light period of 16 h. Longer light periods had negative effects on Chl a and Chl b content, and high CO2 level also inhibited the synthesis of these pigments. Our data demonstrate the interactive effects of CO2 and photoperiod on the physiological characteristics of the green tide macroalga Ulva linza and indicate that future ocean acidification may hinder the stimulatory effect of long light periods on growth of Ulva species.

Continue reading ‘Future CO2-induced seawater acidification mediates the physiological performance of a green alga Ulva linza in different photoperiods’

Day length as a key factor moderating the response of coccolithophore growth to elevated pCO2

The fate of coccolithophores in the future oceans remains uncertain, in part due to key factors having not been standardized across experiments. A potentially moderating role for differences in day length (photoperiod) remains largely unexplored. We therefore cultured four different geographical isolates of the species Emiliania huxleyi, as well as two additional species, Gephyrocapsa oceanica (tropical) and Coccolithus braarudii(temperate), to test for interactive effects of pCO2 with the light : dark (L : D) cycle. We confirmed a general regulatory effect of photoperiod on the pCO2 response, whereby growth and particulate inorganic carbon and particulate organic carbon (PIC : POC) ratios were reduced with elevated pCO2 under 14 : 10 h L : D, but these reductions were dampened under continuous (24 h) light. The dynamics underpinning this pattern generally differed for the temperate vs. tropical isolates. Reductions in PIC : POC with elevated pCO2 for tropical taxa were largely through reduced calcification and enhanced photosynthesis under 14 : 10 h L : D, with differences dampened under continuous light. In contrast, reduced PIC : POC for temperate strains reflected increases of photosynthesis that outpaced increases in calcification rates under 14 : 10 h L : D, with both responses again dampened under continuous light. A multivariate analysis of 35 past studies of E. huxleyi further demonstrated that differences in photoperiod account for as much as 40% (strain B11/92) to 55% (strain NZEH) of the variance in reported pCO2‐induced reductions to growth but not PIC : POC. Our study thus highlights a critical role for day length in moderating the effect of ocean acidification on coccolithophore growth and consequently how this response may play out across latitudes and seasons in future oceans.

Continue reading ‘Day length as a key factor moderating the response of coccolithophore growth to elevated pCO2’

Ocean acidification and high irradiance stimulate growth of the Antarctic cryptophyte Geminigera cryophila

Ecophysiological studies on Antarctic cryptophytes to assess whether climatic changes such as ocean acidification and enhanced stratification affect their growth in Antarctic coastal waters in the future are lacking so far. This is the first study that investigated the combined effects of increasing availability of pCO2 (400 and 1000 µatm) and irradiance (20, 200 and 500 μmol photons m−2 s−1) on growth, elemental composition and photophysiology of the Antarctic cryptophyte Geminigera cryophila. Under ambient pCO2, this species was characterized by a pronounced sensitivity to increasing irradiance with complete growth inhibition at the highest light intensity. Interestingly, when grown under high pCO2 this negative light effect vanished and it reached highest rates of growth and particulate organic carbon production at the highest irradiance compared to the other tested experimental conditions. Our results for G. cryophila reveal beneficial effects of ocean acidification in conjunction with enhanced irradiance on growth and photosynthesis. Hence, cryptophytes such as G. cryophila may be potential winners of climate change, potentially thriving better in more stratified and acidic coastal waters and contributing in higher abundance to future phytoplankton assemblages of coastal Antarctic waters.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification and high irradiance stimulate growth of the Antarctic cryptophyte Geminigera cryophila’


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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

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