Posts Tagged 'Arctic'

Impact of ocean warming and acidification on the behaviour of two co-occurring gadid species, Boreogadus saida and Gadus morhua, from Svalbard

Ocean acidification induces strong behavioural alterations in marine fish as a consequence of acid-base regulatory processes in response to increasing environmental CO2 partial pressure. While these changes have been investigated in tropical and temperate fish species, nothing is known about behavioural effects on polar species. In particular, fishes of the Arctic Ocean will experience much greater acidification and warming than temperate or tropical species. Also, possible interactions of ocean warming and acidification are still understudied. Here we analysed the combined effects of warming and acidification on behavioural patterns of 2 fish species co-occurring around Svalbard, viz. polar cod Boreogadus saida and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua. We found a significant temperature effect on the spontaneous activity of B. saida, but not of G. morhua. Environmental CO2 did not significantly influence activity of either species. In contrast, behavioural laterality of B. saida was affected by CO2 but not by temperature. Behavioural laterality of G. morhua was not affected by temperature or CO2; however, in this species, a possible temperature dependency of CO2 effects on relative laterality may have been missed due to sample size restrictions. This study indicates that fish in polar ecosystems may undergo some, albeit less intense, behavioural disturbances under ocean acidification and in combination with ocean warming than observed in tropical species. It further accentuates species-specific differences in vulnerability.

Continue reading ‘Impact of ocean warming and acidification on the behaviour of two co-occurring gadid species, Boreogadus saida and Gadus morhua, from Svalbard’

Impact of ocean acidification on Arctic phytoplankton blooms and dimethyl sulfide concentration under simulated ice-free and under-ice conditions (update)

In an experimental assessment of the potential impact of Arctic Ocean acidification on seasonal phytoplankton blooms and associated dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dynamics, we incubated water from Baffin Bay under conditions representing an acidified Arctic Ocean. Using two light regimes simulating under-ice or subsurface chlorophyll maxima (low light; low PAR and no UVB) and ice-free (high light; high PAR + UVA + UVB) conditions, water collected at 38 m was exposed over 9 days to 6 levels of decreasing pH from 8.1 to 7.2. A phytoplankton bloom dominated by the centric diatoms Chaetoceros spp. reaching up to 7.5 µg chlorophyll a L−1 took place in all experimental bags. Total dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPT) and DMS concentrations reached 155 and 19 nmol L−1, respectively. The sharp increase in DMSPT and DMS concentrations coincided with the exhaustion of NO3− in most microcosms, suggesting that nutrient stress stimulated DMS(P) synthesis by the diatom community. Under both light regimes, chlorophyll a and DMS concentrations decreased linearly with increasing proton concentration at all pH levels tested. Concentrations of DMSPT also decreased but only under high light and over a smaller pH range (from 8.1 to 7.6). In contrast to nano-phytoplankton (2–20 µm), pico-phytoplankton ( ≤  2 µm) was stimulated by the decreasing pH. We furthermore observed no significant difference between the two light regimes tested in term of chlorophyll a, phytoplankton abundance and taxonomy, and DMSP and DMS net concentrations. These results show that ocean acidification could significantly decrease the algal biomass and inhibit DMS production during the seasonal phytoplankton bloom in the Arctic, with possible consequences for the regional climate.

Continue reading ‘Impact of ocean acidification on Arctic phytoplankton blooms and dimethyl sulfide concentration under simulated ice-free and under-ice conditions (update)’

Mitochondrial acclimation potential to ocean acidification and warming of Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)


Ocean acidification and warming are happening fast in the Arctic but little is known about the effects of ocean acidification and warming on the physiological performance and survival of Arctic fish.


In this study we investigated the metabolic background of performance through analyses of cardiac mitochondrial function in response to control and elevated water temperatures and PCO2 of two gadoid fish species, Polar cod (Boreogadus saida), an endemic Arctic species, and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), which is a temperate to cold eurytherm and currently expanding into Arctic waters in the wake of ocean warming. We studied their responses to the above-mentioned drivers and their acclimation potential through analysing the cardiac mitochondrial function in permeabilised cardiac muscle fibres after 4 months of incubation at different temperatures (Polar cod: 0, 3, 6, 8 °C and Atlantic cod: 3, 8, 12, 16 °C), combined with exposure to present (400μatm) and year 2100 (1170μatm) levels of CO2.

OXPHOS, proton leak and ATP production efficiency in Polar cod were similar in the groups acclimated at 400μatm and 1170μatm of CO2, while incubation at 8 °C evoked increased proton leak resulting in decreased ATP production efficiency and decreased Complex IV capacity. In contrast, OXPHOS of Atlantic cod increased with temperature without compromising the ATP production efficiency, whereas the combination of high temperature and high PCO2 depressed OXPHOS and ATP production efficiency.


Polar cod mitochondrial efficiency decreased at 8 °C while Atlantic cod mitochondria were more resilient to elevated temperature; however, this resilience was constrained by high PCO2. In line with its lower habitat temperature and higher degree of stenothermy, Polar cod has a lower acclimation potential to warming than Atlantic cod.

Continue reading ‘Mitochondrial acclimation potential to ocean acidification and warming of Polar cod (Boreogadus saida) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)’

Export of calcium carbonate corrosive waters from the East Siberian Sea (update)

The Siberian shelf seas are areas of extensive biogeochemical transformation of organic matter, both of marine and terrestrial origin. This in combination with brine production from sea ice formation results in a cold bottom water of relative high salinity and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2). Data from the SWERUS-C3 expedition compiled on the icebreaker Oden in July to September 2014 show the distribution of such waters at the outer shelf, as well as their export into the deep central Arctic basins. Very high pCO2 water, up to ∼ 1000 µatm, was observed associated with high nutrients and low oxygen concentrations. Consequently, this water had low saturation state with respect to calcium carbonate down to less than 0.8 for calcite and 0.5 for aragonite. Waters undersaturated in aragonite were also observed in the surface in waters at equilibrium with atmospheric CO2; however, at these conditions the cause of under-saturation was low salinity from river runoff and/or sea ice melt. The calcium carbonate corrosive water was observed all along the continental margin and well out into the deep Makarov and Canada basins at a depth from about 50 m depth in the west to about 150 m in the east. These waters of low aragonite saturation state are traced in historic data to the Canada Basin and in the waters flowing out of the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland and in the western Fram Strait, thus potentially impacting the marine life in the North Atlantic Ocean.

Continue reading ‘Export of calcium carbonate corrosive waters from the East Siberian Sea (update)’

Oceanography: Ocean acidification without borders

The marine carbonate system is changing as uptake of CO2 from the atmosphere causes ocean acidification. Now, analysis of repeat observations demonstrates that the rate and extent of Arctic Ocean acidification is enhanced through increased transport from the North Pacific.

Continue reading ‘Oceanography: Ocean acidification without borders’

Increase in acidifying water in the western Arctic Ocean

The uptake of anthropogenic CO2 by the ocean decreases seawater pH and carbonate mineral aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), a process known as Ocean Acidification (OA). This can be detrimental to marine organisms and ecosystems1, 2. The Arctic Ocean is particularly sensitive to climate change3 and aragonite is expected to become undersaturated (Ωarag < 1) there sooner than in other oceans4. However, the extent and expansion rate of OA in this region are still unknown. Here we show that, between the 1990s and 2010, low Ωarag waters have expanded northwards at least 5°, to 85° N, and deepened 100 m, to 250 m depth. Data from trans-western Arctic Ocean cruises show that Ωarag < 1 water has increased in the upper 250 m from 5% to 31% of the total area north of 70° N. Tracer data and model simulations suggest that increased Pacific Winter Water transport, driven by an anomalous circulation pattern and sea-ice retreat, is primarily responsible for the expansion, although local carbon recycling and anthropogenic CO2 uptake have also contributed. These results indicate more rapid acidification is occurring in the Arctic Ocean than the Pacific and Atlantic oceans5, 6, 7, 8, with the western Arctic Ocean the first open-ocean region with large-scale expansion of ‘acidified’ water directly observed in the upper water column.

Continue reading ‘Increase in acidifying water in the western Arctic Ocean’

Spatial and temporal controls on the inorganic carbon system of the Western Arctic Ocean

The Arctic Ocean plays a critical role in the global carbon cycle. It is believed to be particularly sensitive to the effects of climate change, is already undergoing dramatic changes, and is therefore important to study in that context. Most studies of the inorganic carbon system in the Western Arctic focus on hydrographic datasets from summer and/or fall (July-October), and do not consider the full response of the system to the timing of ice retreat, organic matter production and remineralization, and ice advance. Here we present the first dataset to investigate the spatial and temporal controls on the inorganic carbon system from early spring (pre-phytoplankton), late spring (initial phytoplankton bloom), summer (post-bloom), and fall in 2014. Our results suggest that the timing of ice retreat has important implications for the length of the phytoplankton growing season, and thus influences the magnitude of biological carbon cycling. We extend our analysis to include high-resolution temporal estimates of air-sea CO2 flux, and estimate a total annual CO2 uptake in the Chukchi Sea of ~7.7 Tg C. This is the first dataset to evaluate the importance of different seasonal observations within one year on the annual uptake of CO2 in the western Arctic Ocean. Our results show that extrapolations from one observational dataset result in large over- or underestimations of annual CO2 flux.

Continue reading ‘Spatial and temporal controls on the inorganic carbon system of the Western Arctic Ocean’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book