Posts Tagged 'salinity'

Primary, secondary, and tertiary stress responses of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus reidi exposed to acute acid stress in brackish and seawater

Highlights

• Activity of antioxidant enzymes was harmed in seahorse juveniles exposed to acidic environment in brackish water.

• Lower tolerance for acidification in brackish water triggered lipid peroxidation in seahorse juveniles.

• Seahorse juvenile survival was not influenced by pH neither in brackish nor in sea water.

Abstract

Seahorse Hippocampus reidi is a vulnerable species, inhabiting estuarine and coastal waters. The safety of acidic environments for fish has been considered in terms of ocean acidification in nature and decreasing pH in intensive aquaculture systems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acute exposition (96 h) of juvenile seahorses to different pH (5, 6, 7, and 8) in brackish (BW – salinity 11) or seawater (SW – salinity 33). For that, we studied the responses of cortisol, oxidative stress, and survival, thus covering primary, secondary, and tertiary stress responses. In SW, cortisol levels were not altered for fish maintained at pH 5 and 8. However, in BW, cortisol was higher for fish kept at pH 5. Regarding secondary stress responses, only GST activity increased with acidification in SW. However, acidification in BW caused biochemical alterations at enzymatic level (SOD, GST, GPx) and glutathione metabolism, accompanied by reduction of antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS). Survival was always above 90% and it did not differ significantly among pH levels. Our results suggest that H. reidi juveniles are more vulnerable to acidic exposure in BW than in SW.

Continue reading ‘Primary, secondary, and tertiary stress responses of juvenile seahorse Hippocampus reidi exposed to acute acid stress in brackish and seawater’

Effects of salinity, pH and alkalinity on hatching rate of fertilized eggs of Penaeus monodon

The fertilized eggs of “Nanhai 2” Penaeus monodon bred by our research group were incubated at the same temperature (30°C), different salinity (20, 25, 30, 35, 40), different pH (7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 8.5, 9.0) and different alkalinity (2.0 mmol/L, 2.5 mmol/L, 3.0 mmol/L, 3.5 mmol/L, 4.0 mmol/L) to explore the effects of salinity, pH and alkalinity on hatching rate of fertilized eggs of P. monodon. The results showed that the hatching rate of fertilization rate of P. monodon was closely related to salinity, and the best hatching rate was obtained when the seawater salinity was 30 with the average hatching rate was 82.60%. The hatching rate was very low when the salinity was as low as 20 or as high as 40, which was significantly lower than that of other treatments (P<0.05). The hatching effect of the fertilized eggs of P. monodon was closely related to the pH value of seawater, and the slightly alkaline seawater was conducive to the normal development of the fertilized eggs. Among them, the hatching effect of the seawater pH value of 8.0 was the best, and the average hatching rate of the fertilized eggs was 80.62%. Too low or too high pH value of the seawater was not conducive to the development of the embryo, and the hatching rate of the fertilized eggs decreased in varying degrees. There was no significant correlation between the hatching effect of fertilized eggs and the change of seawater alkalinity. The average hatching rate of fertilized eggs ranged from 78.65% to 83.12% in the alkalinity range of 2.0-4.0 mmol/L

Continue reading ‘Effects of salinity, pH and alkalinity on hatching rate of fertilized eggs of Penaeus monodon’

Long-term environmental tolerance of the non-indigenous Pacific oyster to expected contemporary climate change conditions

Highlights

  • Long-term effects of climate change on non-indigenous species are rarely studied
  • Pacific oysters were exposed to warming, ocean acidification and reduced salinity
  • Warming and ocean acidification predicted for the year 2100 did not affect fitness
  • Low salinity reduced clearance rates and increased oxygen consumption rates
  • Long-term observations highlighted potential seasonal trends in physiological rates

Abstract

The current global redistribution of biota is often attributed to two main drivers: contemporary climate change (CCC) and non-indigenous species (NIS). Despite evidence of synergetic effects, however, studies assessing long-term effects of CCC conditions on NIS fitness remain rare. We examined the interactive effects of warming, ocean acidification and reduced salinity on the globally distributed marine NIS Magallana gigas(Pacific oyster) over a ten-month period. Growth, clearance and oxygen consumption rates were measured monthly to assess individual fitness. Lower salinity had a significant, permanent effect on M. gigas, reducing and increasing clearance and oxygen consumption rates, respectively. Neither predicted increases in seawater temperature nor reduced pH had a long-term physiological effect, indicating conditions predicted for 2100 will not affect adult physiology and survival. These results suggest that M. gigas will remain a globally successful NIS and predicted CCC will continue to facilitate their competitive dominance in the near future.

Continue reading ‘Long-term environmental tolerance of the non-indigenous Pacific oyster to expected contemporary climate change conditions’

Decoupling salinity and carbonate chemistry: low calcium ion concentration rather than salinity limits calcification in Baltic Sea mussels

The Baltic Sea has a salinity gradient decreasing from fully marine (> 25) in the West to below 7 in the Central Baltic Proper. Reef forming mytilid mussels exhibit decreasing growth when salinity < 11, however the mechanisms underlying reduced calcification rates in dilute seawater are not fully understood. In fact, both [HCO3] and [Ca2+] also decrease with salinity, challenging calcifying organisms through CaCO3 undersaturation (Ω ≤ 1) and unfavourable ratios of calcification substrate (Ca2+ and HCO3) to inhibitor (H+). In this study we assessed the impact of isolated individual factors (salinity, [Ca2+], [HCO3] and pH) on calcification and growth of mytilid mussel populations along the Baltic salinity gradient. Laboratory experiments rearing juvenile Baltic Mytilus at a range of salinities (6, 11 and 16), HCO3 concentrations (300–2100 µmol kg−1) and Ca2+ concentrations (0.5–4 mmol kg−1) were coupled with field monitoring in three Baltic mussel reefs. Results reveal that as individual factors, low [HCO3], pH and salinity cannot explain low calcification rates in the Baltic Sea. Calcification rates are impeded when Ωaragonite ≤ 1 or the substrate inhibitor ratio ≤ 0.7, primarily due to [Ca2+] limitation which corresponds to a salinity of ca. 11. Increased food availability may be able to mask these negative impacts, but not when seawater conditions are permanently adverse, as observed in two Baltic reefs at salinities < 11. Future climatic models predict rapid desalination of the southwest and Central Baltic and potentially a reduction in [Ca2+] which may lead to a westward distribution shift of marine calcifiers. It is therefore vital to understand the mechanisms by which the ionic composition of seawater impacts bivalve calcification for better predicting the future of benthic Baltic ecosystems.

Continue reading ‘Decoupling salinity and carbonate chemistry: low calcium ion concentration rather than salinity limits calcification in Baltic Sea mussels’

Ocean freshening and acidification differentially influence mortality and behavior of the Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica

Highlights

  • Glacial retreat induced by global warming can decrease salinity and pH of the Antarctic ocean.
  • The Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica was exposed to low salinity (27 psu) and low pH (7.6) conditions.
  • Low salinity increased cannibalism and induced adjusted swimming.
  • Low pH increased mortality, impaired food detection and reduced daytime shelter use.
  • Ocean freshening and acidification act as independent stressors influencing behavior and physiology of Antarctic amphipods.

Abstract

The Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) has experienced rapid atmospheric and ocean warming over the past few decades and many marine-terminating glaciers have considerably retreated. Glacial retreat is accompanied by fresh meltwater intrusion, which may result in the freshening and acidification of coastal waters. Marian Cove (MC), on King George Island in the WAP, undergoes one of the highest rates of glacial retreat. Intertidal and shallow subtidal waters are likely more susceptible to these processes, and sensitive biological responses are expected from the organisms inhabiting this area. The gammarid amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica is one of the most abundant species in the shallow, nearshore Antarctic waters, and it occupies an essential ecological niche in the coastal marine WAP ecosystem. In this study, we tested the sensitivity of G. antarctica to lowered salinity and pH by meltwater intrusion following glacial retreat. We exposed G. antarctica to four different treatments combining two salinities (34 and 27 psu) and pH (8.0 and 7.6) levels for 26 days. Mortality, excluding cannibalized individuals, increased under low pH but decreased under low salinity conditions. Meanwhile, low salinity increased cannibalism, whereas low pH reduced food detection. Shelter use during the daytime decreased under each low salinity and pH condition, indicating that the two stressors act as disruptors of amphipod behavior. Under low salinity conditions, swimming increased during the daytime but decreased at night. Although interactions between low salinity and low pH were not observed during the experiment, the results suggest that each stressor, likely induced by glacial melting, causes altered behaviors in amphipods. These environmental factors may threaten population persistence in Marian Cove and possibly other similar glacial embayments.

Continue reading ‘Ocean freshening and acidification differentially influence mortality and behavior of the Antarctic amphipod Gondogeneia antarctica’

Effects of low pH and low salinity induced by meltwater inflow on the behavior and physical condition of the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna

Seawater acidification and freshening in the intertidal zone of Marian Cove, Antarctica, which occurs by the freshwater inflow from snow fields and glaciers, could affect the physiology and behavior of intertidal marine organisms. In this study, we exposed Antarctic limpets, Nacella concinna, to two different pH (8.00 and 7.55) and salinity (34.0 and 27.0 psu) levels and measured their righting ability after being flipped over, mortality, condition factor, and shell dissolution. During the 35-day exposure, there was no significant difference in behavior and mortality between different treatments. However, the condition factor was negatively affected by low salinity. Both low pH and low salinity negatively influenced shell formation by decreasing the aragonite saturation state (Ωarg) and enhancing shell dissolution. Our results suggest that, though limpets can tolerate short-term low pH and salinity conditions, intrusions of meltwater accompanied by the glacial retreat may act as a serious threat to the population of N. concinna.

Continue reading ‘Effects of low pH and low salinity induced by meltwater inflow on the behavior and physical condition of the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna’

Contrasting responses to salinity and future ocean acidification in arctic populations of the amphipod Gammarus setosus

Highlights

  • Climate change is leading to changes in salinity and pCO2 in arctic/sub-arctic coastal ecosystems.

  • We examined Gammarus setosus at 3 sites along a salinity gradient in the field and laboratory.

  • Reduced salinity had more of an effect than elevated pCO2 by reducing energy budgets.

  • Lower salinities increased ion transporting capacities in the laboratory but not in the field.

  • G. setosus at lower salinity sites have lower energy budgets suggesting impacts on performance.

Abstract

Climate change is leading to alterations in salinity and carbonate chemistry in arctic/sub-arctic marine ecosystems. We examined three nominal populations of the circumpolar arctic/subarctic amphipod, Gammarus setosus, along a salinity gradient in the Kongsfjorden-/Krossfjorden area of Svalbard. Field and laboratory experiments assessed physiological (haemolymph osmolality and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity, NKA) and energetic responses (metabolic rates, MO2, and Cellular Energy Allocation, CEA). In the field, all populations had similar osmregulatory capacities and MO2, but lower-salinity populations had lower CEA. Reduced salinity (S = 23) and elevated pCO2 (∼1000 μatm) in the laboratory for one month increased gill NKA activities and reduced CEA in all populations, but increased MO2 in the higher-salinity population. Elevated pCO2 did not interact with salinity and had no effect on NKA activities or CEA, but reduced MO2 in all populations. Reduced CEA in lower-rather than higher-salinity populations may have longer term effects on other energy demanding processes (growth and reproduction).

Continue reading ‘Contrasting responses to salinity and future ocean acidification in arctic populations of the amphipod Gammarus setosus’

Lower salinity leads to improved physiological performance in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, which partly ameliorates the effects of ocean acidification

While seawater acidification induced by elevated CO2 is known to impact coccolithophores, the effects in combination with decreased salinity caused by sea ice melting and/or hydrological events have not been documented. Here we show the combined effects of seawater acidification and reduced salinity on growth, photosynthesis and calcification of Emiliania huxleyi grown at 2 CO2 concentrations (low CO2 LC:400 μatm; high CO2 HC:1000 μatm) and 3 levels of salinity (25, 30, and 35‰). A decrease of salinity from 35 to 25‰ increased growth rate, cell size and photosynthetic performance under both LC and HC. Calcification rates were relatively insensitive to salinity though they were higher in the LC-grown compared to the HC-grown cells at 25‰ salinity, with insignificant differences under 30 and 35‰. Since salinity and OA treatments did not show interactive effects on calcification, changes in calcification: photosynthesis ratios are attributed to the elevated photosynthetic rates at lower salinities, with higher ratios of calcification to photosynthesis in the cells grown under 35‰ compared with those grown at 25‰. In contrast, photosynthetic carbon fixation increased almost linearly with decreasing salinity, regardless of the pCO2 treatments. When subjected to short-term exposure to high light, the low-salinity-grown cells showed the highest photochemical effective quantum yield with the highest repair rate, though the HC treatment enhanced the PSII damage rate. Our results suggest that, irrespective of pCO2, at low salinity Emiliania huxleyi up-regulates its photosynthetic performance which, despite a relatively insensitive calcification response, may help it better adapt to future ocean global environmental changes, including ocean acidification, especially in the coastal areas of high latitudes.

Continue reading ‘Lower salinity leads to improved physiological performance in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, which partly ameliorates the effects of ocean acidification’

Temperature and salinity, not acidification, predict near-future larval growth and larval habitat suitability of Olympia oysters in the Salish Sea

Most invertebrates in the ocean begin their lives with planktonic larval phases that are critical for dispersal and distribution of these species. Larvae are particularly vulnerable to environmental change, so understanding interactive effects of environmental stressors on larval life is essential in predicting population persistence and vulnerability of species. Here, we use a novel experimental approach to rear larvae under interacting gradients of temperature, salinity, and ocean acidification, then model growth rate and duration of Olympia oyster larvae and predict the suitability of habitats for larval survival. We find that temperature and salinity are closely linked to larval growth and larval habitat suitability, but larvae are tolerant to acidification at this scale. We discover that present conditions in the Salish Sea are actually suboptimal for Olympia oyster larvae from populations in the region, and that larvae from these populations might actually benefit from some degree of global ocean change. Our models predict a vast decrease in mean pelagic larval duration by the year 2095, which has the potential to alter population dynamics for this species in future oceans. Additionally, we find that larval tolerance can explain large-scale biogeographic patterns for this species across its range.

Continue reading ‘Temperature and salinity, not acidification, predict near-future larval growth and larval habitat suitability of Olympia oysters in the Salish Sea’

Effects of salinity and pH of seawater on the reproduction of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus

Fertilization and early development are usually the most vulnerable stages in the life of marine animals, and the biological processes during this period are highly sensitive to the environment. In nature, sea urchin gametes are shed in seawater, where they undergo external fertilization and embryonic development. In a laboratory, it is possible to follow the exact morphological and biochemical changes taking place in the fertilized eggs and the developing embryos. Thus, observation of successful fertilization and the subsequent embryonic development of sea urchin eggs can be used as a convenient biosensor to assess the quality of the marine environment. In this paper, we have examined how salinity and pH changes affect the normal fertilization process and the following development of Paracentrotus lividus. The results of our studies using confocal microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and time-lapse Ca2+ image recording indicated that both dilution and acidification of seawater have subtle but detrimental effects on many aspects of the fertilization process. They include Ca2+ signaling and coordinated actin cytoskeletal changes, leading to a significantly reduced rate of successful fertilization and, eventually, to abnormal or delayed embryonic development.

Continue reading ‘Effects of salinity and pH of seawater on the reproduction of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus’


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