Posts Tagged 'paleo'

Mediterranean cold-water corals as paleoclimate archives

Scleractinian cold-water corals preserve in their aragonite skeleton information on the past changes of the physico-chemical properties of the seawater in which they grew. Such information is stored as geochemical signals, such as changes in trace elements concentration (B/Ca, Li/Mg, P/Ca, Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, U/Ca) or stable and radiogenic isotopes composition (δ11B, δ13C, δ18O, 14C, εNd), that are usually converted into environmental parameters using empirical calibration equations. The aragonite skeleton of cold-water corals is sufficiently uranium-rich to be suitable for U-series dating, providing precise and accurate ages for the last 600–700 kyrs. This opens the possibility to obtain reconstructions of key oceanographic parameters for the intermediate and deep water masses at sub-decadal scale resolution for climatically-relevant time windows in the past. However, part of the geochemical signal incorporated into the coral skeleton is modulated by the physiology of the coral, which complicates the interpretation of the geochemical proxies. This “vital effect” needs to be taken into account and corrected for to obtain reliable reconstructions of past changes in seawater temperature, pH and nutrient content. On the other hand, these biologically-induced geochemical signals can be used to investigate the processes controlling coral biomineralisation and better understand the resilience of cold-water corals to environmental and climate changes.

In the recent years, Mediterranean cold-water corals have been targeted for geochemically-oriented studies and their trace elements and isotopes composition has contributed significantly to developing and understanding new and established coral proxies. Living in an environment characterised by relatively warm seawater temperatures (13–14 °C) and high pH (8.1), the Mediterranean cold-water corals provide the end-member geochemical composition useful to derive empirical calibration equations. In particular, the analysis of several specimens of the cold-water corals species Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata and Desmophyllum dianthus live-collected in the western, central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, has contributed to the development of the Li/Mg thermometer, boron isotopes pH proxy and P/Ca nutrient proxy, as well as a better understanding of the neodymium isotopic composition of cold-water corals as a water mass tracer. A multi-proxy approach has been recently applied to precisely U/Th-dated cold-water corals fragments from coral-bearing sediment cores retrieved in the western and central Mediterranean Sea, showing large changes in the dynamics of the intermediate waters during the Holocene. Further investigations of fossil cold-water corals specimens from different Mediterranean locations will open new perspectives on the reconstruction of past changes in the physico-chemical properties of sub-surface waters and their potential role in modifying the Mediterranean climate.

Continue reading ‘Mediterranean cold-water corals as paleoclimate archives’

Paleobiological traits that determined Scleractinian coral survival and proliferation during the late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals

Coral reefs are particularly sensitive to environmental disturbances, such as rapid shifts in temperature or carbonate saturation. Work on modern reefs has suggested that some corals will fare better than others in times of stress and that their life history traits might correlate with species survival. These same traits can be applied to fossil taxa to assess whether life history traits correspond with coral survival through past intervals of stress similar to future climate predictions. This study aims to identify whether ecological selection (based on physiology, behavior, habitat, etc.) plays a role in the long‐term survival of corals during the late Paleocene and early Eocene. The late Paleocene‐early Eocene interval is associated with multiple hyperthermal events that correspond to rises in atmospheric pCO2 and sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and increases in weathering and turbidity. Coral reefs are rare during the late Paleocene and early Eocene, but despite the lack of reef habitat, corals do not experience an extinction at the generic level and there is little extinction at the species level. In fact, generic and species richness increases throughout the late Paleocene and early Eocene. We show that corals with certain traits (coloniality, carnivorous, or suspension feeding diet, hermaphroditic brooding reproduction, living in clastic settings) are more likely to survive climate change in the early Eocene. These findings have important implications for modern coral ecology and allow us to make more nuanced predictions about which taxa will have higher extinction risk in present‐day climate change.

Continue reading ‘Paleobiological traits that determined Scleractinian coral survival and proliferation during the late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals’

Impact of ocean acidification on crystallographic vital effect of the coral skeleton

Distinguishing between environmental and species-specific physiological signals, recorded in coral skeletons, is one of the fundamental challenges in their reliable use as (paleo)climate proxies. To date, characteristic biological bias in skeleton-recorded environmental signatures (vital effect) was shown in shifts in geochemical signatures. Herein, for the first time, we have assessed crystallographic parameters of bio-aragonite to study the response of the reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata to experimental seawater acidification (pH 8.2, 7.6 and 7.3). Skeletons formed under high pCO2 conditions show systematic crystallographic changes such as better constrained crystal orientation and anisotropic distortions of bio-aragonite lattice parameters due to increased amount of intracrystalline organic matrix and water content. These variations in crystallographic features that seem to reflect physiological adjustments of biomineralizing organisms to environmental change, are herein called crystallographic vital effect (CVE). CVE may register those changes in the biomineralization process that may not yet be perceived at the macromorphological skeletal level.

Continue reading ‘Impact of ocean acidification on crystallographic vital effect of the coral skeleton’

The isotopic differences and implications for Pacific razor clams along the Washington coast

The Pacific razor clam fishery in Washington State has been co-managed by the coastal Indian Tribes and the state, but little is known about the growth and population structure of the clams due to difficulties of tagging and monitoring. Here we report the results of a pilot study using stable isotope ratios (13C and 18O) of razor clam shells collected in two groups (juvenile vs. adult) and from two sites (Kalaloch Beach and Roosevelt Beach) where distinct biological differences in clam growth and survival rates were observed. The 13C values of razor clam shells ranged from -2.9 to -0.3‰, whereas 18O values of the same samples ranged from -2.2 to +1.4‰. Between the two sites there were significant differences in 13C values especially for juvenile clams. The 18O profiles from two representative shells demonstrated similar patterns of rapid growth as juveniles and seasonal patterns throughout the life span. Profiles of 13C were sinusoidal but did not show seasonality and signatures of ocean acidification. We concluded that stable isotope analysis of razor clam shells is a potential new tool in shellfish research and management.

Continue reading ‘The isotopic differences and implications for Pacific razor clams along the Washington coast’

Experimental validation of planktic foraminifera fragmentation index as a proxy for end-cretaceous ocean acidification

The final ~50 ky of the Maastrichtian leading up to the Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary mass extinction at Bidart (France) show records of poor carbonate preservation, the final ~25 ky being critical. This event has been proposed as evidence for ocean acidification immediately preceding the mass extinction. High planktic foraminifera test fragmentation index, anomalously low bulk-rock magnetic susceptibility and peak mercury content in this same interval link this crisis interval to peak Deccan volcanism in India. New results provide experimental validation for fragmentation index as an authentic proxy of end-Cretaceous ocean acidification event. Pristine Cretaceous planktic foraminifera morphotypes were exposed to buffers of pH 8.0, 7.5, 7.0 and 6.5 for 15 days each and their preservation state was quantified as a function of time. The critical variables affecting test vulnerability and taphonomy are morphology, pH and time of exposure. Thin-walled fragile biserial species(60%) such as Heterohelix globulosa and H. planata are the most susceptible to dissolution, followed by simple coiled forms such as Rugoglobigerina (19%) sp. and Hedbergella sp(6.4%). The globotruncanids(12%) appear to be least susceptible to chemical and physical damage. Tests exposed to low pH conditions clearly show a higher vulnerability to fragmentation. These results indicate a strong influence of chemical and physical taphonomy on planktic foraminifera census data with serious palaeoenvironmental implications. Results also indicate that an overestimation of the abundance of environmentally sensitive Cretaceous species (e.g. globotruncanids) due to taphonomic preservation bias could result in underestimation of the degree/nature of faunal crisis and tempo of extinctions in the pre-extinction acidification interval.

Continue reading ‘Experimental validation of planktic foraminifera fragmentation index as a proxy for end-cretaceous ocean acidification’

Iron isotopic variations of the Cryogenian banded iron formations: a new model

• A systematic Fe isotope investigation was carried out for Cryogenian banded iron formation from Xinyu, South China.

• Almost all Cryogenian banded iron formations worldwide have an increasing trend for δ56Fe values upwards stratigraphically.

• Fe isotope variation in Cryogenian banded iron formations is controlled by varying degrees of Fe precipitation in seawater, which can be controlled by changes of Eh and/or pH condition.

• Ocean acidification (pH decrease) is a possible mechanism resulting in Fe isotope variation in Cryogenian banded iron formations.

The Fe isotope composition of banded iron formation (BIF) is regarded as a powerful tracer in paleoceanography, and the Cryogenian banded iron formation associated with “Snowball Earth Events” provides a precious record of environmental change in the Neoproterozoic. However, Fe isotope studies on Cryogenian BIFs are rare and previous interpretations of Cryogenian Fe isotope data are problematic. Here we present a systematic investigation of the Fe isotope composition of the Cryogenian Xinyu BIF sections from four localities in the Yangtze region, South China. These BIF sections comprise banded magnetite quartzite, banded chlorite-magnetite quartzite, and magnetite-bearing chlorite phyllite, in stratigraphically ascending order. The δ56FeIRMM-014 values of the Xinyu BIF vary significantly and show an overall increase upsection, from ca. 0‰ to ca. 1.5‰. This stratigraphic trend in Fe isotope compositions is similar to those reported previously for Cryogenian BIFs in North America and Australia, and thus seems to be a common phenomenon. We interpret Fe isotope variation in Cryogenian BIF to be essentially controlled by varying degrees of Fe precipitation in seawater, rather than resulted from “a water column Fe isotope gradient” as proposed previously. The variation in the degree of Fe precipitation can be controlled by changes of Eh and/or pH conditions in seawater resulting from transgression or ocean acidification.

Continue reading ‘Iron isotopic variations of the Cryogenian banded iron formations: a new model’

The pH dependency of the boron isotopic composition of diatom opal (Thalassiosira weissflogii)

The high latitude oceans are key areas of carbon and heat exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. As such, they are a focus of both modern oceanographic and palaeoclimate research. However, most palaeoclimate proxies that could provide a long-term perspective are based on calcareous organisms, such as foraminifera, that are scarce or entirely absent in deep-sea sediments south of 50° latitude in the Southern Ocean and north of 40° in the North Pacific. As a result, proxies need to be developed for the opal-based organisms (e.g. diatoms) that are found at these high latitudes, and which dominate the biogenic sediments that are recovered from these regions. Here we present a method for the analysis of the boron (B) content and isotopic composition (δ11B) of diatom opal. We also apply it for the first time to evaluate the relationship between seawater pH and δ11B and B concentration ([B]) in the frustules of the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii, cultured at a range of pCO2/pH. In agreement with existing data, we find that the [B] of the cultured diatom frustules increases with increasing pH (Mejia et al., 2013). δ11B shows a relatively well-defined negative trend with increasing pH; a completely distinct relationship from any other biomineral previously measured. This relationship not only has implications for the magnitude of the isotopic fractionation that occurs during boron incorporation into opal, but also allows us to explore the potential of the boron-based proxies for palaeo-pH and palaeo-CO2 reconstruction in high latitude marine sediments that have, up until now, eluded study due to the lack of suitable carbonate material.

Continue reading ‘The pH dependency of the boron isotopic composition of diatom opal (Thalassiosira weissflogii)’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book