Posts Tagged 'biological response'

Future ocean climate homogenizes communities across habitats through diversity loss and rise of generalist species

Predictions of the effects of global change on ecological communities are largely based on single habitats. Yet in nature, habitats are interconnected through the exchange of energy and organisms, and the responses of local communities may not extend to emerging community networks (i.e. metacommunities). Using large mesocosms and meiofauna communities as a model system, we investigated the interactive effects of ocean warming and acidification on the structure of marine metacommunities from three shallow‐water habitats: sandy soft‐bottoms, marine vegetation and rocky reef substrates. Primary producers and detritus – key food sources for meiofauna – increased in biomass under the combined effect of temperature and acidification. The enhanced bottom‐up forcing boosted nematode densities but impoverished the functional and trophic diversity of nematode metacommunities. The combined climate stressors further homogenized meiofauna communities across habitats. Under present‐day conditions metacommunities were structured by habitat type, but under future conditions they showed an unstructured random pattern with fast‐growing generalist species dominating the communities of all habitats. Homogenization was likely driven by local species extinctions, reducing interspecific competition that otherwise could have prevented single species from dominating multiple niches. Our findings reveal that climate change may simplify metacommunity structure and prompt biodiversity loss, which may affect the biological organization and resilience of marine communities.

Continue reading ‘Future ocean climate homogenizes communities across habitats through diversity loss and rise of generalist species’

Effect of pH on the bacterial community present in larvae and spat of Crassostrea gigas

Changes in marine environments, including pH changes, have been correlated to alterations in the physiology and disease susceptibility of cultured organisms at the early stages of development. In this study, high-throughput sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to evaluate the bacterial
biodiversity of Crassostrea gigas pediveliger larvae and spat under acidic stress compared to that of larvae at normal pH value. The evaluation was performed in an experimental system with continuous water flow and pH
manipulation by CO2 bubbling to simulate acidification (pH 7.38 ± 0.039), using the current ocean pH conditions (pH 8.116 ± 0.023) as a reference. The results indicated that the bacterial communities associated with both pediveliger larvae and spat were modified in response to acidic conditions. The families Rhodobacteraceae and Campylobacteraceae were the most affected by the change in pH, with increases in Vibrionaceae in pediveliger larvae and Planctomycetaceae and Phyllobacteriaceae in spat detected. The results of this study demonstrate that the bacterial communities associated with C. gigas pediveliger larvae and spat are responsive to changes in ocean acidification

Continue reading ‘Effect of pH on the bacterial community present in larvae and spat of Crassostrea gigas’

A future 1.2 °C increase in ocean temperature alters the quality of mangrove habitats for marine plants and animals

• Mangrove habitats are more resilient to climate change than other habitats.

• Climate change might have positive effects on mangrove-root species communities.

• Using mesocosms we show that an increase of 1.2 °C leads to community homogenisation.

• Warming also led to diversity loss and flattening of mangrove root epibiont communities.

• Juvenile fish altered their use of mangrove habitats under warming and acidification.

Global climate stressors, like ocean warming and acidification, contribute to the erosion of structural complexity in marine foundation habitats by promoting the growth of low-relief turf, increasing grazing pressure on structurally complex marine vegetation, and by directly affecting the growth and survival of foundation species. Because mangrove roots are woody and their epibionts are used to ever-changing conditions in highly variable environments, mangrove habitats may be more resilient to global change stressors than other marine foundation species. Using a large-scale mesocosm experiment, we examined how ocean warming and acidification, under a reduced carbon emission scenario, affect the composition and structural complexity of mangrove epibiont communities and the use of mangrove habitat by juvenile fishes. We demonstrate that even a modest increase in seawater temperature of 1.2 °C leads to the homogenisation and flattening of mangrove root epibiont communities. Warming led to a 24% increase in the overall cover of algal epibionts on roots but the diversity of the epibiont species decreased by 33%. Epibiont structural complexity decreased owing to the shorter stature of weedy algal turfs which prospered under elevated temperature. Juvenile fishes showed alterations in mangrove habitat use with ocean warming and acidification, but these were independent of changes to the root epibiont community. We reveal that the quality of apparently resilient mangrove habitats and their perceived value as habitat for associated fauna are still vulnerable under a globally reduced carbon emission scenario.

Continue reading ‘A future 1.2 °C increase in ocean temperature alters the quality of mangrove habitats for marine plants and animals’

Paleobiological traits that determined Scleractinian coral survival and proliferation during the late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals

Coral reefs are particularly sensitive to environmental disturbances, such as rapid shifts in temperature or carbonate saturation. Work on modern reefs has suggested that some corals will fare better than others in times of stress and that their life history traits might correlate with species survival. These same traits can be applied to fossil taxa to assess whether life history traits correspond with coral survival through past intervals of stress similar to future climate predictions. This study aims to identify whether ecological selection (based on physiology, behavior, habitat, etc.) plays a role in the long‐term survival of corals during the late Paleocene and early Eocene. The late Paleocene‐early Eocene interval is associated with multiple hyperthermal events that correspond to rises in atmospheric pCO2 and sea surface temperature, ocean acidification, and increases in weathering and turbidity. Coral reefs are rare during the late Paleocene and early Eocene, but despite the lack of reef habitat, corals do not experience an extinction at the generic level and there is little extinction at the species level. In fact, generic and species richness increases throughout the late Paleocene and early Eocene. We show that corals with certain traits (coloniality, carnivorous, or suspension feeding diet, hermaphroditic brooding reproduction, living in clastic settings) are more likely to survive climate change in the early Eocene. These findings have important implications for modern coral ecology and allow us to make more nuanced predictions about which taxa will have higher extinction risk in present‐day climate change.

Continue reading ‘Paleobiological traits that determined Scleractinian coral survival and proliferation during the late Paleocene and early Eocene hyperthermals’

Meta‐analysis reveals enhanced growth of marine harmful algae from temperate regions with warming and elevated CO2 levels

Elevated pCO2 and warming may promote algal growth and toxin production, and thereby possibly support the proliferation and toxicity of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Here, we tested whether empirical data support this hypothesis using a meta‐analytic approach and investigated the responses of growth rate and toxin content or toxicity of numerous marine and estuarine HAB species to elevated pCO2 and warming. Most of the available data on HAB responses towards the two tested climate change variables concern dinoflagellates, as many members of this phytoplankton group are known to cause HAB outbreaks. Toxin content and toxicity did not reveal a consistent response towards both tested climate change variables, while growth rate increased consistently with elevated pCO2. Warming also led to higher growth rates, but only for species isolated at higher latitudes. The observed gradient in temperature growth responses shows the potential for enhanced development of HABs at higher latitudes. Increases in growth rates with more CO2 may present an additional competitive advantage for HAB species, particularly as CO2 was not shown to enhance growth rate of other non‐HAB phytoplankton species. However, this may also be related to the difference in representation of dinoflagellate and diatom species in the respective HAB and non‐HAB phytoplankton groups. Since the proliferation of HAB species may strongly depend on their growth rates, our results warn for a greater potential of dinoflagellate HAB development in future coastal waters, particularly in temperate regions.

Continue reading ‘Meta‐analysis reveals enhanced growth of marine harmful algae from temperate regions with warming and elevated CO2 levels’

How calorie-rich food could help marine calcifiers in a CO2-rich future

Increasing carbon emissions not only enrich oceans with CO2 but also make them more acidic. This acidifying process has caused considerable concern because laboratory studies show that ocean acidification impairs calcification (or shell building) and survival of calcifiers by the end of this century. Whether this impairment in shell building also occurs in natural communities remains largely unexplored, but requires re-examination because of the recent counterintuitive finding that populations of calcifiers can be boosted by CO2 enrichment. Using natural CO2 vents, we found that ocean acidification resulted in the production of thicker, more crystalline and more mechanically resilient shells of a herbivorous gastropod, which was associated with the consumption of energy-enriched food (i.e. algae). This discovery suggests that boosted energy transfer may not only compensate for the energetic burden of ocean acidification but also enable calcifiers to build energetically costly shells that are robust to acidified conditions. We unlock a possible mechanism underlying the persistence of calcifiers in acidifying oceans.

Continue reading ‘How calorie-rich food could help marine calcifiers in a CO2-rich future’

Comparison of larval development in domesticated and naturalized stocks of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to high pCO2 conditions

Ocean acidification (OA) has had significant negative effects on oyster populations on the west coast of North America over the past decade. Many studies have focused on the physiological challenges experienced by young oyster larvae in high pCO2/low pH seawater with reduced aragonite saturation state (Ωarag), which is characteristic of OA. Relatively few, by contrast, have evaluated these impacts upon fitness traits across multiple larval stages and between discrete oyster populations. In this study, we conducted 2 replicated experiments, in 2015 and 2016, using larvae from naturalized ‘wild’ and selectively bred stocks of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from the US Pacific Northwest and reared them in ambient (~400 µatm) or high (~1600 µatm) pCO2 seawater from fertilization through final metamorphosis to juvenile ‘spat.’ In each year, high pCO2 seawater inhibited early larval development and affected the timing, but not the magnitude, of mortality during this stage. The effects of acidified seawater on metamorphosis of pediveligers to spat were variable between years, with no effect of seawater pCO2 in the first experiment but a ~42% reduction in spat in the second. Despite this variability, larvae from selectively bred oysters produced, on average, more (+ 55 and 37%) and larger (+ 5 and 23%) spat in ambient and high pCO2 seawater, respectively. These findings highlight the variable and stage-specific sensitivity of larval oysters to acidified seawater and the influence that genetic factors have in determining the larval performance of C. gigas exposed to high pCO2 seawater.

Continue reading ‘Comparison of larval development in domesticated and naturalized stocks of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas exposed to high pCO2 conditions’

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Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book