Posts Tagged 'morphology'



Understanding the impacts of environment and parasitism on Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) vulnerability to ocean acidification

The global process of ocean acidification caused by the absorption of increased atmospheric carbon dioxide decreases the concentration of carbonate ions and reduces the associated seawater saturation state (ΩCaCO3) – making it more energetically costly for marine calcifying organisms to build their shells or skeletons. Bivalves are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ocean acidification on calcification, and they inhabit estuaries and coastal zones – regions most susceptible to ocean acidification. However, the response of an individual to elevated pCO2 can depend on the carbonate chemistry dynamics of its current environment and the environment of its parents. Additionally, an organism’s response to ocean acidification can depend on its ability to control the chemistry at the site of calcification. Biotic and abiotic stressors can modify bivalves’ control of calcifying fluid chemistry – known as extrapallial fluid (EPF). Understanding the responses of bivalves – which are foundation species – to ocean acidification is essential for predicting the impacts of oceanic change on marine communities. This dissertation uses a culturally, ecologically, and economically important bivalve in the northwest Atlantic – the Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) – to explore the effects of environment and species interactions on responses to elevated pCO2.

Chapter 2 describes a field study that characterized diurnal and seasonal carbonate chemistry dynamics of two estuaries in the Gulf of Maine that support Eastern oyster populations. The estuaries were monitored at high temporal resolution (half-hourly) over four years (2018-2021) using pH and conductivity loggers. Measured pH, salinity, and temperature were used to calculate carbonate chemistry parameters. Both estuaries exhibited strong seasonal and diurnal fluctuations in carbonate chemistry. They also experienced pCO2 values that greatly exceeded current atmospheric carbon dioxide levels and those projected for the year 2100.

Chapter 3 describes a laboratory experiment that examined the capacity of intergenerational exposure to mitigate the adverse effects of ocean acidification on larval growth, shell morphology, and survival. Adult oysters were cultured in control or elevated pCO2 conditions for 30 days then crossed using a North Carolina II cross design. Larvae were grown for three days under control and elevated pCO2 conditions. Intergenerational exposure to elevated pCO2 conditions benefited early larval growth and shell morphology, but not survival. However, parental exposure was insufficient to completely counteract the adverse effects of the elevated pCO2 treatment on shell formation and survival.

Chapter 4 describes a laboratory experiment that examined the interplay between ocean acidification and parasite-host dynamics. Eastern oysters infested and not infested with bioeroding sponge (Cliona sp.) were cultured under three pCO2 conditions (539, 1040, 3294 ppm) and two temperatures (23, 27˚C) for 70 days to assess oyster control of EPF chemistry, growth, and survival. Bioeroding sponge infestation and elevated pCO2 reduced oyster net calcification and EPF pH but did not affect condition or survival. Infested oyster EPF pH was consistently lower than seawater pH, while EPF dissolved inorganic carbon was consistently elevated relative to seawater. These findings suggested that infested oysters effectively precipitated repair shell to prevent seawater intrusion into extrapallial fluid through bore holes across all treatments.

Chapter 5 characterizes the concentration of a suite of 56 elements normalized to calcium in EPF and shell of Crassostrea virginica grown under three pCO2 conditions (570, 990, 2912 ppm) and sampled at four timepoints (days 2, 9, 79, 101) to assess effects of pCO2 on organismal control of EPF and shell elemental composition and EPF-to-shell elemental partitioning. Elevated pCO2 significantly influenced the relative abundance of elements in the EPF (29) and shell (13) and altered EPF-to-shell elemental partitioning for 45 elements. Importantly, elevated pCO2 significantly influenced the concentration of several elements in C. virginica shell that are used in other biogenic carbonates as paleo-proxies for other environmental parameters. This result suggests that elevated pCO2 could influence the accuracy of paleo reconstructions.

Overall, this dissertation provides insights that can help improve our understanding of past, present, and future ocean environments. Understanding current local carbonate chemistry dynamics and the capacity for C. virginica to acclimate intergenerationally to elevated pCO2 can inform site and stock selection for aquaculture and restoration efforts. Studying parasite-host environment interactions provides critical insights into the potential for parasitism to alter responses to future ocean acidification. Finally, exploring the impact of elevated pCO2 on elemental composition of EPF and shell allowed us to understand better biomineralization processes, identify potential proxies for seawater pCO2 in bivalves, and offer insights that could help improve the accuracy of paleo reconstructions.

Continue reading ‘Understanding the impacts of environment and parasitism on Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) vulnerability to ocean acidification’

Ocean acidification impacts fish larvae but warming could compensate juveniles

Related content

A related article has been published: Effects of ocean acidification over successive generations decrease resilience of larval European sea bass to ocean acidification and warming but juveniles could benefit from higher temperatures in the NE Atlantic

A 40 day old European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larva: Photo credit: Sarah Howald.

As we pump more CO2 into the atmosphere, the pH of the oceans is decreasing and although a reduction of 0.1 pH units may not sound much, the reality is that the acidity of the seas has increased by 30% since the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century. But no one knew how much of an impact decreasing pH might have on long-lived fish species. ‘Fish had been thought to be less vulnerable to ocean acidification due to well-developed acid–base regulation systems’, says Sarah Howald from the Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI), Germany. However, scientists have recently discovered that fish larvae may be more vulnerable than thought. Some grew faster in more acidic waters, while others suffered tissue and hearing damage in addition to growing more slowly. Yet, no one knew how ocean acidification might impact subsequent generations. Felix Mark from AWI, with colleagues from Germany and France, embarked on an ambitious 5.5 year investigation to find out how European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae and their eventual offspring deal with acidic conditions.

In October 2013, at the Ifremer-Centre de Bretagne, France, Guy Claireaux (University of Brest, France), José Zambonino and David Mazurais (both from Ifremer), Myron Peck (University of Hamburg, Germany) and Mark allocated recently hatched sea bass larvae to small tanks of seawater pumped in from the Bay of Brest at summer temperatures (19°C) while other larvae lived in tanks of seawater where the acidity had been raised to 1700 μatm CO2, the IPCC’s prediction for seawater CO2 concentrations 120 years in the future. Once the larvae had developed into juveniles (∼2.5 months old), the team relocated the youngsters to larger cool (15°C) tanks, maintaining the two different pH levels until the fish were adult (spring 2017), when the researchers selected ∼30 adult fish each from the two water conditions to rehome in palatial 3000 l tanks. Then, in March 2018, the 5 year old adults spawned to produce the next generation of larvae. But this time the scientists added a twist, dividing the offspring of the parents from the modern day (current CO2) seawater conditions and those of the parents raised in the acidic future water conditions (1700 μatm CO2) into cool and warm tanks, to simulate climate change. Meanwhile, the team kept track of the first and the second generations as they grew and developed.

Initially, the first generation of sea bass youngsters didn’t seem to be affected by their acidic start in life and neither did their offspring. However, when the team altered the water temperature as the second generation developed in the acidic future water, they found the larvae from the warmer (20°C) tank were much smaller when they metamorphosed into juveniles than those in cool acidic seawater and those that developed in modern warm water. Mark suspects that the warmer high-CO2 conditions in the future could impair energy production by the youngsters’ mitochondria, limiting their growth. However, once the larvae developed into juvenile fish, they seemed to benefit, growing faster, although the team isn’t sure whether the warmth was accelerating the fish’s growth or whether the acidity failed to impair the growing juveniles.

The team warns that the faster growth of larvae in a warmer more acidic world could place them at risk if there is insufficient food for the rapidly growing youngsters. But it seems that if the youngsters develop successfully into juvenile fish, their chances may improve.

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification impacts fish larvae but warming could compensate juveniles’

Effects of seawater pCO2 on the skeletal morphology of massive Porites spp. corals

Ocean acidification alters the dissolved inorganic carbon chemistry of seawater and can reduce the calcification rates of tropical corals. Here we explore the effect of altering seawater pCO2 on the skeletal morphology of 4 genotypes of massive Porites spp. which display widely different calcification rates. Increasing seawater pCO2 causes significant changes in in the skeletal morphology of all Porites spp. studied regardless of whether or not calcification was significantly affected by seawater pCO2. Both the median calyx size and the proportion of skeletal surface occupied by the calices decreased significantly at 750 µatm compared to 400 µatm indicating that polyp size shrinks in this genus in response to ocean acidification. The coenosteum, connecting calices, expands to occupy a larger proportion of the coral surface to compensate for this decrease in calyx area. At high seawater pCO2 the spines deposited at the skeletal surface became more numerous and the trabeculae (vertical skeletal pillars) became significantly thinner in 2 of the 4 genotypes. The effect of high seawater pCO2 is most pronounced in the fastest growing coral and the regular placement of trabeculae and synapticulae is disturbed in this genotype resulting in a skeleton that is more randomly organised. The study demonstrates that ocean acidification decreases the polyp size and fundamentally alters the architecture of the skeleton in this major reef building species from the Indo-Pacific Ocean.

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Effect of low pH on growth and shell mechanical properties of the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819)

Highlights

  • Argopecten purpuratus shell growth was reduced by 9% in low pH exposure.
  • A. purpuratus net calcification was reduced about 10% in low pH exposure.
  • Shell microhardness of A. purpuratus was positively affected by low pH.

Abstract

Dissolution of anthropogenic CO2 modifies seawater pH, leading to ocean acidification, which might affect calcifying organisms such as bivalve mollusks. Along the Peruvian coast, however, natural conditions of low pH (7.6–8.0) are encountered in the habitat of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), as a consequence of the nearby coastal upwelling influence. To understand the effects of low pH in a species adapted to these environmental conditions, an experiment was performed to test its consequences on growth, calcification, dissolution, and shell mechanical properties in juvenile Peruvian scallops. During 28 days, scallops (initial mean height = 14 mm) were exposed to two contrasted pH conditions: a control with unmanipulated seawater presenting pH conditions similar to those found in situ (pHT = 7.8) and a treatment, in which CO2 was injected to reduce pH to 7.4. At the end of the experiment, shell height and weight, and growth and calcification rates were reduced about 6%, 20%, 9%, and 10% respectively in the low pH treatment. Mechanical properties, such as microhardness were positively affected in the low pH condition and crushing force did not show differences between pH treatments. Final soft tissue weights were not significantly affected by low pH. This study provides evidence of low pH change shell properties increasing the shell microhardness in Peruvian scallops, which implies protective functions. However, the mechanisms behind this response need to be studied in a global change context.

Continue reading ‘Effect of low pH on growth and shell mechanical properties of the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819)’

Impact of microplastics and ocean acidification on critical stages of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) early development

Highlights

  • Ocean acidification and microplastics altered the morphology of P. lividus larvae.
  • Ocean acidification and microplastics reduce growth of P. lividus larvae.
  • Alterations occurred before and after larvae start to feed exogenously.
  • The combined effect of both stressors on P. lividus morphology is non additive.
  • SET is an ideal method to study the impact of ocean acidification at a lab scale.

Abstract

One of the major consequences of increasing atmospheric CO2 is a phenomenon known as ocean acidification. This alteration of water chemistry can modulate the impact on marine organisms of other stressors also present in the environment, such as microplastics (MP). The objective of this work was to determine the combined impact of microplastic pollution and ocean acidification on the early development of Paracentrotus lividus. To study these multi-stressor impacts on development P. lividus the sea urchin embryo test (SET) was used. Newly fertilised embryos of P. lividus were exposed to a control treatment (filtered natural seawater), MP (3000 particles/mL), acidified sea water (pH = 7.6), and a combination of MP and acidification (3000 particles/mL + pH = 7.6). After 48, 72, and 96 h measurements of growth and morphometric parameters were taken. Results showed that ocean acidification and MP cause alterations in growth and larval morphology both before and after the larvae start to feed exogenously. The exposure to MP under conditions of ocean acidification did not produce any additional effect on growth, but differences were observed at the morphological level related to a decrease in the width of larvae at 24 h. Overall, changes in larvae shape observed at three key points of their development could modify their buoyancy affecting their ability to obtain and ingest food. Therefore, ocean acidification and MP pollution might compromise the chances of P. lividus to survive in the environment under future scenarios of global climate change.

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Metabolic effect of ocean acidification on common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis early stages

Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are continuously increasing due to the growing anthropogenic activities, causing a rise in the sea-surface partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2). This change in turn leads to decreased ocean pH, named ocean acidification, and affects the carbonate-silicate cycle. Such modification of seawater chemistry also affects the physiology and behaviour of marine organisms, impacting their metabolism, growth and development during vulnerable early-life stages. Among them, the embryo of the cephalopod cuttlefish develops for ~2 months) in encapsulated eggs with harsh conditions of hypoxia and hypercapnia, potentially worsen by the environmental ocean acidification. In this study, the development and the growth of early-life stages of Sepia officinalis were followed during the whole embryonic developmental period up to 10 days post-hatchling juveniles. Embryos and juveniles were exposed to five elevated pCO2 conditions controlled with a continuous pH-stat system (pH 8.08; 7.82; 7.65; 7.54; 7.43). Metabolites were determined in ready-to-hatch embryos, just hatched embryos and 10 d-old juveniles, using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy as a platform for untargeted metabolomics analysis. Consistent with previous studies, our results showed longer embryonic development and decreased hatching success at the lowest pH, but no effect on juvenile weight upon hatching. Metabolomics analysis revealed a metabolic depression in embryos reared at pH 7.43, non-monotonic changes to pH in 10 d-old juveniles, and no clear pH effect in newly hatched juvenile cuttlefish, likely due to the metabolic stress associated with hatching. Those results reveal possible effect of ocean acidification on the cuttlefish recruitment.

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Multigenerational life-history responses to pH in distinct populations of the copepod Tigriopus californicus

Intertidal zones are highly dynamic and harsh habitats: organisms that persist there must face many stressors, including drastic changes in seawater pH, which can be strongly influenced by biological processes. Coastal ecosystems are heterogeneous in space and time, and populations can be exposed to distinct selective pressures and evolve different capacities for acclimation to changes in pH. Tigriopus californicus is a harpacticoid copepod found in high-shore rock pools on the west coast of North America. It is a model system for studying population dynamics in diverse environments, but little is known about its responses to changes in seawater pH. I quantified the effects of pH on the survivorship, fecundity, and development of four T. californicus populations from San Juan Island, Washington, across three generations. For all populations and generations, copepod cultures had lower survivorship and delayed development under extended exposure to higher pH treatments (pH 7.5 and pH 8.0), whereas cultures maintained in lower pH (7.0) displayed stable population growth over time. Reciprocal transplants between treatments demonstrated that these pH effects were reversible. Life histories were distinct between populations, and there were differences in the magnitudes of pH effects on development and culture growth that persisted through multiple generations. These results suggest that T. californicus might not have the generalist physiology that might be expected of an intertidal species, and it could be adapted to lower average pH conditions than those that occur in adjacent open waters.

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Predicted changes in temperature, more than acidification, affect the shell morphology and survival of the girdled dogwhelk, Trochia cingulata (Linnaeus, 1771)

Despite the existing body of research that considers altered ocean temperature and acidification as co-occurring stressors, our understanding of the consequences of such shifts remains limited. This is particularly problematic in relation to predators such as whelks, as they can exert strong top-down control of communities yet, as calcifying ectotherms, they are likely to be vulnerable to climate change. This study assessed the effects of simultaneous changes in water temperature and pH on the South African girdled dogwhelk Trochia cingulata. For 12 weeks, whelks were exposed to three temperatures, 9 °C (cooling), 13 °C (current) and 17 °C (warming), each at three target pH levels, 8.0 (current), 7.7 (intermediate) and 7.5 (extreme). For each treatment shell thickness, strength and shape were measured after 6 and 12 weeks, while mortality was recorded daily. Survival was not affected by pH and was highest at 9 °C. Almost all whelks exposed to warming died within 2 weeks. After 6 weeks, shell strength declined significantly as acidity increased, regardless of temperature, and shells of whelks held at 9 °C were thinner. By 12 weeks, whelks exposed to cooling and extreme pH had the weakest shells. Notably, temperature no longer influenced shell thickness, but whelks held at 9 °C became globular in shape. These changes in shell morphology likely resulted from the increased cost of shell maintenance in cool, acidic conditions. The differences observed at 6 and 12 weeks demonstrate how responses can change over time, a point that should be kept in mind when assessing species sensitivities to changing environments. The dominant effect of temperature highlights that T. cingulata is particularly vulnerable to warming, while regional cooling may pose a challenge with respect to shell morphology.

Continue reading ‘Predicted changes in temperature, more than acidification, affect the shell morphology and survival of the girdled dogwhelk, Trochia cingulata (Linnaeus, 1771)’

Mangrove macroalgae increase their growth under ocean acidification: a study with Bostrychia (Rhodophyta) haplotypes from different biogeographic provinces

Increasing oceanic CO2 has caused a decrease in oceanic pH, a process termed ocean acidification (OA). OA may benefit fleshy macroalgae due to the increased availability of inorganic carbon sources for photosynthesis since they are tolerant of decreases in pH. In this study, we analyzed multiple physiological responses of Bostrychia montagnei and Bostrychia calliptera from two biogeographic provinces of Brazil (Tropical Southwestern Atlantic [TSA] and Warm Temperate Southwestern Atlantic [WTSA]) after culturing them at a set of bioreactors in three pH levels (7.2, 7.6, and 8.0). Two pH were decreased by CO2 enrichment into the culture medium. Molecular analyses using plastidial (rbcL-3P) and mitochondrial (COI-5P) DNA markers were also performed to identify genetic divergences between macroalgae from TSA and WTSA. Molecular evidence of COI-5P marker demonstrated that the specimens of both B. montagnei and B. calliptera from TSA and WTSA constitute different haplotypes, with a strong segregation between them. Macroalgae from both localities increased their growth in treatments of decreased pH with increased CO2 availability. Overall, physiological responses of the algae were not negatively affected by decreased pH. B. montagnei from TSA increased its polysaccharide and allophycocyanin content at pH 7.2, and B. montagnei from WTSA increased its low molecular weight carbohydrate content at pH 7.2 as well. Antioxidant activity — a proxy for physiological stress — was not affected by decreased pH. Our study indicates that haplotypes of B. montagnei and B. calliptera from TSA and WTSA can be relevant to CO2 sequestration in mangroves once they are tolerant of decreased pH and increase their growth under increased CO2 availability.

Continue reading ‘Mangrove macroalgae increase their growth under ocean acidification: a study with Bostrychia (Rhodophyta) haplotypes from different biogeographic provinces’

A framework for assessing harvest strategy choice when considering multiple interacting fisheries and a changing environment: the example of eastern Bering Sea crab stocks

Ecosystem Based Fisheries Management aims to broaden the set of factors included in assessments and management decision making but progress with implementation remains limited. We developed a framework that examines the consequences of temporal changes in temperature and ocean pH on yield and profit of multiple interacting stocks including eastern Bering Sea (EBS) snow, southern Tanner, and red king crab. Our analyses integrate experimental work on the effects of temperature and ocean pH on growth and survival of larval and juvenile crab and monitoring data from surveys, fishery landings, and at-sea observer programs. The impacts of future changes in temperature and ocean pH on early life history have effects that differ markedly among stocks, being most pessimistic for Bristol Bay red king crab and most optimistic for EBS snow crab. Our results highlight that harvest control rules that aim to maximize yield lead to lower profits than those that aim to maximize profit. Similarly, harvest control rules that aim to maximize profit lead to lower yields than those that aim to maximize yield, but differences are less pronounced. Maximizing profits has conservation benefits, especially when the implemented harvest control rule reduces fishing mortality if population biomass is below a threshold level.

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Effects of ocean acidification on Lythrypnus dalli reproductive output and behavior

Reproduction in fishes is an energetically costly but vital process that is important to nearshore fisheries and proper ecosystem functioning. Successful fish reproduction is generally limited to a narrow breadth of specific environmental conditions, and variation in these conditions may affect the ability of fish to allocate energy towards reproduction. In particular, ocean acidification (OA) is generally assumed to be a major threat to fish reproduction, but past studies on the effects of OA have produced variable results. To examine how OA affects bluebanded goby (Lythrypnus dalli) reproduction, female reproductive output and male reproductive behaviors were quantified under two experimental treatments that represent differences between present-day (ambient) and future OA (decreased by 0.2 pH units) conditions. To do this, sexually mature bluebanded gobies were placed in laboratory mesocosms for continuous seven-day trials and allowed to reproduce in artificial nests. Four artificial nests were placed in each of the four mesocosms to provide fish with similar nesting habitats to encourage reproduction. Each mesocosm included similar fish size structures and numbers of female gobies to control for any size- or sex-dependent responses. Male reproductive behavior was quantified daily through visual assessment of their movement patterns within each mesocosm. Female reproductive output was quantified by checking the nests for the presence of eggs, which were photographed to evaluate egg quantity, size, and development. Results indicate that future OA conditions did not significantly affect any of the reproducti on metrics examined in this study. These results suggest that future changes in environmental factors such as seawater pH may not have dramatic effects on the reproductive output and behavior of bluebanded gobies.

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Kelp (Saccharina latissima) mitigates coastal ocean acidification and increases the growth of North Atlantic bivalves in lab experiments and on an oyster farm

Coastal zones can be focal points of acidification where the influx of atmospheric CO2 can be compounded by additional sources of acidity that may collectively impair calcifying organisms. While the photosynthetic action of macrophytes may buffer against coastal ocean acidification, such activity has not been well-studied, particularly among aquacultured seaweeds. Here, we report on field and laboratory experiments performed with North Atlantic populations of juvenile hard clams (Mercenaria mercenaria), eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica), and blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) grown with and without increased CO2 and with and without North Atlantic kelp (Saccharina latissima) over a range of aquaculture densities (0.3 – 2 g L-1). In all laboratory experiments, exposure to elevated pCO2 (>1,800 µatm) resulted in significantly reduced shell- and/or tissue-based growth rates of bivalves relative to control conditions. This impairment was fully mitigated when bivalves were exposed to the same acidification source but also co-cultured with kelp. Saturation states of aragonite were transformed from undersaturated to saturated in the acidification treatments with kelp present, while the acidification treatments remained undersaturated. In a field experiment, oysters grown near aquacultured kelp were exposed to higher pH waters and experienced significantly faster shell and tissue based growth rates compared to individuals grown at sites away from kelp. Collectively, these results suggest that photosynthesis by S. latissima grown at densities associated with aquaculture increased pH and decreased pCO2, fostering a carbonate chemistry regime that maximized the growth of juvenile bivalves. As S. latissima has been shown to benefit from increased CO2, growing bivalves and kelp together under current or future acidification scenarios may be a synergistically beneficial integrated, multi-trophic aquaculture approach.

Continue reading ‘Kelp (Saccharina latissima) mitigates coastal ocean acidification and increases the growth of North Atlantic bivalves in lab experiments and on an oyster farm’

Effects of ocean acidification over successive generations decrease larval resilience to ocean acidification & warming but juvenile European sea bass could benefit from higher temperatures in the NE Atlantic

European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) is a large, economically important fish species with a long generation time whose long-term resilience to ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW) is not clear. We incubated sea bass from Brittany (France) for two generations (>5 years in total) under ambient and predicted OA conditions (PCO2: 650 and 1700 µatm) crossed with ambient and predicted ocean OW conditions in F1 (temperature: 15-18°C and 20-23°C) to investigate the effects of climate change on larval and juvenile growth and metabolic rate.

We found that in F1, OA as single stressor at ambient temperature did not affect larval or juvenile growth and OW increased developmental time and growth rates, but OAW decreased larval size at metamorphosis. Larval routine and juvenile standard metabolic rates were significantly lower in cold compared to warm conditioned fish and also lower in F0 compared to F1 fish. We did not find any effect of OA as a single stressor on metabolic rates. Juvenile PO2crit was not affected by OA or OAW in both generations.

We discuss the potential underlying mechanisms resulting in the resilience of F0 and F1 larvae and juveniles to OA and in the beneficial effects of OW on F1 larval growth and metabolic rate, but on the other hand in the vulnerability of F1, but not F0 larvae to OAW. With regard to the ecological perspective, we conclude that recruitment of larvae and early juveniles to nursery areas might decrease under OAW conditions but individuals reaching juvenile phase might benefit from increased performance at higher temperatures.

Continue reading ‘Effects of ocean acidification over successive generations decrease larval resilience to ocean acidification & warming but juvenile European sea bass could benefit from higher temperatures in the NE Atlantic’

How do fungi survive in the sea and respond to climate change?

With the over 2000 marine fungi and fungal-like organisms documented so far, some have adapted fully to life in the sea, while some have the ability to tolerate environmental conditions in the marine milieu. These organisms have evolved various mechanisms for growth in the marine environment, especially against salinity gradients. This review highlights the response of marine fungi, fungal-like organisms and terrestrial fungi (for comparison) towards salinity variations in terms of their growth, spore germination, sporulation, physiology, and genetic adaptability. Marine, freshwater and terrestrial fungi and fungal-like organisms vary greatly in their response to salinity. Generally, terrestrial and freshwater fungi grow, germinate and sporulate better at lower salinities, while marine fungi do so over a wide range of salinities. Zoosporic fungal-like organisms are more sensitive to salinity than true fungi, especially Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Labyrinthulomycota and marine Oomycota are more salinity tolerant than saprolegniaceous organisms in terms of growth and reproduction. Wide adaptability to saline conditions in marine or marine-related habitats requires mechanisms for maintaining accumulation of ions in the vacuoles, the exclusion of high levels of sodium chloride, the maintenance of turgor in the mycelium, optimal growth at alkaline pH, a broad temperature growth range from polar to tropical waters, and growth at depths and often under anoxic conditions, and these properties may allow marine fungi to positively respond to the challenges that climate change will bring. Other related topics will also be discussed in this article, such as the effect of salinity on secondary metabolite production by marine fungi, their evolution in the sea, and marine endophytes.

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The symbiotic relationship between the Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna, and epibiont coralline algae

The Antarctic limpet, Nacella concinna, is one of the most abundant benthic marine invertebrates found in the intertidal zone of King George Island, Antarctica. The shell of N. concinna is often encrusted with the coralline algae Clathromorphum obtectulum. In this study, to reveal the relationship between the limpet and coralline algae, we examined how the coralline algae affect the physical condition (survival and health) and morphology of the limpet. We cultured the limpets for 22 days and compared mortality, weight, condition factor (CF), fatty acid content, and the structure of the shell surface between limpets both with and without coralline algae in the laboratory. We also measured the environmental factors (i.e., temperature, pH, and salinity) of the seawater at each sampling site and the CF of the limpets and correlated them with coverage of coralline algae. The presence of coralline algae significantly increased the mortality of the limpets by 40% and the shell weight by 1.4-fold but did not affect the CF. Additionally, coralline algae altered the fatty acid profiles related to the limpet’s lipid metabolism (saturated fatty acids (SFA) and some polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)). Specifically, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, and total SFA increased, whereas C18:2 and C18:3 decreased. However, observations with a scanning electron microscope showed that shell damage in limpets with coralline algae was much less than in limpets without coralline algae, suggesting that coralline algae may provide protection against endolithic algae. The area of coralline algae on the limpet shell was positively correlated with the pH and temperature of the seawater. The results suggest that although coralline algae are generally assumed to be parasitical, the relationship between N. concinna and coralline algae may change to mutualism under certain conditions.

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Species specific responses to grazer cues and acidification in phytoplankton- winners and losers in a changing world

Phytoplankton induce defensive traits in response to chemical alarm signals from grazing zooplankton. However, these signals are potentially vulnerable to changes in pH and it is not yet known how predator recognition may be affected by ocean acidification. We exposed four species of diatoms and one toxic dinoflagellate to future pCO2 levels, projected by the turn of the century, in factorial combinations with predatory cues from copepods (copepodamides). We measured the change in growth, chain length, silica content, and toxin content. Effects of increased pCO2 were highly species specific. The induction of defensive traits was accompanied by a significant reduction in growth rate in three out of five species. The reduction averaged 39% and we interpret this as an allocation cost associated with defensive traits. Copepodamides induced significant chain length reduction in three of the four diatom species. Under elevated pCO2 Skeletonema marinoi reduced silica content by 30% and in Alexandrium minutum the toxin content was reduced by 30%. Using copepodamides to induce defensive traits in the absence of direct grazing provides a straightforward methodology to assess costs of defense in microplankton. We conclude that copepodamide signalling system is likely robust to ocean acidification. Moreover, the variable responses of different taxa to ocean acidification suggest that there will be winners and losers in a high pCO2 world, and that ocean acidification may have structuring effects on phytoplankton communities.

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Schizosphaerella size and abundance variations across the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event in the Sogno Core (Lombardy Basin, Southern Alps)

Highlights

  • Schizospharella spp. size and abundance variations during the Jenkyns event.
  • Abundance drop caused by the failure of S. punctulata > 7 μm.
  • Size decrease due to the relative increase in abundance of small specimens.
  • Drop in abundance and size consequence of ocean acidification and global warming.
  • Presence of diagenetic crust diagnostic to distinguish S. punctulata from S. astraea

Abstract

Abundance and size variations of nannofossil Schizosphaerella punctulata were quantified in the uppermost Pliensbachian–Lower Toarcian succession recovered with the Sogno Core (Lombardy Basin, Northern Italy). High-resolution nannofossil biostratigraphy and C-isotopic chemostratigraphy identified the Jenkyns Event within the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE) interval. Absolute abundances and morphometric changes of “small S. punctulata” (< 7 μm), S. punctulata (7–10 μm; 10–14 μm; > 14 μm) and “encrusted S. punctulata” (specimens with a fringing crust) show large fluctuations across the negative δ13C Jenkyns Event. The Schizosphaerella crisis is further characterized by a decrease in average valve size in the early–middle Jenkyns Event. The abundance fall was caused by the failure of S. punctulata specimens >7 μm and “encrusted S. punctulata” that along with the increased relative abundance of small specimens, produced the reduction of average dimensions also documented in the Lusitanian and Paris Basins, although with a diachronous inception. The average valve size from the Lombardy Basin is ~2 μm smaller than in these other basins. Hyperthermal conditions associated with excess CO2 and ocean acidification possibly forced the drastic reduction of S. punctulata abundance/size. In the pelagic succession of the Sogno Core there is a strong positive correlation between the S. punctulata (> 7 μm) absolute abundance/size and the CaCO3 content, with a negligible contribution by small specimens (< 7 μm). Encrusted specimens testify selective neomorphic processes: the diagenetic crust seems diagnostic to separate S. punctulata from S. astraea.

Continue reading ‘Schizosphaerella size and abundance variations across the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event in the Sogno Core (Lombardy Basin, Southern Alps)’

Eelgrass beds can mitigate local acidification and reduce oyster malformation risk in a subarctic lagoon, Japan: a three-dimensional ecosystem model study

Highlights

  • An ecosystem model representing carbonate systems in a lagoon was developed.
  • The effect of ocean acidification on oyster malformation was evaluated.
  • Simulation under the absence of eelgrass bed was also performed.
  • The model could reproduce the spatiotemporal variations of the observed values.
  • Eelgrass beds mitigate the adverse effects of acidification on oyster growth.

Abstract

It is well known that ocean acidification (OA) inhibits growth of marine calcifying organisms. Therefore, the adverse effects of acidification on marine ecosystems and aquaculture, such as oyster farming, are of concern. Since eelgrass beds in neritic areas have a high potential for carbon assimilation, this study focuses on local scale mitigation of OA effects. Using a three-dimensional lower-trophic system ecosystem model, we modeled nitrogen and carbon cycles, and the dynamics of carbonate parameters in a subarctic shallow lagoon and bay, where nitrogen availability limits the photosynthesis of primary producers. Simulation of the present conditions allowed reproduction of spatiotemporal variations in water quality and, by assuming future environmental changes quantitatively, revealed that the progress of OA significantly elevated the probability of shell malformation in juvenile oysters. The results represent the spatiotemporal variations in carbonate parameters inside and outside eelgrass beds and enable the evaluation of the alleviation effect on local acidification by the presence of a dense eelgrass bed. Our study shows that in the absence of the eelgrass bed scenario, the effect of OA on oysters became more remarkable. The simulations revealed that maintaining eelgrass beds is essential to mitigate the effects of acidification on oysters.

Continue reading ‘Eelgrass beds can mitigate local acidification and reduce oyster malformation risk in a subarctic lagoon, Japan: a three-dimensional ecosystem model study’

Dynamic energy budget modeling of Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, under future ocean acidification and warming

Highlights

  • Surfclams were exposed to OA levels inducing effects on physiological rates
  • A DEB model was calibrated integrating effects on ingestion and maintenance costs
  • The model was validated on Georges Bank and Mid-Atlantic Bight population data
  • Effects of future OA and warming conditions projected by RCP scenarios were simulated
  • Under high pCO2 emissions, DEB projects effects on growth and reproduction by 2100

Abstract

A dynamic energy budget (DEB) model integrating pCO2 was used to describe ocean acidification (OA) effects on Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, bioenergetics. Effects of elevated pCO2 on ingestion and somatic maintenance costs were simulated, validated, and adapted in the DEB model based upon growth and biological rates acquired during a 12-week laboratory experiment. Temperature and pCO2 were projected for the next 100 years following the intergovernmental panel on climate change representative concentration pathways scenarios (2.6, 6.0, and 8.5) and used as forcing variables to project surfclam growth and reproduction. End-of-century water warming and acidification conditions resulted in simulated faster growth for young surfclams and more energy allocated to reproduction until the beginning of the 22nd century when a reduction in maximum shell length and energy allocated to reproduction was observed for the RCP 8.5 scenario.

Continue reading ‘Dynamic energy budget modeling of Atlantic surfclam, Spisula solidissima, under future ocean acidification and warming’

Intraspecific hybridization as a mitigation strategy of ocean acidification in marine bivalve noble scallop Chlamys nobilis

Highlights

  • OA significantly reduced the hatching rate, survival rate, growth rate of C. nobilis
  • Crossing of C. nobilis exhibited heterosis in terms of hatching rate, survival rate and growth rate under both ambient water and OA condition
  • Enhance OA adaptability mainly contributed by upregulation of genes involved in signal transduction, biological process maintenances, nucleic acid binding and post-translational modification

Abstract

The driving factors of climate change, especially ocean acidification (OA), have many detrimental impacts on marine bivalves. Hybridization is one of the important methods to improve environmental tolerance of animals and plants. In this study, we explored the feasibility of intraspecific hybridization as an OA mitigation strategy in noble scallop Chlamys nobilis (ecologically and economically important bivalve species). The results of this study revealed that exposure of C. nobilis to OA condition significantly reduced the hatching rate, survival rate, growth rate (shell height, shell length, shell width and shell weight), and total carotenoid content (TCC), as well as increased the deformity rate of C. nobilis larvae. Interestingly, under both ambient water and OA condition, the intraspecific hybridization of C. nobilis exhibited heterosis in terms of hatching rate, survival rate and growth rate (excepted for growth in shell length under OA). Transcriptome sequencing of C. nobilis (inbreed and hybrid under ambient and OA conditions) identified four main differentially expressed genes involved in signal transduction, biological process maintenances, nucleic acid binding and post-translational modification. In addition, the expression of these four genes in hybrid C. nobilis was significantly higher than that in inbreed C. nobilis. In conclusion, hybrid C. nobilis showed heterosis in growth rate and survival rate under both ambient water and acidified seawater condition, which may be the result of enhanced expression of genes related to signal transduction, DNA replication and post-translational modification.

Continue reading ‘Intraspecific hybridization as a mitigation strategy of ocean acidification in marine bivalve noble scallop Chlamys nobilis’

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