Acidification impacts and acclimation potential of Caribbean benthic foraminifera assemblages in naturally discharging low-pH water (update)

Ocean acidification (OA) is expected to negatively affect many ecologically important organisms. Here we report the response of Caribbean benthic foraminiferal assemblages to naturally discharging low-pH waters with a composition similar to that expected for the end of the 21st century. At low pH ∼ 7.8 and low saturation state with respect to calcite (Ωcalcite< 4), the relative abundance of hyaline, agglutinated, and symbiont-bearing species increased, indicating higher resistance to potential carbonate chemistry changes. Diversity and other taxonomical metrics (i.e., richness, abundance, and evenness) declined steeply with decreasing pH despite exposure of this ecosystem to low-pH conditions for millennia, suggesting that tropical foraminiferal communities will be negatively impacted under acidification scenarios SSP3-7.0 (Shared Socioeconomic Pathways) and SSP5-8.5. The species Archaias angulatus, a major contributor to sediment production in the Caribbean, was able to calcify at more extreme conditions (7.1 pH) than those projected for the late 21st century, but the calcified tests had a lower average density than those exposed to higher-pH conditions (7.96), indicating that reef foraminiferal carbonate production might decrease this century. Smaller foraminifera were particularly sensitive to low pH, and our results demonstrate their potential use to monitor OA conditions.

Continue reading ‘Acidification impacts and acclimation potential of Caribbean benthic foraminifera assemblages in naturally discharging low-pH water (update)’

Corals adapted to extreme and fluctuating seawater pH increase calcification rates and have unique symbiont communities

Ocean acidification (OA) is a severe threat to coral reefs mainly by reducing their calcification rate. Identifying the resilience factors of corals to decreasing seawater pH is of paramount importance to predict the survivability of coral reefs in the future. This study compared corals adapted to variable pH (i.e., 7.23-8.06 pH units) from the semi-enclosed lagoon of Bouraké, New Caledonia, to corals adapted to more stable seawater pH (i.e., 7.90-8.18 pH units). In a 100-day aquarium experiment, we examined the physiological response and genetic diversity of Symbiodiniaceae from three coral species ( Acropora tenuis , Montipora digitata and Porites sp.) from both sites under three stable pH conditions (i.e., 8.11, 7.76, 7.54 pH units) and fluctuating pH conditions (i.e., between 7.56 and 8.07 pH units). Bouraké corals consistently exhibited higher growth rates than corals from the stable pH environment, with specific ITS2 intragenomic variant profiles. While OA generally decreased coral calcification by ca. 16%, Bouraké coralsshowed higher growth rates (21 to 93% increase, depending on species with all pH conditions pooled) than those from the stable pH environment. This superior performance coincided with divergent ITS2-like profiles with better consistency for both variable and low pH conditions. This response was not gained by corals from the more stable environment exposed to variable pH during the four-month experiment, suggesting that such a kind of plasticity is time dependent. Future long-term experiments should address the exposure duration required to confer fitness benefits for sustained calcification, hopefully fast enough to cope with the ongoing rapid OA.

Continue reading ‘Corals adapted to extreme and fluctuating seawater pH increase calcification rates and have unique symbiont communities’

Scientists from the U.S., Mexico, and Cuba met to start combating acidification in the Gulf of Mexico

LISTEN • 1:10

Colorful map of gulf waters between the U.S., Mexico and Cuba. The water is blue and the the land is green.
A team of international scientists from along the Gulf of Mexico in the U.S., Mexico, and Cuba recently met to start addressing the socioeconomic impacts of ocean acidification – that’s when carbon dioxide from the atmosphere changes the pH balance of a water body.

A team of international scientists from along the Gulf of Mexico in the U.S., Mexico, and Cuba recently met to start addressing the socioeconomic impacts of ocean acidification — that’s when carbon dioxide from the atmosphere changes the pH balance of a water body.

Jorge Brenner, the executive director of the Gulf of Mexico Coastal Ocean Observing System, said that the more acidic water becomes, the more difficult it is for some marine organisms to produce hardened structures.

“In the case of [an] oyster, well, that’s the shell. In the case of a shrimp, that’s the exoskeleton. The case of a coral is the whole organism that depends on the structure that they create. So, as water becomes more acidic, those structures might be more brittle and not able to be as hard as they typically are in more neutral waters,” Brenner said.

He said acidification is “not terribly bad right now” in the Gulf, but due to climate change, the water will likely become more acidic in the future. Brenner added that the water moves and is continuous, so it’s not going to be the same everywhere along the Gulf.

“Different shallow areas, or deeper areas, or areas where there is more current and water masses move more might have a better way to cope with acidification,” Brenner said.

Continue reading ‘Scientists from the U.S., Mexico, and Cuba met to start combating acidification in the Gulf of Mexico’

Ocean acidification lessons: making a rainbow of pH (video)

Ocean Acidification Lessons: Making a Rainbow of pH

Continue reading ‘Ocean acidification lessons: making a rainbow of pH (video)’

Negative effects of a zoanthid competitor limit coral calcification more than ocean acidification

Ocean acidification (OA) threatens the persistence of reef-building corals and the habitat they provide. While species-specific effects of OA on marine organisms could have cascading effects on ecological interactions like competition, few studies have identified how benthic reef competitors respond to OA. We explored how two common Caribbean competitors, branching Porites and a colonial zoanthid (Zoanthus), respond to the factorial combination of OA and competition. In the laboratory, we exposed corals, zoanthids and interacting corals and zoanthids to ambient (8.01 ± 0.03) and OA (7.68 ± 0.07) conditions for 60 days. The OA treatment had no measured effect on zoanthids or coral calcification but decreased Porites maximum PSII efficiency. Conversely, the competitive interaction significantly decreased Porites calcification but had minimal-to-no countereffects on the zoanthid. Although this interaction was not exacerbated by the 60-day OA exposure, environmental changes that enhance zoanthid performance could add to the dominance of zoanthids over corals. The lack of effects of OA on coral calcification indicates that near-term competitive interactions may have more immediate consequences for some corals than future global change scenarios. Disparate consequences of competition have implications for community structure and should be accounted for when evaluating local coral reef trajectories.

Continue reading ‘Negative effects of a zoanthid competitor limit coral calcification more than ocean acidification’

Molecular features associated with resilience to ocean acidification in the northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria

The increasing concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere and resulting flux into the oceans will further exacerbate acidification already threatening coastal marine ecosystems. The subsequent alterations in carbonate chemistry can have deleterious impacts on many economically and ecologically important species including the northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria). The accelerated pace of these changes requires an understanding of how or if species and populations will be able to acclimate or adapt to such swift environmental alterations. Thus far, studies have primarily focused on the physiological effects of ocean acidification (OA) on M. mercenaria, including reductions in growth and survival. However, the molecular mechanisms of resilience to OA in this species remains unclear. Clam gametes were fertilized under normal pCO2 and reared under acidified (pH ~ 7.5, pCO2 ~ 1200 ppm) or control (pH ~ 7.9, pCO2 ~ 600 ppm) conditions before sampled at 2 days (larvae), 32 days (postsets), 5 and 10 months (juveniles) and submitted to RNA and DNA sequencing to evaluate alterations in gene expression and genetic variations. Results showed significant shift in gene expression profiles among clams reared in acidified conditions as compared to their respective controls. At 10 months of exposure, significant shifts in allele frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified. Both approaches highlighted genes coding for proteins related to shell formation, bicarbonate transport, cytoskeleton, immunity/stress, and metabolism, illustrating the role these pathways play in resilience to OA.

Continue reading ‘Molecular features associated with resilience to ocean acidification in the northern quahog, Mercenaria mercenaria’

Announcing funding opportunity in Marine Carbon Dioxide Removal (mCDR)

The NOAA Ocean Acidification Program on behalf of the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) solicits proposals focused on (a) expanding understanding of various aspects of marine Carbon Dioxide Removal (mCDR); (b) understanding associated co-benefits (including ocean acidification mitigation) and risks of marine CDR; and (c) the science needed to build building regulatory frameworks for both testing and scaling of marine CDR approaches. This knowledge will assist in the verification or invalidation of hypotheses regarding mCDR, in order to make informed decisions regarding a potential scaled negative carbon ocean industry. 

To be eligible under this NOPP funding opportunity, each proposing team must comprise participants from at least two of the following sectors: academia, private sector (including Non-Governmental Organizations, or NGOs), or government (including federal, tribal, state, and local). Participants in this multi-agency request for proposals include: NOAA (Ocean Acidification Program, Global Ocean Monitoring and Observing Program, US Integrated Ocean Observing System/US IOOS), the Department of Energy (Fossil Energy and Carbon Management, Water Power Technologies Office), Department of Navy (Office of Naval Research), the National Science Foundation (Chemical Oceanography Program) and philanthropies including ClimateWorks. 


An informational webinar will be held on December 7, 2022 at 4-5 pm ET. REGISTER HERE 

Continue reading ‘Announcing funding opportunity in Marine Carbon Dioxide Removal (mCDR)’

Tropical cyclone-induced coastal acidification in Galveston Bay, Texas

Intense rainfall from tropical cyclones has the potential to induce coastal acidification, which will become more common and severe as climate change continues. We collected carbonate chemistry samples from Galveston Bay, Texas before and after Hurricane Harvey in 2017 and 2018. Here, we show ecosystem level acidification and calcium carbonate undersaturation in Galveston Bay following the storm. This acidification event, driven by extreme rainfall from Harvey, persisted for over 3 weeks because of prolonged flood mitigation reservoir releases that continued for over a month after the storm. In addition, the large volume of stormwater led to high oyster mortality rates in Galveston Bay and acidification may have impeded recovery of these vital reefs. It is also likely that undersaturation has occurred outside of our study, unrecorded, following other high-rainfall storms. The projected increase in tropical cyclone rainfall under climate change may thus represent a significant threat to coastal calcifying ecosystems.

Continue reading ‘Tropical cyclone-induced coastal acidification in Galveston Bay, Texas’

Global decrease in heavy metal concentrations in brown algae in the last 90 years

Graphical abstract


  • A decline in metal pollution in algae is widespread in coastal ecosystems worldwide.
  • Decrease in algae concentrations may not also occur in seawater but in bioavailability.
  • Decreases began from 70’s coinciding with the implementation of environmental policies.
  • Legislation and ocean acidification can impact on the heavy metal content in algae.


In the current scenario of global change, heavy metal pollution is of major concern because of its associated toxic effects and the persistence of these pollutants in the environment. This study is the first to evaluate the changes in heavy metal concentrations worldwide in brown algae over the last 90 years (>15,700 data across the globe reported from 1933 to 2020). The study findings revealed significant decreases in the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb and Zn of around 60–84% (ca. 2% annual) in brown algae tissues. The decreases were consistent across the different families considered (Dictyotaceae, Fucaceae, Laminariaceae, Sargassaceae and Others), and began between 1970 and 1990. In addition, strong relationships between these trends and pH, SST and heat content were detected. Although the observed metal declines could be partially explained by these strong correlations, or by adaptions in the algae, other evidences suggest an actual reduction in metal concentrations in oceans because of the implementation of environmental policies. In any case, this study shows a reduction in metal concentrations in brown algae over the last 50 years, which is important in itself, as brown algae form the basis of many marine food webs and are therefore potential distributors of pollutants.

Continue reading ‘Global decrease in heavy metal concentrations in brown algae in the last 90 years’

Surveying ocean acidification on the Northwest Atlantic shelf

In August of 2022, Prof. Samantha Siedlecki and Prof. Craig Tobias, along with students Halle Berger and Alex Frenzel, went on the East Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (ECOA-3). The cruise was led by scientists at the University of New Hampshire, joined through transdisciplinary partnerships with other universities, aboard the NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown. The UConn Avery Point members joined the cruise to investigate the contribution of sediments to carbon chemistry and how that ultimately impacts ocean acidification.

“Core team” on the deck of NOAA Ship Ronald H. Brown with multi-core sampler. Left to right: Halle Berger, Samantha Siedlecki, Craig Tobias, Alex Frenzel

Sam, Craig, Halle and Alex were the sediment coring team. The cores go all the way down to the bottom of the ocean and collect both the upper part of the sediment and the layer of water above it. This way, it is possible to understand chemical reactions in this zone between the sediments and the water above it. “The idea here is to understand how sediments control the chemistry of bottom water. There are sediment reactions that could help buffer acidity. But it’s unclear how sediments talk to the water above it or how that communication might change in the future” says Craig. You can learn more on the Facebook page of research vessel Ronald H. Brown.

These measurements are valuable information because they are not only timestamps of what is happening at the moment of collection. Increasing the number of observations and fine-tuning the measurements of these chemical processes in bottom waters helps the research of modelers, like Sam. Models are important to test our understanding of ocean processes. We need more measurements like this to more accurately predict marine climate change. Part of Sam’s work is to use this information into regional ocean models to better constrain the role of sediments in the chemistry of the ocean.

Continue reading ‘Surveying ocean acidification on the Northwest Atlantic shelf’

PhDs study pH levels that could threaten fragile ecosystem of 17 separate reefs and banks along the Texas Gulf Coast


Is ocean acidification affecting the Texas coast’s Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary? Texas A&M University scientists collected data Oct. 25­–28 in the Gulf of Mexico to help answer this question and more, as the fate of the unique and fragile Flower Garden Banks ecosystem is potentially threatened by climate change and acidification.

“Ocean acidification is a process that affects the entire ocean and is driven by the combined effects of climate change and CO2 emissions, which are believed to increase to oceanic pH levels,” said cruise chief scientist Steven DiMarco, professor in Texas A&M’s Department of Oceanography and Department of Ocean Engineering, and Geochemical and Environmental Research Group (GERG) scientist.

Funded by the Ocean Acidification Program of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration and sailing on the RV Pelican, the four-day research cruise investigated the impact of ocean acidification in the coastal ocean environmental of the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. It is the third of four planned cruises, with two completed in 2021 and one upcoming in February 2023.

“The decreased pH levels can have catastrophic effect on marine organisms, particularly calcifying organisms that build and maintain shells, skeletons, and calcium carbonate structures,” DiMarco said.

Located about 100 miles off the coasts of Texas and Louisiana, the Flower Garden Banks sanctuary spans 17 separate reefs and banks, including thriving shallow-water coral reefs, algal-sponge communities, and deeper mesophotic reefs full of black coral, octocoral and algal nodule habitats. Together, the reefs create a chain of protected habitats for ecologically and economically important species across the northwestern Gulf of Mexico.

Continue reading ‘PhDs study pH levels that could threaten fragile ecosystem of 17 separate reefs and banks along the Texas Gulf Coast’

Technical meeting on ocean acidification meta-analyses using the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre bibliographic database and other data resources

Date: 13 – 17 February 2023

Location: The event will be held virtually via Microsoft Teams

Deadline for applications: 12 January 2023

Introduction: Ocean acidification is a direct consequence of the release of anthropogenic CO2 into the atmosphere. It has been a major area of work of the IAEA though the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre (OA-ICC). Over the years, the OA-ICC has developed key resources for the ocean acidification community including a bibliographic database and a data compilation which facilitates data comparison and meta-analyses. The use of these resources is increasingly important to synthetize the present knowledge, test new hypotheses and identify new research directions. Moreover, it provides a unique opportunity to create new knowledge for research teams in developing countries with limited access to field and laboratories. The purpose of the event is to promote the use of the OA-ICC databases through (i) teaching of the basics of synthesis and meta-analysis methodologies; (ii) identification of key questions that can be answered through synthesis and meta-analysis using the OA-ICC resources; and (iii) work on individual meta-analysis projects. Participants will be given some support beyond the training to develop their own meta-analysis projects.

Objectives: The Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre (OA-ICC) promotes data access and sharing within the ocean acidification research community. The OA-ICC provides access to two online databases:

  • A bibliographic database which currently includes more than 9,800 references with custom OA-ICC keywords and is shared using Zotero and pCloud.
  • A data compilation which facilitates data comparison and meta-analyses. To easily filter and access relevant biological response data from this compilation, a user-friendly portal was developed.

During this workshop, participants will learn:

  • Basics of the different synthesis and meta-analysis methodologies (narrative, semi-quantitative, quantitative) through lectures and critical evaluation of existing published material.
  • How to navigate the OA-ICC databases and how to use these resources to test new hypotheses.
  • Identify and develop their own questions and identify collaborators within the course.

The training will continue after the course through a mentoring program. Each participant will have the opportunity to work with an expert on their individual project with the goal to publish meta-analysis articles relevant for their region.

Target audience: The course is open to 10 trainees. Priority will be given to early-career scientists with experience in ocean acidification and marine biology. At least one publication in the field of ocean acidification is required. Participants should have an interest in data analyses and syntheses as well as some time to invest into a meta-analysis project beyond the course.

Working language(s): English

Expected outputs: Increased capacity to perform meta-analyses and increased networking among scientists working on ocean acidification. Initiate/deepen connections with international networks such as the Global Ocean Acidification Observing Network (GOA-ON; Participants will also work on personal projects, developing strategies for their own research and a data-based projects using data resources from the OA-ICC.

Structure: The training will include lectures and guest lectures and assignments in smaller groups (the level will depend on the basic knowledge of the selected participants). Subjects to be covered include:

  • Best-practices in ocean acidification research and monitoring
  • State-of-the-art in the field of ocean acidification and other global drivers
  • Theory on different types of meta-analyses and synthesis
  • Data extraction from OA-ICC databases, and other sources
  • Standardization and data analysis
  • Scientific writing
Continue reading ‘Technical meeting on ocean acidification meta-analyses using the Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre bibliographic database and other data resources’

OA-ICC bibliographic database updated

An updated version of the OA-ICC bibliographic database is available online.

The database currently contains 9,937 references and includes citations, abstracts and assigned keywords. Updates are made every month.

The database is available as a group on Zotero. Subscribe online or, for a better user experience, download the Zotero desktop application and sync with the group OA-ICC in Zotero. Please see the “User instructions” for further details.

Continue reading ‘OA-ICC bibliographic database updated’

Eckerd College professor publishes paper on sharing research about health of Florida stone crabs

Assistant Professor of Marine Science Philip Gravinese works with students to study stone crabs in Tampa Bay.

The way Philip Gravinese, Ph.D., sees it, research is important not just for what can be discovered but for how that information can be shared.

In keeping with that philosophy, Gravinese, an Eckerd College assistant professor of marine science, recently co-authored a paper titled “Do pH-Variable Habitats Provide Refuge for Stone Crabs from Coastal Acidification?” It was published Nov. 15 in the journal Oceanography.

“The paper is a lesson developed for educators that is based on some of the ongoing research I’ve been doing near Fort De Soto Park,” Gravinese explains. “In this work we are looking at stone crab reproductive success between sandy habitats (narrow pH range) and seagrass habitats (wider pH range) to see if the pH range between those habitats provides the stone crab with any reproductive advantage under future climate change reductions in seawater pH.”

The project is being funded by the Tampa Bay Estuary Program.

Last year, Gravinese and two researchers from Louisiana State University were awarded a four-year, $922,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to study the impact of climate change on stone crabs. The goal is to investigate and model how rapidly changing ocean temperatures and pH levels disrupt stone crab larval development, behavior and dispersal among habitats along the Florida coasts. Gravinese’s previous work has shown that stone crabs can be sensitive to environmental stressors throughout their larval development.

Continue reading ‘Eckerd College professor publishes paper on sharing research about health of Florida stone crabs’

Do pH-Variable habitats provide refuge for stone crabs from coastal acidification?


This guided, inquiry-based, hands-on lesson uses data from a local monitoring station in Tampa Bay, Florida, to guide students toward understanding how coastal acidification may impact the reproductive success of the Florida stone crab, an important regional fishery. The objectives of the lesson are for students to: (1) determine how pH varies between different habitats, (2) determine how pH can affect the reproductive success of an important commercial fishery, the Florida stone crab, and (3) evaluate whether exposure to variable seawater pH results in greater reproductive success in stone crabs relative to individuals that are not exposed to pH variability.


This lesson is designed for undergraduates in introductory-level biology, marine biology, environmental chemistry, and oceanography courses. The activities introduce students to ocean acidification relationships associated with diel fluctuations in pH in benthic habitats like seagrass and sand. The lesson also correlates reductions in seawater pH to the reproductive success of a commercially important species, the Florida stone crab.

Continue reading ‘Do pH-Variable habitats provide refuge for stone crabs from coastal acidification?’

Carbon and nutrient cycling in Antarctic landfast sea ice from winter to summer

Seasonal cycling in carbon, alkalinity, and nutrients in landfast sea ice in Hangar Cove, Adelaide Island, West Antarctic Peninsula, were investigated during winter, spring, and summer 2014–2015. Temporal dynamics were driven by changes in the sea-ice physicochemical conditions, ice-algal community composition, and organic matter production. Winter sea ice was enriched with dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and inorganic nutrients from organic matter remineralization. Variations in alkalinity (Alk) and DIC indicated that abiotic calcium carbonate (ikaite) precipitation had taken place. Relative to other nutrients, low phosphate (PO4) concentrations potentially resulted from co-precipitation with ikaite. Seawater flooding and meltwater induced variability in the physical and biogeochemical properties in the upper ice in spring where nutrient resupply supported haptophyte productivity and increased particulate organic carbon (POC) in the interstitial layer. Rapid nitrate (NO3) and DIC (< 165 μmol kg−1) uptake occurred alongside substantial build-up of algal biomass (746 μg chlorophyll a L−1) and POC (6191 μmol L−1) during summer. Silicic acid drawdown followed NO3 depletion by approximately 1 month with a shift to diatom-dominated communities. Accumulation of PO4 in the lower ice layers in summer likely resulted from PO4 released during ikaite dissolution in the presence of biofilms. Increased Alk : DIC ratios in the lower ice and under-ice water suggested that ikaite dissolution buffered against meltwater dilution and enhanced the potential for atmospheric CO2 uptake. This study revealed strong seasonality in carbon and nutrient cycling in landfast sea ice and showed the importance of sea ice in biogeochemical cycling in seasonally ice-covered waters around Antarctica.

Continue reading ‘Carbon and nutrient cycling in Antarctic landfast sea ice from winter to summer’

Accelerated accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 drives rapid acidification in the North Pacific subtropical mode water during 1993−2020


Recent studies suggest that the formation and motion of the North Pacific subtropical mode water (STMW) play an important role in oceanic uptake, transport and storage of anthropogenic CO2 (CANT). However, the variability of STMW acidification rate and its control mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that the STMW acidification rate during 2005−2020 is about two times of that during 1993−2005, which is due to the cooling-driven enhanced CANT accumulation in the formation waters in the recent period. The rapid rates of CANT accumulation and acidification are consistently observed in the entire region across 137°−149°E regulated by STMW transport. Moreover, the tracer-based (Δ14C and δ13C) analyses also indicate that the accelerated accumulation of CANT could be traced back to the surface formation waters via STMW formation. The vertical and horizontal consistencies imply the memory function of mode waters in retaining the anthropogenic carbon fingerprint during its formation and transport.

Key Points

  • The decline rates of pH and Ωarag in the North Pacific subtropical mode water (STMW) during 2005−2020 are ∼2 times of that during 1993−2005
  • The faster STMW acidification is attributed to the accelerated accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) in the formation waters
  • The rapid rates of CANT accumulation and acidification are consistently observed across the 137°−149°E regulated by STMW transport
Continue reading ‘Accelerated accumulation of anthropogenic CO2 drives rapid acidification in the North Pacific subtropical mode water during 1993−2020’

GOOD-OARS-CLAP-COPAS summer school 2023: application deadline extended!

Location: CEAZA & University of Coquimbo

Dates: 6 – 12 November 2023




The CLAP Project


The last IPCC report confirms the deleterious effects of rising temperatures and decreasing pH and oxygen in the coastal and open ocean ecosystems, calling for enhancing our capacity to predict the ocean state. The GOOD-OARS-CLAP-COPAS International Summer School 2023 is designed to prepare the next generation of ocean scientists that will engage in multidisciplinary research and increase our understanding on the response of marine ecosystems in the next decades.


The Summer School aims to teach the skills and knowledge of the many disciplines needed to understand the ocean and atmospheric processes involved in ocean deoxygenation and acidification with a focus on Eastern Boundary Upwelling systems. It will expose graduate and doctoral students and early-career scientists to recent developments and methodologies in the study of biogeochemical and physical feedbacks between the ocean and atmosphere in a changing environment.


The GOOD-OARS-CLAP-COPAS summer school is opened to graduate and doctoral students, and early career scientists interested in interacting with world leading experts in the field in a friendly atmosphere, and enhancing their understanding of the processes constraining the future state of the oceans and environmental risks to marine habitats and ecosystems.


Please send an email to if you have any questions or need further assistance regarding the Summer School.

Continue reading ‘GOOD-OARS-CLAP-COPAS summer school 2023: application deadline extended!’

Coral reef carbonate accretion rates track stable gradients in seawater carbonate chemistry across the U.S. Pacific Islands

The U.S. Pacific Islands span a dramatic natural gradient in climate and oceanographic conditions, and benthic community states vary significantly across the region’s coral reefs. Here we leverage a decade of integrated ecosystem monitoring data from American Samoa, the Mariana Archipelago, the main and Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and the U.S. Pacific Remote Island Areas to evaluate coral reef community structure and reef processes across a strong natural gradient in pH and aragonite saturation state (Ωar). We assess spatial patterns and temporal trends in carbonate chemistry measured in situ at 37 islands and atolls between 2010 and 2019, and evaluate the relationship between long-term mean Ωar and benthic community cover and composition (benthic cover, coral genera, coral morphology) and reef process (net calcium carbonate accretion rates). We find that net carbonate accretion rates demonstrate significant sensitivity to declining Ωar, while most benthic ecological metrics show fewer direct responses to lower-Ωar conditions. These results indicate that metrics of coral reef net carbonate accretion provide a critical tool for monitoring the long-term impacts of ocean acidification that may not be visible by assessing benthic cover and composition alone. The perspectives gained from our long-term, in situ, and co-located coral reef environmental and ecological data sets provide unique insights into effective monitoring practices to identify potential for reef resilience to future ocean acidification and inform effective ecosystem-based management strategies under 21st century global change.

Continue reading ‘Coral reef carbonate accretion rates track stable gradients in seawater carbonate chemistry across the U.S. Pacific Islands’

Transcriptome analysis of hepatopancreas in penaeus monodon under acute low pH stress

The decrease of seawater pH can affect the metabolism, acid-base balance, immune response and immunoprotease activity of aquatic animals, leading to aquatic animal stress, impairing the immune system of aquatic animals and weakening disease resistance, etc. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing analysis of the hepatopancreas transcriptome library of low pH stress penaeus monodon, and after sequencing quality control, a total of 43488612–56271828 Clean Reads were obtained, and GO annotation and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis were performed on the obtained Clean Reads, and a total of 395 DEGs were identified. we mined 10 differentially expressed and found that they were significantly enriched in the Metabolic pathways (ko01100), Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites (ko01110), Nitrogen metabolism (ko00910) pathways, such as PIGA, DGAT1, DGAT2, UBE2E on Metabolic pathways; UGT, GLT1, TIM genes on Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites; CA, CA2, CA4 genes on Nitrogen metabolism, are involved in lipid metabolism, induction of oxidative stress and inflammation in the muscular body of spot prawns. These genes play an important role in lipid metabolism, induction of oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the muscle of the shrimp. In summary, these genes provide valuable reference information for future breeding of low pH-tolerant shrimp.

Continue reading ‘Transcriptome analysis of hepatopancreas in penaeus monodon under acute low pH stress’

  • Reset


OA-ICC Highlights

%d bloggers like this: