Posts Tagged 'chemistry'



Varying conditions in intertidal pools: high resolution pH dynamics and primary production

Most studies designed to assess the effects of ocean acidification take place in coastal and intertidal environments, which are characterized by a great variability of its physical and chemical parameters. However, a great number of these studies use fixed pH levels predicted for the future, disregarding natural pH oscillations. In this work we studied the pH oscillations and primary productivity of intertidal rockpools in two rocky shore areas. To provide high resolution continuous pH data we used an autonomous pH measuring system which consisted of a pH sensor, a data logger and a battery encased in a waterproof container. Oxygen concentration and primary production from phytoplankton and macro- phytobentos were also measured. We found a range of pH variation in the pools of 0.07 pH units/day when water dynamics was high and of 0.26 pH units/day when conditions were more stable. Carbonate systems parameters, temperature and oxygen concentration were related and they responded to the day / night cycle and hydrodynamic conditions. We suggest that these natural oscillations in pH and temperature must be taken into account in ocean acidifications studies in order to obtain more accurate results.

Continue reading ‘Varying conditions in intertidal pools: high resolution pH dynamics and primary production’

Plant and sediment properties in seagrass meadows from two Mediterranean CO2 vents: Implications for carbon storage capacity of acidified oceans

Highlights
• Seagrass features differed between control and low pH stations inconsistently in the two vents.

• Carbon content and its surficial accumulation decreased at high pCO2–low pH conditions.

• Carbon storage capacity of the seagrass may not increase at high pCO2-low pH conditions.

Abstract
Assessing the status of important carbon sinks such as seagrass meadows is of primary importance when dealing with potential climate change mitigation strategies. This study examined plant and sediment properties in seagrass meadows (Cymodocea nodosa (Ucria) Asch.) from two high pCO2–low pH Mediterranean vent systems, located at Milos (Greece) and Vulcano (Italy) Islands, providing insights on carbon storage potential in future acidified oceans. Contrary to what has been suggested, carbon content (both inorganic and organic) and its surficial accumulation decreased at high pCO2–low pH in comparison with controls. The decrease in inorganic carbon may result from the higher solubility of carbonates due to the more acidic conditions. At Vulcano, the seagrass properties (e.g., leaf area, biomass) appeared negatively affected by environmental conditions at high pCO2–low pH conditions and this may have had a detrimental effect on the organic carbon content and accumulation. At Milos, organic carbon decreased at high pCO2–low pH conditions, despite the increase in seagrass aboveground biomass, leaf length and area, probably as a consequence of site-specific features, which need further investigation and may include both biotic and abiotic factors (e.g., oligotrophic conditions, decreased sedimentation rate and input of allochthonous material). Results suggest that, in contrast to previous predictions based exclusively on the expected positive response of seagrasses to ocean acidification, carbon storage capacity of the seagrass C. nodosa may not increase at high pCO2-low pH conditions. This study emphasizes the need to investigate further the potential alteration in the climate mitigation service delivered by seagrass meadows in acidified oceans.

Continue reading ‘Plant and sediment properties in seagrass meadows from two Mediterranean CO2 vents: Implications for carbon storage capacity of acidified oceans’

The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2 from 1994 to 2007

We quantify the oceanic sink for anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) over the period 1994 to 2007 by using observations from the global repeat hydrography program and contrasting them to observations from the 1990s. Using a linear regression–based method, we find a global increase in the anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 34 ± 4 petagrams of carbon (Pg C) between 1994 and 2007. This is equivalent to an average uptake rate of 2.6 ± 0.3 Pg C year−1 and represents 31 ± 4% of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions over this period. Although this global ocean sink estimate is consistent with the expectation of the ocean uptake having increased in proportion to the rise in atmospheric CO2, substantial regional differences in storage rate are found, likely owing to climate variability–driven changes in ocean circulation.

Continue reading ‘The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2 from 1994 to 2007’

Variability of seawater chemistry in a kelp forest environment is linked to in situ transgenerational effects in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

While the value of giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera) as a habitat-forming foundation species is well-understood, it is unclear how they impact the oxygen concentration and pH of the surrounding seawater, and further, how such a dynamic abiotic environment will affect eco-evolutionary dynamics in a context of global change. Here, we profiled the nearshore kelp forest environment in Southern California to understand changes in dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH with high spatiotemporal resolution. We then examined transgenerational effects using sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) as our study organism. Using enclosures on the benthos, we conditioned adult sea urchins in situ at two locations – one inside the kelp forest and one outside the kelp forest. After a 11-week conditioning period timed to coincide with gametogenesis in the adults, the urchins were collected, spawned, and cultures of their progeny were raised in the laboratory in order to assess their performance to simulated ocean acidification. In terms of the physical observations, we observed significant changes in DO and pH not only when comparing sites inside and outside of the kelp forest, but also between surface and benthic sensors at the same site. DO and pH at the benthos differed in mean, the amplitude of the diel signal, and in the profile of background noise of the signal. Ultimately, these results indicated that both DO and pH were more predictably variable inside of the kelp forest environment. On the biological side, we found that adult sea urchins inside the kelp forest produced more protein-rich eggs that developed into more pH-resilient embryos. Overall, this study in a temperate kelp forest ecosystem is one of the first studies to not only observe biological response to highly characterized environmental variability in situ, but also to observe such changes in a transgenerational context.

Continue reading ‘Variability of seawater chemistry in a kelp forest environment is linked to in situ transgenerational effects in the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus’

Greenhouse gases, nutrients and the carbonate system in the Reloncaví Fjord (Northern Chilean Patagonia): implications on aquaculture of the mussel, Mytilus chilensis, during an episodic volcanic eruption

Highlights
• A large bloom of phytoplankton was detected in the surface waters of the Reloncaví fjord following the Calbuco volcano eruption.

• Subsequent to the Calbuco volcano eruption, higher N2O, CH4 and SO42− concentrations were observed in Fjord surface waters close to areas of river discharge.

• Optimal juvenile mussel growth was observed in refugee subsurface depths coinciding with increased aragonite saturation.

• Thus, the observed trends in the carbonate system and nutrient outputs may be valuable for developing effective management strategies for mussel aquaculture in the Reloncaví Fjord.

Abstract
This study investigates the immediate and mid-term effects of the biogeochemical variables input into the Reloncaví fjord (41°40′S; 72°23′O) as a result of the eruption of Calbuco volcano. Reloncaví is an estuarine system supporting one of the largest mussels farming production within Northern Chilean-Patagonia. Field-surveys were conducted immediately after the volcanic eruption (23–30 April 2015), one month (May 2015), and five months posterior to the event (September 2015). Water samples were collected from three stations along the fjord to determine greenhouse gases [GHG: methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O)], nutrients [NO3−, NO2−, PO43−, Si(OH)4, sulphate (SO42−)], and carbonate systems parameters [total pH (pHT), temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (O2), and total alkalinity (AT)]. Additionally, the impact of physicochemical changes in the water column on juveniles of the produced Chilean blue mussel, Mytilus chilensis, was also studied. Following the eruption, a large phytoplankton bloom led to an increase in pHT, due to the uptake of dissolved-inorganic carbon in photic waters, potentially associated with the runoff of continental soil covered in volcanic ash. Indeed, high surface SO42− and GHG were observed to be associated with river discharges. No direct evidence of the eruption was observed within the carbonate system. Notwithstanding, a vertical pattern was observed, with an undersaturation of aragonite (ΩAr < 1) both in brackish surface (10 m), and saturated values in subsurface waters (3 to 7 m). Simultaneously, juvenile mussel shells showed maximized length and weight at 4 m depth. Results suggest a localized impact of the volcanic eruption on surface GHG, nutrients and short-term effects on the carbonate system. Optimal conditions for mussel calcification were identified within a subsurface refuge in the fjord. These specific attributes can be integrated into adaptation strategies by the mussel aquaculture industry to confront ocean acidification and changing runoff conditions.

Continue reading ‘Greenhouse gases, nutrients and the carbonate system in the Reloncaví Fjord (Northern Chilean Patagonia): implications on aquaculture of the mussel, Mytilus chilensis, during an episodic volcanic eruption’

The internal consistency of the marine carbon dioxide system for high latitude shipboard and in situ monitoring

Highlights
• Best calculations from combination of T,P-dependent and non-dependent parameters

• The dissociation constants of M73 and L yielded the best internal consistency

• Monte Carlo simulation of uncertainty propagation shows combined uncertainty to be more dependent on input parameters, less on dissociation constants

• Internal consistency study for deep ocean conditions is required

Abstract
Deep convection in the Labrador Sea supplies large amounts of anthropogenic carbon to the ocean’s interior. We use measurements of all four measurable CO2 system parameters made along AR7W (across Labrador Sea) between 2013 and 2015 to assess the internal consistency of the carbonate system, including, as appropriate, conversion to in situ temperature (T) and pressure (P). The best agreement between measured and calculated values was obtained through combination of T,P-dependent (pH or pCO2) and non-dependent (TA or DIC) parameters. Use of the dissociation constants of Mehrbach et al. (1973) as refit by Dickson and Millero (1987) and Lueker et al. (2000) yielded the best internal consistency irrespective of the input parameters used. A Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that the propagated uncertainty (i.e. combined standard uncertainty) of calculated parameters of the carbonate system is (a) always larger than the analytical precision of the measurements themselves; (b) strongly dependent on the choice of input parameters and uncertainties; (c) less dependent on choice of the specific set of constants. For calculation of other parameters of the carbonate system from TA and DIC measurements made throughout the Labrador Sea time-series, the estimated combined standard uncertainty of calculated pCO2 and pH based on the Monte Carlo simulation is ~ 13 μatm and ~ 0.012 pH units respectively, with accuracy relative to laboratory-based measurement estimated to be between −3 and − 13 μatm and 0.002 and 0.007 pH units. Internal consistency especially at in situ temperature and pressure conditions is important for rapidly developing sensor-based monitoring programs in the region, including measurement of pH and/or pCO2 from gliders, profiling floats and moorings. We highlight uncertainty associated with the large pressure effect on pH and pCO2, and recommend a study of carbonate system internal consistency under deep ocean conditions that addresses pressure effects on calculations.

Continue reading ‘The internal consistency of the marine carbon dioxide system for high latitude shipboard and in situ monitoring’

Accurate determination of total alkalinity in estuarine waters for acidification studies

Highlights
• This work studies the best way to determine alkalinity in estuarine waters.

• The usefulness of some available stability constants of the CO2 system were tested.

• A mixing of two existing sets of stability constants gave the optimum results.

• Non-linear least square regression was the best approach to determine alkalinity.

Abstract
One of the effects of the atmospheric CO2 increase is the ocean acidification. Over the past 20 years, accurate measurements of the seawater carbonate system have become a high priority because this is the main system controlling seawater acidity. However, this phenomenon has not been widely studied in estuaries, even if they are among the most productive natural habitats in the world, lodging some of the highest biotic diversity and production. Due to that lack of information, this work aims to develop and discuss new strategies for the determination of total alkalinity (TA), one of the most measured parameters in the study of acidification, in estuarine waters in the wide range of salinities that can be found in these systems. For that purpose, a new set of stability constants for the carbonate system was established and compared with those most widely used up to date. For the determination of TA, different approaches were studied for the data treatment of the potentiometric titration data.

Continue reading ‘Accurate determination of total alkalinity in estuarine waters for acidification studies’


Subscribe to the RSS feed

Powered by FeedBurner

Follow AnneMarin on Twitter

Blog Stats

  • 1,182,888 hits

OA-ICC HIGHLIGHTS

Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book