Global climate change increases the impact of pollutant mixtures in the model species Paracentrotus lividus

Highlights

  • Impact of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and microplastics (MP) on P. lividus is studied.
  • We also studied if climate change increases the toxicity of these pollutants.
  • CPF has a marked effect on growth of larvae, but less on the fertilisation rate.
  • MP increases the negative effect of CPF on growth and development.
  • Global climate change conditions increase the sensitivity of embryos to MP and CPF.

Abstract

The goal of the present work is to study whether ocean- acidification (OA) and -warming (OW) could increase the toxicity of pollutants on P. lividus. We studied how model pollutants such as chlorpyrifos (CPF) and microplastics (MP), alone or in combination, impact the fertilisation process, and the development of larvae under conditions of OA (dissolved inorganic carbon increase of 126 × 10−6 mol per kg of sea water) and OW (temperature increase of 4 °C) predicted by FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization) for the next 50 years. Fertilisation was determined by microscopic examination after 1 h. Growth, morphology, and alteration level were measured after 48 h of incubation. Results showed that CPF has a marked effect on the growth of larvae, but less on the fertilisation rate. When larvae are exposed to both MP and CPF, the effect on fertilisation and growth is higher than when CPF is added alone. Larvae exposed to CPF tend to adopt a rounded shape which is detrimental to their buoyancy and the combination with other stressors aggravate this situation. The variables most influenced by CPF or its mixtures are those related to body length, body width, and higher levels of body abnormalities, which is consistent with the degenerative effects caused by CPF on sea urchin larvae. The PCA analysis showed that temperature has more influence when embryos or larvae are exposed to a combination of stressors, demonstrating that global climate change drastically increase the impact of CPF on aquatic ecosystems. Overall, in this work we demonstrated that global climate change conditions increase the sensitivity of embryos to MP and CPF. Our findings support the idea that global change conditions could have a severe impact on marine life, increasing the negative effect of toxic agents commonly present in the sea and their mixtures.

Bertucci J. I., Veloso-Cerredelo C. & Bellas J., 2023. Global climate change increases the impact of pollutant mixtures in the model species Paracentrotus lividus. Science of the Total Environment: 164837. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2023.164837. Article.


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