Effects of ocean acidification and solar ultraviolet radiation on physiology and toxicity of dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi

Highlights

• Combined OA and solar UVR were investigated on the HAB-forming dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi using outdoors incubations.

• This is the first study to consider the combined effects of OA and UVR on the toxicity of K. mikimotoi.

• OA and UVR resulted in decreased pigment contents and increased UV-absorbing compounds and hemolytic activity.

• The combination of OA and UVR had little effect on growth rates and toxicity of K. mikimotoi.

Abstracts

A batch culture experiment was conducted to study the interactive effects of ocean acidification (OA) and solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm) on the harmful dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi. Cells were incubated in 7-days trials under four treatments. Physiological (growth, pigments, UVabc) and toxicity (hemolytic activity and its toxicity to zebrafish embryos) response variables were measured in four treatments, representing two factorial combinations of CO2 (400 and 1000 μatm) and solar irradiance (with or without UVR). Toxic species K. mikimotoi showed sustained growth in all treatments, and there was not statistically significant difference among four treatments. Cell pigment content decreased, but UVabc and hemolytic activity increased in all HC treatments and PAB conditions. The toxicity to zebrafish embryos of K. mikimotoi was not significantly different among four treatments. All HC and UVR conditions and the combinations of HC*UVR (HC-PAB) positively affected the UVabc, hemolytic activity in comparison to the LC*P (LC-P) treatment, and negatively affected the pigments. Ocean acidification (OA) was probably the main factor that affected the chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and UVabc, but UVR was the main factor that affected the carotenoid (Caro) and hemolytic activity. There were no significant interactive effects of OA*UVR on growth, toxicity to zebrafish embryos. If these results are extrapolated to the natural environment, it can be hypothesized that this strain (DP-C32) of K. mikimotoi cells have the efficient mechanisms to endure the combination of ocean acidification and solar UVR. It is assumed that this toxic strain could form harmful bloom and enlarge the threatening to coastal communities, marine animals, even human health under future conditions.

Wang X., Feng X., Zhuang Y., Lu J., Wang Y., Gocalves R. J., Li X., Lou Y. & Guan W., 2019. Effects of ocean acidification and solar ultraviolet radiation on physiology and toxicity of dinoflagellate Karenia mikimotoi. Harmful Algae 81: 1-9. Article (subcription required).

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