Growing of Pyropia haitanensis, a commercially farmed macroalga, usually increases their densities greatly during cultivation in natural habitats. To explore how the increased algal densities affect their photosynthetic responses to rising CO2, we compared the growth, cell components and photosynthesis of the thalli of P. haitanensis under a matrix of pCO2 levels (ambient CO2, 400 ppm; elevated CO2, 1,000 ppm) and biomass densities [low, 1.0 g fresh weight (FW) L−1; medium, 2.0 g FW L−1; high, 4.0 g FW L−1]. Under ambient CO2, the relative growth rate (RGR) was 5.87% d−1, 2.32% d−1 and 1.51% d−1 in low, medium and high densities, and elevated CO2 reduced the RGR by 27%, 25% and 12% respectively. Maximal photochemical quantum yield of photosystem II (FV/FM) was higher in low than in high densities, so were the light‐utilized efficiency (α ), saturation irradiance (EK) and maximum relative electron transfer rate (rETRmax). Elevated CO2 enhanced the FV/FM in low density but not in higher densities, as well as the α, EK and rETRmax. In addition, elevated CO2 reduced the content of chlorophyll a and enhanced that of carotenoids, but unaffected phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and soluble proteins. Our results indicate that the increased algal densities reduced both the growth and the photosynthesis of P. haitanensis and alleviated the elevated CO2‐induced negative impact on growth and positive impact on photosynthesis. Moreover, the elevated CO2‐induced reduction on growth and promotion on photosynthesis indicates that rising CO2 may enhance the loss of photosynthetic products of P. haitanensis through releasing organic matters.
Li G., Mai G., Zhang J., Lin Q., Ni G., Tan Y., Huang L. & Zou D., in press. Algal density alleviates the elevated CO2‐caused reduction on growth of Porphyra haitanensis (Bangiales, Rhodophyta), a species farmed in China. Aquaculture Research. Article (subscription required).