The marine carbonate system along the northern Antarctic peninsula: current knowledge and future perspectives

Among the regions of the Southern Ocean, the northern Antarctic Peninsula (NAP) has emerged as a hotspot of climate change investigation. Nonetheless, studies have indicated issues and knowledge gaps that must be addressed to expand the understanding of the carbonate system in the region. Therefore, we focused on identifying current knowledge about sea-air CO2 fluxes (FCO2), anthropogenic carbon (Cant) and ocean acidification along NAP and provide a better comprehension of the key physical processes controlling the carbonate system. Regarding physical dynamics, we discuss the role of water masses formation, climate modes, upwelling and intrusions of Circumpolar Deep Water, and mesoscale processes. For FCO2, we show that the summer season corresponds to a strong sink in coastal areas, leading to CO2 uptake that is greater than or equal to that of the open ocean. We highlight that the prevalence of summer studies prevents comprehending processes occurring throughout the year and the net annual CO2 balance in the region. Thus, temporal investigations are necessary to determine natural environmental fluctuations and to distinguish natural variability from anthropogenically driven changes. We emphasize the importance of more studies regarding Cant uptake rate, accumulation, and export to global oceans.

Orselli I. B. M., Carvalho A. C. O., Monteiro T., Damini B. Y., de Carvalho-Borges M., Albuquerque C. & Kerr R., 2022. The marine carbonate system along the northern Antarctic Peninsula: current knowledge and future perspectives. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 94(suppl 1): e20210825. doi: 10.1590/0001-3765202220210825. Article.

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