Environmental pharmaceuticals and climate change: the case study of carbamazepine in M. galloprovincialis under ocean acidification scenario

Highlights

  • Combined effects of carbamazepine and reduced pH were investigated in M. galloprovincialis.
  • Hypercapnia had a limited influence on carbamazepine accumulation.
  • Interactive effects were observed at both transcriptional and cellular level.
  • Immune system, cellular homeostasis and oxidative processes were mostly affected.
  • Weighted elaboration of results revealed higher hazard by multiple stressors.

Abstract
Contaminants of emerging concern and ocean changes are key environmental stressors for marine species with possibly synergistic, but still unexplored, deleterious effects. In the present study the influence of a simulated ocean acidification scenario (pH = 7.6) was investigated on metabolism and sub-lethal effects of carbamazepine, CBZ (1 µg/L), chosen as one of the most widely diffused pharmaceuticals in marine organisms. A multidisciplinary approach was applied on mussels, M. galloprovincialis, integrating measurement of drug bioaccumulation with changes in the whole transcriptome, responsiveness of various biochemical and cellular biomarkers including immunological parameters, lipid and oxidative metabolism, onset of genotoxic effects. Chemical analyses revealed a limited influence of hypercapnia on accumulation and excretion of CBZ, while a complex network of biological responses was observed in gene expression profile and functional changes at cellular level. The modulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) pathway suggested similarities with the Mechanism of Action known for vertebrates: immune responses, cellular homeostasis and oxidative system represented the processes targeted by combined stressors. The overall elaboration of results through a quantitative Weight of Evidence model, revealed clearly increased cellular hazard due to interactions of CBZ with acidification compared to single stressors.

Mezzelani M., Nardi A., Bernardini I., Milan M., Peruzza L., d’Errico G., Fattorini D., Gorbi S., Patarnello T. & Regoli F., 2021. Environmental pharmaceuticals and climate change: the case study of carbamazepine in M. galloprovincialis under ocean acidification scenario. Environment International 146 : 106269. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106269. Article.

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