Oxidative and interactive challenge of cadmium and ocean acidification on the smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber

Highlights

• Combined effects of acidification and cadmium were analysed in the scallop, F. glaber.
• Reduced pH slightly increased bioaccumulation of Cd.
• Synergistic and antagonistic effects occurred at cellular level.
• Tissue-specific responses indicate higher sensitivity of gills than digestive gland.
• Ocean acidification modulates the cellular toxicity of metals.

Abstract

Ocean acidification (OA) may affect sensitivity of marine organisms to metal pollution modulating chemical bioavailability, bioaccumulation and biological responsiveness of several cellular pathways. In this study, the smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber was exposed to various combinations of reduced pH (pH/pCO2 7.4/∼3000 μatm) and Cd (20 μg/L). The analyses on cadmium uptake were integrated with those of a wide battery of biomarkers including metallothioneins, single antioxidant defenses and total oxyradical scavenging capacity in digestive gland and gills, lysosomal membrane stability and onset of genotoxic damage in haemocytes. Reduced pH slightly increased concentration of Cd in scallop tissues, but no effects were measured in terms of metallothioneins. Induction of some antioxidants by Cd and/or low pH in the digestive gland was not reflected in variations of the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, while the investigated stressors caused a certain inhibition of antioxidants and reduction of the scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radical in the gills. Lysosomal membrane stability and onset of genotoxic damages showed high sensitivity with possible synergistic effects of the investigated factors. The overall results suggest that indirect effects of ocean acidification on metal accumulation and toxicity are tissue-specific and modulate oxidative balance through different mechanisms.

Nardi A., Benedetti M., Fattorini D. & Regoli F., in press. Oxidative and interactive challenge of cadmium and ocean acidification on the smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber. Aquatic Toxicology. Article (subscription required).

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OA-ICC HIGHLIGHTS

Ocean acidification in the IPCC AR5 WG II

OUP book