Posts Tagged 'resource'

Monitoring ocean acidification in Alaska’s marine ecosystem (audio & video)

Title: Monitoring ocean acidification in Alaska’s marine ecosystem

Speaker: Natalie Monacci, MSc, University of Alaska Fairbanks, College of Fisheries and Ocean Sciences, Ocean Acidification Research Center, Fairbanks, AK

EcoFOCI 2021 Fall Seminar Series

This seminar is part of NOAA EcoFOCI (Ecosystems & Fisheries-Oceanography Coordinated Investigations)’s bi-annual seminar series that are focused on the ecosystems of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea and the US Arctic to improve understanding of ecosystem dynamics and applications of that understanding to the management of living marine resources. EcoFOCI is a joint research program between the Alaska Fisheries Science Center (NOAA/ NMFS/ AFSC) and the Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (NOAA/ OAR/ PMEL). Visit the EcoFOCI webpage for more information,

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GreenChat episode 3 major contributors to unsustainability: part B (audio & video)

In this episode of GreenChat we discuss the major causes of ocean acidification, fresh water use and loss of biodiversity that impact sustainability. Co-Hosted by Dr. Suresh Mony and Mr. N Suresh.

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GOA-ON webinar: natural analogues and the future of coral communities and their biodiversity (audio & video)

On 21 July 2022, Dr. Sylvain Agostini and Dr. James D. Reimer from the International CO2 Natural Analogues (ICONA) Network joined the GOA-ON webinar series to discuss “What natural analogues can teach us about the future of coral communities and their understudied biodiversity.” The talk highlighted natural analogue research focusing on the effects on and resilience of both scleractinian corals and zoantharians to understand adaptation mechanisms that will determine the shape and diversity of future coral communities. ICONA will join the GOA-ON webinar series again in the coming months to discuss natural analogues and fish communities.

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Ocean Acidification Research for Sustainability – OARS (video)

The Global Ocean Acidification Observation Network (GOA-ON)’s programme, “Ocean Acidification Research for Sustainability” (OARS) is endorsed as an Ocean Decade Action for the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development (2021-2030). OARS will address Sustainable Development Goal indicator 14.3.1 and will further develop the science of OA.

A new OARS video launched at the UN Decade Forum featuring the OARS co-leads Dr Jan Newton, Prof Steve Widdicombe, and Kirsten Isensee as well as Dr Libby Jewett, Director of the NOAA Ocean Acidification Program and one of the lead authors of the IPCC 6th Assessment Report. The video highlights the effects of ocean acidification on the marine environment and the actions needed to better understand, adapt and mitigate these effects that OARS will undertake in the next few years. Dr Katy Soapi (The Pacific Community, GOA-ON Pacific Islands and Territories OA Hub co-chair), Dr Sheck Sherif (GOA-ON OA Africa Hub co-chair) and Dr Abed El Rahman Hassoun (GOA-ON Mediterranean OA Hub co-chair) spoke from their regional perspectives and joined the call to all interested researchers, stakeholders and decision makers to join OARS!  

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OA-ICC publishes new policy briefing based on latest IPCC reports

The International Atomic Energy Agency’s OA-ICC (Ocean Acidification International Coordination Centre) published a new resource today, titled “Ocean Acidification: The Evidence is Clear. The Time for Action is Now.” This policy briefing highlights the findings of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group I, II, and III reports and details policy actions that can be enacted now.

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S4E1: TIL about the changing ocean, part 1 (audio)

The ocean is a critical piece of the climate change puzzle. It’s estimated that the ocean has absorbed about one third of the excess CO2 humans have added to the atmosphere and more than 90% of trapped heat in the atmosphere. So, today, we’re going underwater to talk about the ocean and climate change with renowned marine biologist Dr. Sylvia Earle.

Dr. Sylvia Earle is an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society. She is former chief scientist for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and founder of Mission Blue, an organization aimed at restoring health and productivity to the ocean. Dr. Earle has led more than a hundred expeditions, logged over 7,000 hours underwater, and has authored more than 190 scientific, technical, and popular publications.

For more episodes of TILclimate by the MIT Environmental Solutions Initiative, visit For the episode transcription and links to resources mentioned in the episode, visit…

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SOLAS seminar II: atmospheric deposition and ocean biogeochemistry (video)

The 2nd seminar of the series will focus on “Atmospheric deposition and ocean biogeochemistry: in situ observation, processes studies and modeling approach”. The seminar was hosted by the Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique & Sorbonne University, France.

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Leveraging ocean science and innovation for healthy and resilient coastal and marine ecosystems (video)

HLPF Side Event: “Leveraging ocean science and innovation for healthy and resilient coastal and marine ecosystems” – 06.07.2022

Working across the linkages of SDGs 14, 13 and 15, the side event organized around multi-stakeholder panels explored how investment and partnerships in research, ocean observations, fit-for-purpose data products and services can empower decision-makers, industry and local communities to conserve and restore ocean ecosystems, address vulnerability and build resilience to climate change.

The event provided an overview of key progress, challenges and opportunities in implementing SDG 14, with a specific focus on ocean acidification and marine scientific capacity applied to ocean management, two targets under IOC-UNESCO’s custodianship. Building on the transformative work of UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development, innovation in ocean observation, technologies and information delivery to support sustainable use and ocean conservation will be highlighted.

The event also focused on empowering local communities to build resilience and protect biodiversity through partnerships in nature-based solutions such as the biosphere reserves and blue carbon approaches.

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Why the ocean matters (text & audio)

Episode 166: Did you know that oceans make life possible on our planet? Even if we live far from the coast, our lives are influenced by the ocean. Oceans generate oxygen, capture carbon, shape weather, and provide habitat for countless creatures. 

To learn more about these vast, yet fragile bodies of water that make our planet unique, beautiful, and able to support life, I speak with world renowned ocean scientist and explorer Dr. Sylvia Earle.

In this inspirational interview, Sylvia shares her thoughts about what we can do to help our oceans and why urgent action is needed now. We discuss some of the threats that oceans face including acidification due to climate change, industrial fishing, and pollutants. 

Sylvia reflects on a lifetime of learning and exploration and shares why she is so positive about the future. She tells us what it’s like to live underwater  for weeks at a time, how fish have different personalities, and why Menhaden matter. Sylvia calls upon each of us to be part of the solution and stresses that what we do has an impact. Sylvia believes that we have the power, knowledge, and technology necessary to save our oceans and to honor the living world that makes our existence possible.

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Ocean acidification raises economic concerns for shellfish hatcheries (audio & text)

Oceans are the most acidic they’ve been in 26,000 years, according to the World Meteorological Organization. That can impact the development of shellfish, like the ones fishermen depend on for income. Joe Raedle/Getty Images

At Whiskey Creek Shellfish Hatchery on the Oregon coast, baby oysters are hatched, raised, then sold to oyster farms throughout the Pacific Northwest. 

“Our pumps pump in about 200 gallons a minute of seawater into the hatchery,” said production manager Alan Barton.

The seawater comes in, gets treated and goes into tanks where the oysters are hatched. Barton grows vats of green and brown algae to feed them. Back in 2007, after nearly 30 years of doing this without incident, something started to go wrong.   

“Just month after month after every group of larvae dying one after another,” Barton said. Entire crops of baby oysters — normally swimming around — just died.

“We thought the causes were things like bacteria, disease,” he said. So they treated the water for bacteria.  

“[In] 2008, with all these sophisticated treatment systems in place, we essentially lost all the larvae in the entire hatchery — $100,000 worth of product — and all just went to the bottom, all within 48 hours or so,” he said. 

More acidic water, more problems

The cause, it turned out, was the water itself. More acidic water from deeper in the ocean was upwelling into their water source, driven by seasonal winds. 

The lower pH water, meaning it was more acidic, was driving changes in the mineral composition of the water and killing the oyster babies. Deeper water is naturally more acidic than surface water, and upwelling is a natural event. But human-caused emissions are increasing the background level of acidity and appear to have tipped those natural conditions just past what the oyster larvae could bear.  

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How to measure pHT in biological experiments

Research on ocean acidification requires following best practices. The OA-ICC contributes to the development of teaching material for the implementation of simplified methodologies for laboratories with limited finances or infrastructure.

Authors: Sanja Grđan, University of Dubrovnik & Sam Dupont, University of Gothenburg

Translation: Celeste Sánchez Noguera (Spanish) and Sam Dupont (French)

Description: Measuring pH in seawater using a glass electrode is not trivial and requires TRIS buffer. TRIS buffers are commercially available from Dr. Andrew Dickson’s laboratory at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, California. However, access to this buffer can be difficult due to a continuously increasing demand as well as costs including shipping, customs fees, and taxes, making them less available for countries and laboratory with limited funds.

A simplified buffer preparation method is described in Paulsen & Dickson (2020) making the use of TRIS buffers available to a wider range of researchers.

The aim of this document and associated material (xls sheets and videos) is to help experimentalists entering the field of ocean acidification to make their own TRIS buffer, calibrate their glass electrodes for pH measurement on the total scale, take water samples and calculate pH on the total scale (pHT).

English Language Materials

French Language Materials

Spanish Language Materials

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GO2NE webinar: interactive hypoxia-acidification in coastal waters responds to ocean warming

This is the 13th edition of the Global Ocean Oxygen Network (IOC Expert Working Group GO2NE) webinar series, which took place 21 June 2022.

The speakers present the latest science on the impacts of reduced oxygen in the open ocean and coastal zones. Each webinar features two presentations by a more senior and an earlier-career scientist, 20 minutes each followed by 10 minutes moderated discussion sessions.

Moderator: Guizhi Wang, Xiamen University, China


  • Yangyang Zhao, Xiamen University, China Interactive hypoxia-acidification in coastal waters responds to ocean warming
  • Esther Portela, University of Tasmania, Australia Physical mechanisms driving oxygen uptake by the ocean interior
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Ocean acidification in the Arctic: scientific and governance responses


  1. Noting the early response of Arctic environments to global environmental change, this Fact Sheet outlines high rates of ocean acidification experienced in Arctic waters and resulting threats posed to Arctic communities and ecosystems.
  2. The Arctic remains at the forefront of ocean acidification research and governance. In addition to nation actions, the Arctic Council and its working groups engage in ongoing scientific research and governance initiatives addressing ocean acidification throughout the region. The Arctic Council additionally promotes the integration of Indigenous knowledge in research and governance, which may further advance understandings of ocean acidification and other marine stressors.
  3. While scientific and governance attention towards ocean acidification has increased in the Arctic, the issue of ocean acidification remains largely peripheral to global discussions of environmental change. It has therefore been argued that more explicit and specific efforts are need to effectively address ocean acidification, both globally and within the disproportionately vulnerable Arctic environment.
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Ocean and climate synergies – from ocean warming to rising sea levels

This working paper compiles major impacts of climate change on the ocean, focusing on ocean warming, rising sea levels and ocean acidification. It compiles the reports and projections about ocean and climate in the Asia-Pacific region, emphasizing on extreme weather events, heatwave, coral bleaching, fish migration, degradation of the marine ecosystems, and biodiversity. It also provides sea-level calculations based on satellite data and statistical tools with Asia and Pacific regional examples.

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State of the ocean report 2022: pilot edition

This pilot edition of the State of the Ocean Report (StOR) was proposed and developed to demonstrate the feasibility of keeping the world up to date on the current state of the ocean. Building on examples from IOC-led or joint initiatives, the report is structured around the initial Challenges of the UN Decade of Ocean Science for Sustainable Development, 2021–2030.

The StOR reveals a lack of reliable benchmarks in many aspects of ocean knowledge. Most sections in the report tend to be descriptive and qualitative, consistent with the recent seminal Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) Assessment (IPBES, 2019) that stated: ‘human actions threaten more species with global extinction now than ever before’. The IPBES further elaborates: ‘marine ecosystems, from coastal to deep sea, now show the influence of human actions, with coastal marine ecosystems showing both large historical losses of extent and condition as well as rapid ongoing declines (established but incomplete)’. Indeed, a key conclusion from the pilot StOR is that ocean knowledge is generally able to identify (‘establish’) issues but falls short of these being comprehensive and, hence, actionable (‘incomplete’) – ‘one cannot manage what one cannot measure’.

There is, therefore, an urgent need for a quantitative description of the state of the ocean, with established benchmarks and the capacity to report changes. The overall aim remains – to produce (probably annually) a brief, accessible, one-stop overview of the current state of the ocean, and to mobilize global society to act towards ‘the ocean we need for the future we want’ as a contribution to sustainable development, and in particular to Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14. To achieve this, the StOR must be more encompassing. So, for subsequent editions, the IOC will invite contributions from UN agencies and professional organizations, turning the StOR into a pan-UN publication.

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The United Nations Ocean Conference, 27 June -1 July 2022, Lisbon, Portugal, briefing

Pollution, ecosystem decline, climate impacts and overfishing threaten the health of the world’s ocean. The 2022 Ocean Conference provides an opportunity to strengthen synergies among stakeholders to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 14, ‘Life Below Water’. The targets set under SDG 14 have largely not been achieved on an international level. Marine pollution remains a major issue, while increasing deoxygenation and acidification is putting marine species and coastal communities alike in danger. Existing and emerging economic activities (such as shipping and seabed mining) are competing for the use of marine space and are threatening ecosystems and biodiversity. Fish stocks continue to be overexploited. The economies of Small Island Developing States (SIDS) and many Least Developing States (LDS) depend on the health the ocean.

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Antarctic climate change and the environment: a decadal synopsis and recommendations for action

Scientific evidence is abundantly clear and convincing that due to the current trajectory of human-derived emissions of CO₂ and other greenhouse gases, the atmosphere and ocean will continue to warm, the ocean will continue to acidify, atmospheric and ocean circulation patterns will be altered, the cryosphere will continue to lose ice in all forms, and sea level will rise.

While uncertainties remain about various aspects of the Earth System, what is known is beyond dispute. The trends, based on observations and confirmed by modelling, will accelerate if high rates of CO₂ and other greenhouse gas emissions continue.

The IPCC AR6 WGII Summary for Policymakers (SPM D.5.3) unambiguously emphasises this conclusion: The cumulative scientific evidence is unequivocal: Climate change is a threat to human well-being and planetary health. Any further delay in concerted anticipatory global action on adaptation and mitigation will miss a brief and rapidly closing window of opportunity to secure a liveable and sustainable future for all.

Human influence on the climate is clear, with observed changes in the climate and in greenhouse gas concentrations unequivocally attributable to human activities.

Human-induced climate change has caused extensive negative impacts, including losses to people and to nature, some of which are irreversible, such as the extinction of species.

Climate change is increasingly exacerbating the impact of other human-caused effects on nature and human well-being, and the impacts are expected to grow with increasing climate change magnitude.

Observations, modelling and global assessments describe significant changes in Antarctic physical and living systems, both marine and terrestrial.

Changes in Antarctic and Southern Ocean environments are linked to and influence climate impact drivers globally.

The most significant potential influence of Antarctica’s changes will be on global mean sea level change and its influence on society and nature in all coastal regions of the globe.

Further global impacts influenced by Antarctic change include extreme climate and weather events, droughts, wildfires and floods, and ocean acidification. These impacts cause ecosystem disruption and loss of biodiversity beyond the Antarctic region.

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World Oceans Day 2022: What is ocean acidification?

The IAEA celebrates the United Nations World Oceans Day, 8 June, to raise awareness of the benefits derived from the ocean. While the livelihoods of more than three billion people depend on oceanic resources, the ocean also provides a large fraction of the oxygen we breathe and absorbs greenhouse gases, mitigating their effects in the atmosphere. This year’s theme, Revitalization: Collective Action for the Ocean, highlights the importance of working together to restore the health of our oceans. At the 2022 UN Ocean Conference, 27 June – 1 July, the IAEA will host a side event, in cooperation with the Circulate Initiative and the Incubation Network, to discuss actions to address marine plastic pollution.

Playing a key role in the Earth’s climate and weather systems, as well as in the global carbon cycle, the ocean is an immeasurable force of nature. However, human activities have fundamentally altered the ocean’s chemical composition. Since the late 1980s, 95 per cent of open ocean surface water has become more acidic. Oceans absorb about 30 per cent of carbon dioxide (CO2) we produce, reducing the pH of seawater. This process is known as ocean acidification. With atmospheric CO2 levels 50 per cent above pre-industrial levels, the problem is getting worse.

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Green pulse podcast: how humans are changing the oceans

In this episode, we speak with Prof. Benjamin Horton, a climate scientist and director of the Earth Observatory of Singapore at the Nanyang Technological University on the role of the ocean in keeping our planet cool. PHOTO: AFP

In May, the World Meteorological Organisation released a report that detailed how four key climate change indicators set new records in 2021. Three of them relate to the ocean: sea level rise, ocean heat and ocean acidification. 

Global mean sea level reached a new record high in 2021, the upper 2,000m of the ocean is warming at a rate that is irreversible on timescales of hundreds to thousands of years, while the open ocean pH – a measure of acidity – is likely to be the lowest it has been for at least 26,000 years. Greenhouse gas concentrations also reached a new global high in 2020, when the concentration of carbon dioxide – the main greenhouse gas driving climate change – reached 413.2 parts per million globally, or 149 per cent of the pre-industrial level.

In this episode, The Straits Times environment correspondent Audrey Tan and climate change editor David Fogarty discuss the role of the ocean in keeping our planet cool with Professor Benjamin Horton, a climate scientist and director of the Earth Observatory of Singapore at the Nanyang Technological University. 

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More or less: have the oceans become 30% more acidic? (audio)

Although the climate-changing effects of Carbon Dioxide emissions are well known, they are changing our oceans too, making them more acidic. But how much?

Tim Harford explores the statistical quirks of ocean acidification, from pH to the mysteries of logarithmic scales. With Dr Helen Findlay from the Plymouth Marine Laboratory in the UK.

Presenter: Tim Harford Producer: Nathan Gower Programme Coordinator: Brenda Brown Sound Engineer: Rod Farquhar

Underwater perspective of a wave breaking. Credit: Joel Sharpe/Getty images
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