Calcification by calcified marine macroalgae is crucial to algal growth, and the formation and maintenance of coral reefs. It involves complex processes, such as the uptake, transport and storage of Ca2+, HCO3- or CO32-, and formation of crystals responsible for calcium depositions. Calcification is vulnerable to changes in global climate, including ocean acidification (OA) and warming (OW). Studies investigating the mechanisms of macroalgal calcification are limited and restricted to the physiology level; however, the application of new approaches, i.e. genomics, provide avenues for new understanding. We review the literature on macroalgal calcification from the physiological to the molecular level, and present in a list of key issues to be resolved in order to understand the mechanism of calcification. The review offers insights into the potential impacts of changing climate conditions on algal calcification to provide an accurate prediction of future changes in the reef ecosystems.
Yang F., Wei Z. & Long L., in press. Macroalgal calcification and the effects of ocean acidification and global warming. Marine & Freshwater Research. Article (subscription required).