Effects of ocean acidification on marine invertebrates – a review

Acidity of the world’s oceans is increasing by absorbing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). There has been a significant rise in atmospheric CO2 concentration due to continuous burning of fossil fuels and projected to rise reaching up to 970 ppm by the end of this century and 1900 ppm by the year 2300. It has been estimated that 50% of the anthropogenic CO2 released in atmosphere has been absorbed by world’s oceans over the last two centuries and approximately 30% of more recent emissions has been taken up by oceans. As a result the average pH of ocean surface have thought to decline by 0.1 unit from pre-industrial level and projected to decrease by 0.3 to 0.46 units by the end of this century, concurrent with the present CO2 emission scenario. Resulting decline in ocean pH is referred to as ocean acidification (OA). Predictions are mainly focused on surface ocean waters but estuarine and coastal environments are not well represented due to lack of reliable data, complexity of circulation processes in coastal environments and resulting unreliable models. (…)

Bhadury P., 2015. Effects of ocean acidification on marine invertebrates- a review. Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences 44(4):1-11. Article.


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