Estimating carbonate parameters from hydrographic data for the intermediate and deep waters of the Southern Hemisphere Oceans

Using GLODAP and CLIVAR ocean carbon data, we have developed several multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithms to estimate alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the intermediate and deep waters of the Southern Hemisphere (south of 25° S) from only hydrographic data (temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen). A Monte Carlo experiment was used to identify a potential density (σθ) of 27.5 as an optimal break point between the two regimes with different MLR algorithms. The algorithms provide a good estimate of DIC (R2=0.98) and alkalinity (R2=0.91), and excellent agreement for aragonite and calcite saturation states (R2=0.99). Combining the algorithms with the CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas (CARS), we have been able to map the calcite saturation horizon (CSH) and aragonite saturation horizon (ASH) for the Southern Ocean at a spatial resolution of 0.5°. These maps are more detailed and more consistent with oceanography than the gridded GLODAP data. The high resolution ASH map reveals a dramatic circumpolar shoaling at the Polar Front. North of 40° S the CSH is deepest in the Atlantic (~ 4000 m) and shallower in the Pacific Ocean (~ 2750 m), while the CSH sits between 3200 and 3400 m in the Indian Ocean.

Bostock H. C., Mikaloff Fletcher S. E. & Williams M. J. M., 2013. Estimating carbonate parameters from hydrographic data for the intermediate and deep waters of the Southern Hemisphere Oceans. Biogeosciences Discussions 10: 6225-6257. Article.


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