The role of the microbiome on fish mucosal immunity under changing environments

The environment is crucial for fish as their mucosal surfaces face continuous challenges in the water. Fish mucosal surfaces harbor the microbiome and mucosal immunity. Changes in the environment could affect the microbiome, thus altering mucosal immunityHomeostasis between the microbiome and mucosal immunity is crucial for the overall health of fish. To date, very few studies have investigated mucosal immunity and its interaction with the microbiome in response to environmental changes. Based on the existing studies, we can infer that environmental factors can modulate the microbiome and mucosal immunity. However, we need to retrospectively examine the existing literature to investigate the possible interaction between the microbiome and mucosal immunity under specific environmental conditions. In this review, we summarize the existing literature on the effects of environmental changes on the fish microbiome and mucosal immunity. This review mainly focuses on temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, and photoperiod. We also point out a gap in the literature and provide directions to go further in this research field. In-depth knowledge about mucosal immunity-microbiome interaction will also improve aquaculture practices by reducing loss during environmental stressful conditions.

Morshed S. M. & Lee T.-H., 2023. The role of the microbiome on fish mucosal immunity under changing environments. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 139: 108877. doi: 10.1016/j.fsi.2023.108877. Article (subscription required).

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