An updated version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product, GLODAPv2.2021

The Global Ocean Data Analysis Project (GLODAP) is a synthesis effort providing regular compilations of surface-to-bottom ocean biogeochemical bottle data, with an emphasis on seawater inorganic carbon chemistry and related variables determined through chemical analysis of seawater samples. GLODAPv2.2021 is an update of the previous version, GLODAPv2.2020. The major changes are: data from 43 new cruises were added, data coverage extended until 2020, removal of all data with missing temperatures, and the inclusion of a digital object identifier (doi) for each cruise in the product files. In addition, a number of minor corrections to GLODAPv2.2020 data were performed. GLODAPv2.2021 includes measurements from more than 1.3 million water samples from the global oceans collected on 989 cruises. The data for the 12 GLODAP core variables (salinity, oxygen, nitrate, silicate, phosphate, dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, and CCl4) have undergone extensive quality control with a focus on systematic evaluation of bias. The data are available in two formats: (i) as submitted by the data originator but updated to WOCE exchange format and (ii) as a merged data product with adjustments applied to minimize bias. For this annual update, adjustments for the 43 new cruises were derived by comparing those data with the data from the 946 quality-controlled cruises in the GLODAPv2.2020 data product using crossover analysis. Comparisons to estimates of nutrients and ocean CO2 chemistry based on empirical algorithms provided additional context for adjustment decisions in this version. The adjustments are intended to remove potential biases from errors related to measurement, calibration, and data handling practices without removing known or likely time trends or variations in the variables evaluated. The compiled and adjusted data product is believed to be consistent to better than 0.005 in salinity, 1 % in oxygen, 2 % in nitrate, 2 % in silicate, 2 % in phosphate, 4 µmol kg-1 in dissolved inorganic carbon, 4 µmol kg-1 in total alkalinity, 0.01–0.02 in pH (depending on region), and 5 % in the halogenated transient tracers. The other variables included in the compilation, such as isotopic tracers and discrete CO2 fugacity (fCO2), were not subjected to bias comparison or adjustments.

The original data, their documentation and doi codes are available at the Ocean Carbon Data System of NOAA NCEI (, last access: 07 July 2021). This site also provides access to the merged data product, which is provided as a single global file and as four regional ones – the Arctic, Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific oceans – under (Lauvset et al., 2021). These bias-adjusted product files also include significant ancillary and approximated data, and can be accessed via (last access: 29 June 2021). These were obtained by interpolation of, or calculation from, measured data. This living data update documents the GLODAPv2.2021 methods and provides a broad overview of the secondary quality control procedures and results.

Lauvset S. K., Lange N., Tanhua T., Bittig H. C., Olsen A., Kozyr A., Álvarez M., Becker S., Brown P. J., Carter B. R., Cotrim da Cunha L., Feely R. A., van Heuven S., Hoppema M., Ishii M., Jeansson E., Jutterström S., Jones S. D., Karlsen M. K., Lo Monaco C., Michaelis P., Murata A., Pérez F. F., Pfeil B., Schirnick C., Steinfeldt R., Suzuki T., Tilbrook B., Velo A., Wanninkhof R., Woosley R. J. * Key R. M., 2021. An updated version of the global interior ocean biogeochemical data product, GLODAPv2.2021, Earth System Science Data Discussions. Article.

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