The nitrification process in recirculating aquaculture systems can reduce water pH. Fish can also be exposed to water acidification during transport, an important feature in the aquarium industry, as live fish can be kept in a closed environment for more than 24 h during overseas aerial transportation. Therefore, it is important to study the responses of fish to acidic environments. We investigated the impacts of acute exposure to decreasing pH levels in orange clownfish Amphiprion percula juveniles on their survival and oxidative stress status. Fish were exposed to pH 5, 6, 7, and 8 for 96 h. We observed a significant reduction in survival (85%) and protein damage as measured by P-SH (protein thiol) for fish maintained at pH 5. Despite no effects on survival or oxidative damage, fish exposed to pH 6 showed an increase in their antioxidant defense systems, demonstrating this pH level could not be suitable for them as well. Furthermore, there were no negative effects for fish kept at pH 7, compared to those maintained at pH 8 during this short-term evaluation.
Carneiro M. D. D., Maltez L. C., Rodrigues R. V., Planas M. & Sampaio L. A., in press. Does acidification lead to impairments on oxidative status and survival of orange clownfish Amphiprion percula juveniles?. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. Article (subscription required).