Effect of carbon dioxide-induced water acidification and seasonality on the physiology of the sea-bob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae)

Climate changes are altering the chemistry of the oceans, and knowing their effects on the biology of animals is urgent. Since the physiological responses of crustaceans may be different given the seasons of the year, this work evaluated the synergistic effect of ocean acidification and seasonality on the physiology of the sea-bob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri. Experimental groups were exposed for 5 days to two levels of pH, representing present-day mean ambient conditions (pH 8.0) and distant-future conditions (pH 7.3) during the summer and winter. Metabolism, nitrogen excretion, energy type and storage were determined, respectively, by oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion, atomic ratio O/N and hepatosomatic index. The reduction of pH resulted in a decrease of about 30% in the X. kroyeri metabolism during the summer and winter. Nitrogen excretion (reduction of 40%) and hepatosomatic index (increase of 120%) showed to be altered in animals exposed to reduced pH only throughout summer. Regardless of pH and seasons of the year, animals use mainly proteins as energy substrate and they do not show mortality. The increase of the hepatosomatic index, indicator of the accumulation of energy reserves, associated with metabolism reduction, suggests the suppression of activities that demand energy expenditure. The consequences of the physiological alterations observed may include decreases in growth and reproduction rate and displacement of populations to more appropriate conditions. The results might be associated with a set of factors resulting from the exposure to reduced pH, the synergy between pH and temperature, but also with a pattern of different physiological responses that may occur according to seasonality.

Augusto A., Ramaglia A. C. & Mantoan P. V., 2018. Effect of carbon dioxide-induced water acidification and seasonality on the physiology of the sea-bob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda, Penaeidae). Crustaceana 91 (8): 947 – 960. Article (subscription required).

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